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Lyrasis  Members  and  Sloan  Foundation 




Edited  by 
A.  T.   BAIRD 






Printed  in  the  United  States  of  America 
By  Ruttle,  Shaw  &  Wetherill,  Inc.,  Philadelphia  7,  Penna. 



Foreword  7 


1.  Dreams  9 

2.  Haunted  Houses  31 

3.  Apparitions  50 

4.  Death-Bed  Visions  80 

5.  Automatic  Writing  92 

6.  Trance  Phenomena  109 

7.  Cross-Correspondence  129 

8.  Book-Tests  153 

9.  Proxy  Sittings  167 

10.  Direct- Voice  Phenomena  177 

11.  Materialization  199 
Index  of  Cases  221 
Bibliography  223 

/  am  absolutely  convinced  of  the  fact  that  those  who  once  lived  on  earth 
can  and  do  communicate  with  us.  It  is  hardly  possible  to  convey  to  the 
inexperienced  an  adequate  idea  of  the  strength  and  cumulative  force  of  the 
evidence. — Sir  William  F.  Barrett,  F.R.S. 

/  am  ashamed  and  grieved  at  having  opposed  the  psychic  facts.  Genuine 
psychical  phenomena  are  produced  by  intelligences  totally  independent  of 
the  parties  present. — Professor  C.  Lombroso,  University  of  Turin. 

When  I  remember  that  I  branded  as  a  fool  that  fearless  investigator, 
Croo\es,  because  he  had  the  courage  to  assert  the  reality  of  psychic  phe- 
nomena, I  am  ashamed  both  of  myself  and  others,  and  I  cry  from  the  very 
bottom  of  my  heart,  "Father,  forgive!  I  have  sinned  against  the  light." — 
Professor  Ochorowickz,  University  of  Warsaw. 

/  am  constrained  to  believe  by  the  invincible  logic  of  facts. — Professor 
Raoul  Pictet,  University  of  Genoa. 

The  facts  revealed  necessitate  the  complete  overthrow  of  the  materialistic 
physiology  and  conception  of  the  universe. — Dr.  Gustave  Geley,  Meta- 
physic  Institute,  Paris. 

I  tell  you  we  do  persist.  Communication  is  possible.  1  have  proved  that 
the  people  who  communicate  are  who  and  what  they  say  they  are.  The  con- 
clusion is  that  survival  is  scientifically  proved  by  scientific  investigation. — 
Sir  Oliver  Lodge. 


I  have  only  compiled  this  book  and  it  could  not  have  been  published 
without  the  cooperation  of  many  individuals,  authors  and  publishing  firms 
— all  total  strangers  to  me — who,  when  I  approached  them  for  the  cases 
cited,  granted  permission  freely  and  generously. 

The  general  public,  either  too  busy  or  too  lazy  to  delve  into  the  litera- 
ture of  psychical  research,  is  unaware  of  the  strength  of  the  case  for  sur- 
vival of  human  personality  after  bodily  death,  and  it  was  the  desire  to  try 
and  dissipate  that  ignorance  that  urged  me  to  compress  some  of  the  work 
of  countless  investigators  into  this  small  volume. 

The  cases  have  been  collected  from  many  sources,  ranging  from  eighty 
years  back  right  up  to  the  present  day. 

Many  shrewd  and  skeptical  investigators — working  alone  or  in  societies 
for  psychical  research — have  contributed  them,  and  these  people  were 
specialists  in  this  line,  ever  on  the  alert  to  detect  and  expose  fraud.  To  the 
person  accustomed  to  accepting  information  on  the  subject  from  the 
sensational  Sunday  press,  the  cases  of  evidence  cited  may  seem  surprising, 
and  he  may  well  wonder  if  they  have  been  correctly  quoted — too  good  to 
be  true! 

On  that  point  the  reader  is  asked  to  use  his  own  judgment,  but  he  is 
also  asked  to  bear  in  mind  that  the  investigators  whose  cases  are  pre- 
sented in  this  book  spent  much  time,  money,  and  patience  in  the  process, 
and  they  did  not  embark  on  their  self-imposed  task  "for  the  fun  of  the 
thing."  They  were  in  deadly  earnest  in  trying  to  solve  this  great  human 
problem,  and  whether  they  succeeded  or  failed,  the  reader  must  form  his 
own  opinion,  but  he  should  remember  that  the  problem  of  human  sur- 
vival can  be  solved  in  only  one  way,  and  that  way  is  to  prove  that  human 
personality  does  survive  death.  It  is  all  a  matter  of  scientific  fact,  proof, 
and  evidence,  while  morality,  theology,  and  philosophy  have  no  bearing 
whatsoever  on  the  problem. 

The  reader  must  not  for  one  moment  imagine  that  the  case  for  survival 
rests  solely  on  the  hundred  examples  quoted  in  this  book;  a  thousand 
equally  good  cases  could  be  produced  as  easily;  in  fact,  at  times  I  was 



embarrassed  with  the  wealth  of  material  at  my  disposal  and  I  may  men- 
tion that  my  difficulty  was  in  rejecting!  Perhaps  later,  someone  more 
energetic  and  enthusiastic,  with  more  time  and  patience  than  I  have,  may 
publish  Five  Thousand  Cases  for  Survival,  and  even  then  there  will  be 
plenty  in  reserve.  Even  though  the  Oliver  Twist-like  critic  should  still 
demand  more,  his  wish  could  easily  be  granted. 

I  think  that  all  the  writing  in  the  world  will  not  convince  anyone  so 
thoroughly  as  evidence  found  for  oneself,  but  that  is  no  reason  why  the 
investigations  of  others  should  not  be  collected  and  placed  on  record  in 
a  convenient  form.  Hence  this  book. 

Chapter  1 


Ordinary,  normal  dreams  do  not  enter  into  the  scope  of  this  chapter;  it 
is  only  the  veridical  dream  of  the  supernormal  variety  which  comes  within 
the  province  of  psychical  research  that  we  are  concerned  with. 

Such  numbers  have  been  recorded  that  skeptics  find  it  difficult  either  to 
deny  or  explain  them  by  normal  or  Freudian  psychology,  and  these  dreams 
are  in  a  class  by  themselves,  impossible  to  account  for  by  any  mechanistic 
scheme  or  chance-coincidence. 

A  fairly  large  number  are  concerned  with  deceased  persons,  usually 
containing  communications  from  such,  and  the  prima  facie  explanation 
is  that  they  are  due  to  the  action  of  the  discarnate.  The  cases  which  follow 
possess  a  very  definite  bearing  on  that  point. 

The  cases  in  this  chapter  were  easy  to  collect;  though  more  than  a 
dozen  have  been  quoted  and  I  am  not  certain  that  I  have  included  the 
best  available,  another  compiler  would  probably  select  different  instances, 
equally  good  or  better.  The  Proceedings  of  the  Society  for  Psychical  Re- 
search contain  hundreds  of  instances;  in  fact,  several  books  on  the  subject 
of  dreams  of  this  variety  could  be  published,  and  there  are  still  many  in 
the  Journal  of  the  American  Society  for  Psychical  Research  and  the 
Annates  des  Sciences  Psychiques! 

case  no.  1 
The  Perth  Case1 
This  case  is  taken  from  an  extract  of  a  letter  sent  by  the  Rev.  Charles 
McKay,  a  Catholic  priest,  to  the  Countess  of  Shrewsbury: 

"In  July,  1838,  I  left  Edinburgh  to  take  charge  of  the  Perthshire  mis- 
sions. On  my  arrival  at  Perth,  I  was  called  upon  by  a  Presbyterian  woman, 
Anne  Simpson,  who  for  more  than  a  week  had  been  in  the  utmost  anxiety 
to  see  a  priest.  (This  woman  stated  that  a  woman  lately  dead  [date  not 

i  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  VI,  33. 


given]  named  Maloy,  slightly  known  to  Anne  Simpson,  had  'appeared  to 
her  during  the  night  for  several  nights'  urging  her  to  go  to  the  priest, 
who  would  pay  a  sum  of  money,  three  and  tenpence,  which  the  deceased 
owed  to  a  person  not  specified.) 

"I  made  inquiry,  and  found  that  a  woman  of  that  name  had  died,  who 
had  acted  as  washer-woman  and  followed  the  regiment.  Following  up  the 
inquiry  I  found  a  grocer  with  whom  she  had  dealt,  and  on  asking  him  if 
a  female  named  Maloy  owed  him  anything,  he  turned  up  his  books,  and 
told  me  that  she  did  owe  him  three  and  tenpence.  I  paid  the  sum.  Subse- 
quently the  Presbyterian  woman  came  to  me,  saying  that  she  was  no 
more  troubled." 

case  no.  2 

The  Sarawa\  Case1 

My  wife,  since  deceased,  had  a  brother  residing  at  Sarawak,  and  at  the 

time  to  which  I  refer  he  was  staying  with  the  Rajah,  Sir  James  Brooke. 

The  following  is  an  extract  from  the  second  volume  of  The  Rajah  of 

Sarawa\,  by  Gertrude  L.  Jacob,  page  238: 

"Mr.  Wellington  (my  wife's  brother)  was  killed  in  a  brave  attempt  to 
defend  Mrs.  Middleton  and  her  children.  The  Chinese,  it  appears,  taking 
Mr.  Wellington  for  the  Rajah's  son,  struck  off  his  head." 

And  now  for  the  dream.  I  was  awakened  one  night  by  my  wife,  who 
started  from  her  sleep,  terrified  by  the  following  dream.  She  saw  her 
headless  brother  standing  at  the  foot  of  the  bed,  with  his  head  lying  on 
a  coffin  by  his  side.  I  did  my  best  to  console  my  wife,  who  continued  to  be 
much  distressed  for  some  considerable  time.  At  length,  she  fell  asleep 
again  to  be  wakened  by  a  similar  dream.  In  the  morning  and  for 
several  days  after,  she  constantly  referred  to  her  dream,  and  anticipated 
sad  news  of  her  brother. 

And  now  comes  the  strangest  part  of  the  story.  When  the  news  reached 
England,  I  computed  approximately  the  time  and  found  it  coincided 
with  the  memorable  night  to  which  I  have  referred. 

1  Myers,  F.  W.  M.,  Phantasms  of  the  Living,  I,  365. 


The  Brixham  Case1 
The  facts  of  this  case  were  vouched  for  by  the  Rev.  R.  B.  F.  Elrington, 
Vicar  of  Lower  Brixham,  Devonshire,  and  he  certified  to  the  good  char- 
acter of  the  witnesses  concerned: 

"In  the  early  spring  of  1881,  Mrs.  Barnes  of  Brixham,  whose  husband 
was  at  sea,  dreamt  that  his  fishing-boat  was  run  into  by  a  steamer.  Their 
boy  was  with  him  and  she  called  out  in  her  dream,  'Save  the  boy!'  At 
this  moment  another  son  sleeping  in  the  next  room  to  hers,  rushed  in, 
crying  out,  'Where's  Father?'  She  asked  what  he  meant,  when  he  said 
he  had  distinctly  heard  his  father  come  upstairs,  and  kick  with  his  heavy 
boots  against  the  door,  as  he  was  in  the  habit  of  doing  when  he  returned 
from  sea.  The  boy's  statement  and  her  own  dream  so  alarmed  the  woman 
that  early  next  morning  she  told  Mrs.  Strong  and  other  neighbors  of  her 

"News  afterwards  came  that  her  husband's  vessel  had  been  run  into  by 
a  steamer,  and  that  he  and  the  boy  were  drowned." 

case  no.  4 
The  Wingfield  Case2 
The  following  is  a  letter  written  by  Mr.  Frederick  Wingfield,  Belle- 
Isle-en-Terre,  C6tes-du-Nord,  December  20,  1883: 

"On  the  night  of  Thursday,  March  25,  1880,  I  retired  to  bed  after 
reading  till  late,  as  is  my  habit.  I  dreamed  that  I  was  lying  on  my  sofa 
reading,  when  on  looking  up,  I  saw  distinctly  the  figure  of  my  brother, 
Richard  Wingfield-Baker,  sitting  on  the  chair  before  me.  I  dreamed  that 
I  spoke  to  him,  but  that  he  simply  bent  his  head  in  reply,  rose  and  left 
the  room.  When  I  awoke  I  found  myself  standing  with  one  foot  on  the 
ground  by  my  bedside,  and  the  other  on  the  bed,  trying  to  speak  and  to 
pronounce  my  brother's  name. 

"So  strong  was  the  impression  as  to  the  reality  of  his  presence  and  so 
vivid  the  whole  scene  as  dreamt,  that  I  left  my  bedroom  to  search  for  my 
brother  in  the  sitting-room.  I  examined  the  chair  where  I  had  seen  him 

1  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  I,  141. 

2  Myers,  F.  W.  H.,  Phantasms  of  the  Living,  I,  199-201. 


seated,  I  returned  to  the  bed,  tried  to  fall  asleep  in  the  hope  of  a  repetition 
of  the  appearance,  but  my  mind  was  too  excited,  too  painfully  disturbed, 
as  I  recalled  what  I  had  dreamed.  I  must,  however,  have  fallen  asleep 
towards  the  morning,  but  when  I  awoke,  the  impression  of  my  dream 
was  as  vivid  as  ever — and,  I  may  add,  is  to  this  hour  equally  strong  and 
clear.  My  sense  of  impending  evil  was  so  strong  that  I  at  once  made  a 
note  in  my  memorandum  book  of  this  'appearance,'  and  added  the 
words,  'God  forbid.' 

"Three  days  afterwards  I  received  the  news  that  my  brother,  Richard 
Wingfield-Baker,  had  died  on  Thursday  evening,  March  25,  1880,  at 
8:30  p.m.,  from  the  effects  of  terrible  injuries  received  in  a  fall,  while 
hunting  with  the  Blackmore  Vale  hounds. 

"I  will  only  add  that  I  have  been  living  in  this  town  some  twelve 
months;  that  I  had  not  any  recent  communication  with  my  brother;  that 
I  knew  him  to  be  in  good  health,  and  that  he  was  a  perfect  horseman.  I 
did  not  at  once  communicate  this  dream  to  any  intimate  friend — there  was 
unluckily  none  here  at  that  very  moment — but  I  did  relate  the  story  after 
the  receipt  of  the  news  of  my  brother's  death,  and  showed  the  entry  in  my 
memorandum  book.  As  evidence,  of  course,  this  is  worthless;  but  I  give 
you  my  word  of  honor  that  the  circumstances  I  have  related  are  the  posi- 
tive truth." 

In  a  subsequent  letter  Mr.  Wingfield  wrote:  "I  have  never  had  any 
other  startling  dream  of  the  same  nature,  nor  any  dream  from  which  I 
woke  with  the  same  sense  of  reality  and  distress,  and  of  which  the  effect 
continued  long  after  I  was  well  awake.  Nor  have  I  upon  any  other  occa- 
sion had  a  hallucination  of  the  senses." 

Prince  Lucinge  Faucigny,  Mr.  Wingfield's  friend,  confirmed  the  fore- 
going in  every  detail. 

The  Times  obituary  for  March  30,  1880,  recorded  the  death  of  Mr.  R.  B. 
Wingfield-Baker,  of  Orsett  Hall,  Essex,  as  having  taken  place  on  the  25th. 
The  Essex  Independent  gave  the  same  date,  adding  that  Mr.  Baker 
breathed  his  last  about  nine  o'clock. 


CASE  NO.  5 

The  MacKenzie  Case1 

"I  am  the  owner  of  a  very  old  mechanical  business  in  Glasgow,  with 
for  twenty  years  past  a  branch  in  London,  where  I  have  resided  for  that 
period,  and  in  both  of  which  places  my  professional  reputation  is  of  the 
highest  order. 

"Some  thirty-five  years  ago  I  took  into  my  employment  a  tender,  deli- 
cate-looking boy,  Robert  MacKenzie,  who,  after  some  three  or  four  years' 
service,  suddenly  left — as  I  found  out  afterwards — through  the  selfish 
advice  of  some  older  hands  who  practiced  this  frightening  away  system- 
atically to  keep  wages  from  being  lowered — a  common  device,  I  believe, 
among  workmen  in  limited  trades.  Passing  the  gate  of  the  great  work- 
house (Scottish  poorhouse)  in  the  Parliamentary  Road  a  few  years  after- 
wards, my  eye  was  caught  by  a  youth  eighteen  years  of  age  ravenously 
devouring  a  piece  of  dry  bread  on  the  public  street,  and  bearing  the 
appearance  of  being  in  a  chronic  state  of  starvation. 

"Fancying  I  knew  his  features,  I  asked  him  if  his  name  were  not 
MacKenzie.  He  at  once  became  much  excited,  addressed  me  by  name, 
and  informed  me  that  he  had  no  employment ;  that  his  father  and  mother, 
who  formerly  supported  him,  were  now  both  inmates  of  the  'poorhouse' — 
to  which  he  himself  had  no  claim  for  admission,  being  young  and  without 
any  bodily  disqualification  for  work — and  that  he  was  literally  homeless 
and  starving.  The  matron,  he  informed  me,  gave  him  daily  a  piece  of 
dry  bread,  but  dared  not,  under  the  rules,  give  him  regular  maintenance. 
In  agony  of  grief  he  deplored  his  ever  leaving  me  under  evil  advice,  and 
on  my  unexpectedly  offering  to  take  him  back  he  burst  into  a  transport  of 
thanks  such  as  I  cannot  describe. 

"Suffice  it  to  say  that  he  resumed  his  work,  and  that,  under  the  circum- 
stances, I  did  everything  in  my  power  to  facilitate  his  progress.  All  this 
was  mere  matter  of  course;  but  the  distinction  between  it  and  the  com- 
mon relations  of  master  and  servant  was  this:  on  every  occasion  of  my 
entering  the  workshop  he  never,  as  far  as  possible,  stopped  following  my 
movements.  Let  me  look  towards  him  at  any  moment,  there  was  the  pale, 
sympathetic  face  with  large,  wistful  eyes  literally  yearning  towards  me 

l  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  III,  95. 


as  Smike's  did  towards  Nicholas  Nickleby.  I  seemed  to  be  'the  polar  star 
of  his  existence,'  and  this  intensity  of  gratitude  never  appeared  to  lessen 
in  degree  through  lapse  of  time.  Beyond  this  he  never  ventured  to  express 
his  feelings.  His  manhood,  as  it  were,  his  individuality  and  self-assertion, 
seemed  to  have  been  crushed  out  of  him  by  privations.  I  was  apparendy 
his  sole  thought  and  consideration,  save  the  more  common  concerns  of 
daily  life. 

"In  1862  I  settled  in  London  and  have  never  been  in  Glasgow  since. 
Robert  MacKenzie,  and  my  workmen  generally,  gradually  lost  their 
individuality  in  my  recollection.  About  ten  to  twelve  years  ago  my 
employees  held  their  annual  soiree  and  ball.  This  was  always  held,  year 
after  year,  on  a  Friday  evening.  MacKenzie,  ever  shy  and  distant,  as 
usual,  refused  to  mingle  in  the  festivities,  and  begged  of  my  foreman  to  be 
permitted  to  serve  at  the  buffet.  All  went  off  well,  and  Saturday  was 
held  as  a  succeeding  day  of  festival.  All  this,  however,  I  only  learned 
after  what  I  am  now  about  to  relate. 

"On  the  Tuesday  morning  following,  immediately  before  8  a.m.,  in  my 
house  on  Campden  Hill,  I  had  the  following  manifestation;  I  cannot  call 
it  a  dream,  but  let  me  use  the  common  phraseology.  I  dreamt,  but  with  no 
vagueness  in  common  dreams,  no  blurring  of  outline  or  rapid  passages 
from  one  thing  disconnectedly  to  another,  that  I  was  seated  at  my  desk, 
engaged  in  business  conversation  with  an  unknown  gentleman  who 
stood  on  my  right  hand.  Towards  me,  in  front,  advanced  Robert  MacKen- 
zie, and  feeling  annoyed,  I  addressed  him  with  some  asperity,  asking  him 
if  he  did  not  see  that  I  was  engaged.  He  retired  a  short  distance  with 
exceeding  reluctance,  turned  again  to  approach  me,  as  if  more  desirous  of 
an  immediate  conversation,  when  I  spoke  to  him  still  more  sharply  as  to 
his  want  of  manners.  On  this,  the  person  with  whom  I  was  conversing 
took  his  leave,  and  MacKenzie  once  more  came  forward. 

"  'What  is  all  this,  Robert?'  I  said  somewhat  angrily.  'Did  you  not  see 
I  was  engaged  ? ' 
"  'Yes,  sir,'  he  replied,  'but  I  must  speak  with  you  at  once.' 
"  'What  about?'  I  said.  'What  is  it  that  can  be  so  important?' 
"  'I  wish  to  tell  you,  sir,'  he  answered,  'that  I  am  accused  of  doing 
a  thing  I  did  not  do,  and  that  I  want  you  to  know  it,  and  to  tell  you  so, 


and  that  you  are  to  forgive  me  for  what  I  am  blamed,  because  I  am 

"I  said,  'What?'  getting  the  same  answer. 

"I  then  naturally  asked,  'But  how  can  I  forgive  you  if  you  do  not  tell 
me  what  you  are  accused  of?' 

"I  can  never  forget  the  emphatic  manner  of  his  answer  in  the  Scottish 
dialect,  'Ye'U  sune  ken.'  (You'll  soon  know.) 

"This  question  and  the  answer  were  repeated  at  least  twice — I  am 
certain  the  answer  was  repeated  thrice — in  the  most  fervid  tone.  On  that 
I  awoke,  and  was  in  that  state  of  surprise  and  bewilderment  which  such 
a  remarkable  dream,  qua  mere  dream,  might  induce,  and  was  wondering 
what  it  all  meant  when  my  wife  burst  into  my  bedroom,  much  excited, 
and  holding  an  open  letter  in  her  hand,  exclaimed,  'Oh,  James,  here's  a 
terrible  end  to  the  workmen's  ball!  Robert  MacKenzie  has  committed 

"With  now  a  full  conviction  of  the  meaning  of  the  vision,  I  at  once 
quietly  and  firmly  said,  'No,  he  has  not  committed  suicide.' 

"  'How  can  you  possibly  know  that  ? ' 

"  'Because  he  has  just  been  here  to  tell  me.' 

"I  have  purposely  not  mentioned  in  its  proper  place  so  as  not  to  break 
the  narrative,  that  on  looking  at  MacKenzie  I  was  struck  by  the  peculiar 
appearance  of  his  countenance.  It  was  an  indescribable  pale  bluish  color, 
and  on  his  forehead  appeared  spots  which  seemed  like  blots  of  sweat. 
For  this  I  could  not  account,  but  by  the  following  post  my  manager 
informed  me  that  he  was  wrong  in  writing  of  suicide. 

"On  Saturday  night,  MacKenzie,  on  going  home,  had  lifted  a  small 
black  bottle  containing  aqua  fortis  (which  he  used  for  staining  the  wood 
of  bird  cages,  made  for  amusement),  believing  this  to  be  whiskey,  and 
pouring  out  a  wine  glassful,  had  drunk  it  at  a  gulp,  dying  on  Sunday 
in  great  agony.  Here,  then;  was  the  solution  of  his  being  innocent  of  what 
he  was  accused  of — suicide — since  he  had  inadvertendy  drunk  aqua  fortis, 
a  deadly  poison. 

"Still  pondering  upon  the  peculiar  color  of  his  countenance,  it  struck 
me  to  consult  some  authorities  on  the  symptoms  of  poisoning  by  aqua 
fortis,  and  in  Mr.  J.  H.  Walsh's  Domestic  Medicine  and  Surgery,  page 


172, 1  found  these  words  under  symptoms  of  poisoning  by  sulphuric  acid : 
'Aqua  jortis  produces  the  same  effect  as  sulphuric,  the  only  difference 
being  that  the  external  stains,  if  any,  are  yellow  instead  of  brown.'  This 
refers  to  indication  of  sulphuric  acid,  'generally  outside  of  the  mouth,  in 
the  shape  of  brown  spots.'  Having  no  desire  to  accommodate  my  facts  to 
this  scientific  description,  I  give  the  quotations  freely,  only — at  the  same 
time — stating  that  before  reading  the  passage  in  Mr.  Walsh's  book,  I  had 
not  the  slightest  knowledge  of  these  symptoms,  and  I  consider  that  they 
agree  fairly  and  sufficiently  with  what  I  saw,  viz.,  a  livid  face  covered  with 
a  remarkable  sweat,  and  having  spots  (particularly  on  the  forehead), 
which,  in  my  dream,  I  thought  great  blots  of  perspiration.  It  seemed  not 
a  little  striking  that  I  had  no  previous  knowledge  of  these  symptoms  and 
yet  should  take  note  of  them. 

"I  have  little  remark  to  make  beyond  this,  that,  in  speaking  of  this 
matter,  I  have  been  quite  disgusted  by  skeptics  treating  it  as  a  hallucina- 
tion, in  so  far  as  my  dream  must  have  been  on  the  Wednesday  morning 
after  the  receipt  of  my  manager's  letter  informing  me  of  the  supposed 
suicide.  This  explanation  is  too  absurd  to  require  a  serious  answer. 

"My  manager  first  heard  of  the  death  on  Monday — wrote  me  on  that 
day  as  above — and  (the  apparition  occurred)  on  Tuesday  morning,  imme- 
diately before  the  8  a.m.  post  delivery,  hence  the  thrice  emphatic,  'Ye'U 
sune  ken.' 

"I  attribute  the  whole  to  MacKenzie's  yearning  gratitude  for  being 
rescued  from  a  deplorable  state  of  starvation,  and  his  desire  to  stand  well 
in  my  opinion.  I  have  colored  nothing,  and  leave  my  readers  to  draw  their 
own  conclusions." 

The  wife  of  the  narrator,  in  a  letter  to  the  S.P.R.,  confirmed  that  her 
husband  informed  her  of  MacKenzie's  appearance  and  his  statement 
that  he  had  not  committed  suicide,  as  soon  as  she  entered  the  bedroom 
on  Tuesday  morning,  before  he  had  read  his  manager's  letter. 

case  no.  6 

The  von  Goertz  Case1 

"During  our  years  in  Bessarabia  the  Countess  von  Goertz,  my  paternal 

grandmother,  died.  ...  I  never  saw  her  and  knew  very  little  about  her, 

1  De  Castellane,  Count  Bohdan  K.,  One  Crowded  Hour  (London:  George  Allen  and 
Unwin,  Ltd.),  48-49. 



but  I  always  heard  that  she  had  a  very  great  affection  for  my  father.  This 
deep  feeling  between  them  was  evidenced  in  an  interesting  and  curious 
manner.  One  morning,  just  before  receiving  the  news  of  her  death,  my 
father  said  to  me: 

"'Your  grandmother  has  died.'  In  response  to  my  question  as  to 
whether  he  had  had  a  letter,  he  answered:  'No,  I  have  had  no  letter;  but 
I  know  that  she  is  dead,  because  last  night  I  had  a  dream  in  which  she 
came  to  me  and  brought  my  coffee,  saying:  "This  is  the  last  time  that 
I  shall  bring  you  coffee,  son,  for  today  I  die." ' 

"Of  course  I  tried  to  comfort  my  father,  and  although  I  was  then 
only  a  little  boy,  I  advised  him  not  to  believe  in  dreams.  He  remained, 
however,  convinced  that  she  was  dead  and  asked  me  to  watch  for  the 
post.  This  arrived  every  morning  by  special  messenger,  who  brought  it 
from  the  station  eighty  miles  away.  There  were  three  messengers  in  con- 
stant service  who  had  relays  of  horses  along  the  route,  and  were  thus  able 
to  make  the  journey  in  twelve  hours.  The  next  morning  brought  no 
news.  Only  on  the  third  day  did  I  discover  in  the  mail-bag  a  telegram 
from  the  estate  in  German  Poland,  where  my  grandmother  had  been 
living.  I  took  out  the  telegram  and  carried  it  to  my  father.  It  was  an 
announcement  of  grandmother's  death  at  exacdy  the  hour  she  had 
appeared  to  him  in  his  dream." 

case  no.  7 
The  Rubinstein  Case1 
Lillian  Nichia,  a  pupil  of  Rubinstein,  the  great  pianist  and  composer 
(1829-1894),  tells  this  story  of  a  death  compact: 

"One  wild,  blustery  night  I  found  myself  at  dinner  with  Rubinstein, 
the  weather  being  terrific  even  for  St.  Petersburg  (now  Leningrad).  The 
winds  were  howling  'round  the  house,  and  Rubinstein,  who  liked  to  ask 
questions,  inquired  of  me  what  they  represented  to  my  mind.  I  replied, 
'The  moaning  of  lost  souls.'  From  this  a  theological  discussion  followed. 

"  'There  may  be  a  future,'  he  said. 

"  'There  is  a  future,'  I  cried,  'a  great  and  beautiful  future ;  if  I  die 

first,  I  shall  come  to  you  and  prove  this.' 

1  Harper's  Magazine  (December,  1912).  Prince,  Dr.  Walter  F.,  Noted  Witnesses  jot 
Psychic  Occurrences  (Boston). 


"He  turned  to  me  with  great  solemnity.  'Good,  Liloscha,  that  is  a  bar- 
gain; and  I  will  come  to  you.' 

"Six  years  later  in  Paris  I  woke  one  night  with  a  cry  of  agony  and 
despair  ringing  in  my  ears,  such  as  I  hope  may  never  be  duplicated  in  my 
lifetime.  Rubinstein's  face  was  close  to  mine,  a  countenance  distorted  by 
every  phase  of  fear,  despair,  agony,  remorse  and  anger.  I  started  up, 
turned  on  all  the  lights,  and  stood  for  a  moment  shaking  in  every  limb, 
till  I  put  fear  from  me  and  decided  it  was  merely  a  dream.  I  had  for  the 
moment  completely  forgotten  our  compact. 

"News  is  always  late  in  Paris,  and  it  was  Le  Petit  Journal,  published 
in  the  afternoon,  that  had  the  first  account  of  his  sudden  death. 

"Four  years  later,  Teresa  Carreno,  who  had  just  come  from  Russia, 
and  was  touring  America — I  had  met  her  in  St.  Petersburg  frequently  at 
Rubinstein's  dinner-table — told  me  that  Rubinstein  died  with  a  cry  of 
agony  impossible  of  description.  I  knew  then  that  even  in  death  Rubin- 
stein had  kept,  as  he  always  did,  his  word." 

CASE  NO.  b 

The  C Case 

The  facts  of  this  case  were  given  to  me  by  a  lady  whose  integrity  and 
good  faith  I  have  not  the  slightest  reason  to  doubt.  It  occurred  within  her 
own  household  and  the  young  engineer  who  was  lost  at  sea  was  her 
brother.  Here  is  the  story  in  her  own  words: 

"In  the   spring  of   1914,  my   brother   D ,   age   twenty-one   years, 

decided  to  sail  as  an  engineer  to  Canada  to  gain  further  experience  and 
see  a  little  bit  of  the  world  before  settling  down  to  a  most  promising 
career  for  which  he  had  fitted  himself  by  study  and  hard  work. 

"Through  my  father's  influence  he  obtained  an  appointment  as  engineer 
in  a  lightship  commissioned  to  Halifax,  Canada.  This  ship,  Halifax  Light- 
ship No.  19,  sailed  from  Greenock,  Scotland,  on  Friday,  April  24,  and 
word  was  received  by  us  on  May  22,  from  the  company,  that  the  ship 
had  safely  reached  St.  John's,  Newfoundland,  so  that  no  apprehension  was 
felt  regarding  D . 

"On  Friday,  May  22,  my  mother  had  a  very  restless  night,  during  which 
she  heard  D repeatedly  calling  to  her,  'Ma,  Ma,' — his  usual  manner 


of  addressing  her.  My  mother  was  certain  that  something  had  happened 

to  D and  next  morning  related  her  experience  to  my  sister,  who  was 

home  at  that  time.  My  sister  put  her  off  by  saying  that  D must  be  all 

right  as  the  ship  had  reached  St.  John's  on  May  17.  Nevertheless,  despite 

my  sister's  arguments,  my  mother  maintained  that  D had  called  to 

her  and  she  feared  the  worst. 

"Later,  we  were  informed  from  Canada  that  the  ship  had  reached 
St.  John's  as  stated,  but  had  left  that  port  on  May  19  to  complete  her 
voyage  to  Halifax.  On  May  22,  at  10  p.m.,  the  ship  went  on  rocks  during 
a  storm  and  foundered  with  all  hands,  some  bodies  never  being  recovered; 
my  brother's  was  one  of  these.  This  happened  one  mile  from  the  shore, 
but  the  villagers  who  saw  the  distress  signals  were  unable  to  do  anything 
owing  to  the  storm. 

"Any  anxiety  that  was  in  our  minds  vanished  when  we  heard  that 
D 's  ship  had  arrived  at  St.  John's;  surely  he  must  be  safe  now. 

"Later  in  the  year  my  mother  had  another  experience.  War  broke  out 
in  August,  1914,  and  my  other  brother  who  had  only  turned  nineteen  was 
called  up  at  once,  as  he  was  a  member  of  the  R.N.V.R.  The  night  he  went 
away  my  mother  was  naturally  very  upset — her  one  son  missing,  pre- 
sumed drowned,  and  her  other  boy  now  called  away — no  one  knew 

"Mother  says  she  was  not  dreaming  when  D appeared  at  the  foot 

of  the  bed  (for  various  reasons  Mother  was  sleeping  in  the  boy's  bed- 
room that  night).  He  looked  at  her  and  said,  'Don't  worry,  Ma,  I'll  look 

after  B .'  This  comforted  her  very  much  and  it  may  be  argued  that  it  is 

only  chance-coincidence,  but  the  fact  remains   that  my  brother  B 

came  through  the  whole  war  and  returned  without  a  scratch. 

"He  was  an  engineer  officer  in  the  salvage  section  of  the  Royal  Navy — 
an  extremely  dangerous  and  hazardous  branch.  Two  ships  that  had  been 
salved  and  on  which  he  was,  were  torpedoed,  but  he  escaped  on  both 
occasions,  despite  the  fact  that  he  could  not  swim  a  stroke." 

case  no.  9 
The  Chaffin  Will  Case1 
We  are  indebted  for  the  following  case  to  one  of  our  Canadian  mem- 
l  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  XXXVI,  517. 


bers,  who,  having  had  his  attention  drawn  to  it  by  a  newspaper  report, 
instructed  a  lawyer  resident  in  the  state  (North  Carolina)  where  the 
events  occurred,  to  investigate  the  facts  on  his  behalf.  The  facts  had 
already  been  put  in  evidence  in  a  contested  law  suit,  so  that  they  have  on 
two  occasions  undergone  the  scrutiny  of  persons  professionally  trained  to 
sift  and  weigh  evidence.  The  lawyer  instructed  by  our  Canadian  member, 
Mr.  J.  McN.  Johnson,  Attorney-at-Law,  of  Aberdeen,  North  Carolina, 
has  forwarded  to  the  Society  a  very  full  report,  including  (1)  the  original 
newspaper  article,  (2)  official  records  of  the  proceedings  in  the  Superior 
Court  in  Davie  County,  N.C.,  and  (3)  a  sworn  statement  by  Mr.  Johnson 
as  to  interviews  he  had  with  some  of  the  principal  persons  in  the  case, 
together  with  sworn  statements  by  two  of  the  persons  themselves.  What 
follows  is  partly  an  abstract  of  these  documents,  and  partly  quotations 
from  them.  The  full  case  can  be  studied  by  those  who  desire  to  do  so  at 
the  Society's  rooms.1 

James  L.  Chaffin,  the  testator,  was  a  farmer  in  Davie  County,  N.C.  He 
was  married  and  had  four  sons,  in  order  of  age,  John  A.  Chaffin,  James 
Pinkney  Chaffin,  Marshall  A.  Chaffin,  and  Abner  Columbus  Chaffin. 

On  November  16,  1905,  the  testator  made  a  will,  duly  attested  by  two 
witnesses,  whereby  he  gave  his  farm  to  his  third  son,  Marshall,  whom  he 
appointed  sole  executor.  The  widow  and  three  other  sons  were  left  un- 
provided for. 

Some  years  later  he  appears  to  have  been  dissatisfied  with  this  disposi- 
tion of  his  property,  and  on  January  16,  1919,  he  made  a  new  will  as 
follows : 

"After  reading  the  27th  chapter  of  Genesis,  I,  James  L.  Chaffin,  do 
make  my  last  will  and  testament,  and  here  it  is.  I  want,  after  giving  my 
body  a  decent  burial,  my  little  property  to  be  equally  divided  between  my 
four  children,  if  they  are  living  at  my  death,  both  personal  and  real  estate 
divided  equal;  if  not  living  give  share  to  their  children.  And  if  she 
is  living,  you  must  all  take  care  of  your  mammy.  Now  this  is  my  last 
will  and  testament.  Witness  my  hand  and  seal. 

"James  L.  Chaffin. 
This  January  16,  1919." 

1  31  Tavistock  Square,  London,  W.C.2. 


This  second  will,  though  unattested,  would,  according  to  the  law  of 
North  Carolina,  be  valid  as  being  written  throughout  by  the  testator's 
own  hand,  on  sufficient  evidence  being  adduced  that  it  was  in  fact  his  own 

The  testator,  having  written  out  his  will,  placed  it  between  two  pages 
of  an  old  family  Bible,  formerly  belonging  to  his  father,  the  Rev.  Nathan 
S.  Chaffin,  folding  the  pages  over  so  as  to  make  a  sort  of  pocket.  The 
pages  so  folded  were  those  containing  the  27th  chapter  of  Genesis,  which 
tells  how  the  younger  brother  Jacob  supplanted  the  elder  brother  Esau, 
and  won  his  birthright  and  his  father's  blessing.  The  sole  beneficiary 
under  the  first  will  was,  it  will  be  remembered,  a  younger  brother. 

The  testator  never  before  his  death,  so  far  as  can  be  ascertained,  men- 
tioned the  existence  of  this  second  will  to  anyone,  but  in  the  inside  pocket 
of  an  overcoat  belonging  to  him  he  stitched  up  a  roll  of  paper  on  which 
he  had  written  the  words,  "Read  the  27th  chapter  of  Genesis  in  my  daddy's 
old  Bible." 

On  September  7,  1921,  the  testator  died  as  the  result  of  a  fall.  His  third 
son,  Marshall,  obtained  probate  of  the  first  will  on  September  24  of  that 
year.  The  mother  and  the  other  three  brothers  did  not  contest  this  will, 
as  they  knew  of  no  valid  reason  for  doing  so. 

From  this  point  it  will  be  convenient  to  follow  the  words  of  the  sworn 
statements  obtained  by  Mr.  Johnson  on  his  visit  to  the  locality  on  April  21, 

Extract  from  Statement  of  James  Pinkney  Chaffin, 
Testator's  Second  Son 
"In  all  my  life  I  never  heard  my  father  mention  having  made  a  will 
later  than  the  one  dated  in  1905.  I  think  it  was  in  June  of  1925  that  I 
began  to  have  very  vivid  dreams  that  my  father  appeared  to  me  at  my 
bedside  but  made  no  verbal  communication.  Some  time  later,  I  think  it 
was  the  latter  part  of  June,  1925,  he  appeared  at  my  bedside  again,  dressed 
as  I  had  often  seen  him  dressed  in  life,  wearing  a  black  overcoat,  which 
I  knew  to  be  his  own  coat.  This  time  my  father's  spirit  spoke  to  me;  he 
took  hold  of  his  overcoat  this  way  and  pulled  it  back  and  said,  'You  will 
find  my  will  in  my  overcoat  pocket,'  and  then  disappeared.  The  next 
morning  I  arose  fully  convinced  that  my  father's  spirit  had  visited  me  for 


the  purpose  of  explaining  some  mistake.  I  went  to  my  mother's,  and 
sought  for  the  overcoat,  but  found  that  it  was  gone.  Mother  stated  that 
she  had  given  the  overcoat  to  my  brother  John,  who  lives  in  Yadkin 
County,  about  twenty  miles  northwest  of  my  home.  I  think  it  was  on 
July  6,  which  was  on  the  Monday  following  the  events  stated  in  the  last 
paragraph,  I  went  to  my  brother's  home  in  Yadkin  County  and  found 
the  coat.  On  examination  of  the  inside  pocket  I  found  the  lining  had  been 
sewn  together.  I  immediately  cut  the  stitches,  and  found  a  little  roll  of 
paper  tied  with  a  string,  which  was  in  my  father's  handwriting,  and 
contained  only  the  following  words :  'Read  the  27th  chapter  of  Genesis  in 
my  daddy's  old  Bible.' 

"At  this  point  I  was  so  convinced  that  the  mystery  was  to  be  cleared 
up,  I  was  unwilling  to  go  to  my  mother's  home  to  examine  the  Bible 
without  the  presence  of  a  witness,  and  I  induced  a  neighbor,  Mr.  Thomas 
Blackwelder,  to  accompany  me,  also  my  daughter  and  Mr.  Blackwelder's 
daughter  were  present.  Arriving  at  mother's  home  we  had  a  considerable 
search  before  we  found  the  old  Bible.  At  last  we  did  find  it  in  the  top 
bureau  drawer  in  an  upstairs  room.  The  book  was  so  dilapidated  that 
when  we  took  it  out  it  fell  into  three  pieces.  Mr.  Blackwelder  picked  up 
the  portion  containing  the  Book  of  Genesis,  and  turned  the  leaves  until 
he  came  to  the  27th  chapter  of  Genesis,  and  there  we  found  two  leaves 
folded  together,  the  left-hand  page  folded  to  the  right,  and  the  right- 
hand  page  folded  to  the  left,  forming  a  pocket,  and  in  this  pocket  Mr. 
Blackwelder  found  the  will  which  has  been  probated  [i.e.,  was  probated  in 
December,  1925]. 

"During  the  month  of  December,  1925,  my  father  again  appeared  to 
me  about  a  week  before  the  trial  of  the  case  of  Chaffin  v.  Chaffin,  and 
said,  'Where  is  my  old  will?'  and  showed  considerable  temper.  I  believed 
from  this  that  I  would  win  the  law  suit,  as  I  did.  I  told  my  lawyer  about 
this  visitation  the  next  morning. 

"Many  of  my  friends  do  not  believe  it  is  possible  for  the  living  to 
hold  communication  with  the  dead,  but  I  am  convinced  that  my  father 
actually  appeared  to  me  on  these  several  occasions,  and  I  shall  believe  it 
to  the  day  of  my  death." 


Statement  of  the  said  Thomas  A.  Blackwelder 
"My  name  is  Thomas  A.  Blackwelder.  I  am  thirty-eight  years  old, 
and  the  son  of  H.  H.  Blackwelder.  My  house  is  on  a  farm  in  Callihan 
township,  about  one  mile  from  the  place  where  James  L.  Chaffin  died  in 
1921.  I  think  it  was  on  July  6,  1925,  that  Mr.  J.  P.  Chaffin,  the  son  of 
James  L.  Chaffin,  and  a  neighbor  of  mine,  came  to  my  house,  and  asked 
me  to  go  with  him  to  his  mother's  home,  and  at  the  same  time  stated 
that  his  father  had  appeared  to  him  in  a  dream  and  instructed  him  how  he 
could  find  his  will.  Mr.  Chaffin  told  me  at  the  same  time  that  his  father 
had  been  dead  about  four  years,  and  had  appeared  to  him  in  a  dream, 
and  made  known  to  him  that  he  should  look  in  the  breast-pocket  of  his 
old  overcoat,  and  there  he  would  find  something  of  importance.  Mr. 
Chaffin  further  stated  that  he  had  gone  to  this  overcoat  and  found  a  strip 
of  paper  in  his  father's  handwriting,  and  he  wanted  me  to  go  with  him  to 
his  mother's  and  examine  the  Bible,  and  after  some  time  we  found  it 
in  a  bureau  drawer  in  the  second  story  of  the  house.  We  took  out  the 
Bible,  which  was  quite  old,  and  was  in  three  different  pieces.  I  took 
one  of  the  three  pieces  of  the  book,  and  Mr.  Chaffin  took  the  other  two 
pieces,  but  it  happened  that  the  piece  that  I  had  contained  the  Book  of 
Genesis.  I  turned  the  leaves  until  I  came  to  the  27th  chapter,  and  there 
we  found  two  leaves  folded  inward,  and  there  was  a  paper  writing 
folded  in  these  two  leaves  which  purported  to  be  the  last  will  of  James  L. 

It  appears  from  Mr.  Johnson's  own  statement  that,  in  addition  to 
Mr.  J.  P.  Chaffin  and  Mr.  Blackwelder,  Mrs.  J.  P.  Chaffin,  their  fifteen- 
year-old  daughter,  and  the  testator's  widow  were  present  when  the  Bible 
was  found. 

Soon  after  its  discovery,  the  second  will  was  tendered  for  probate. 
The  son,  Marshall,  who  had  proved  the  first  will,  had  died  within  a  year 
of  his  father's  death;  he  left  a  son,  R.  M.  Chaffin,  who  was  made  a 
defendant  in  the  suit  to  prove  the  second  will,  and  who,  being  a  minor, 
appeared  by  his  mother  as  guardian  ad  litem  and  next  friend. 

The  case  came  up  for  hearing  in  December,  1925.  A  jury  was  sworn, 
and  the  court  then  adjourned  for  lunch.  When  the  hearing  was  continued 


one  of  the  lawyers  announced  that  during  the  interval  an  amicable  ad- 
justment of  the  issues  had  been  arrived  at,  and  that  the  new  will  would  be 
admitted  to  probate  without  opposition.  The  following  is  taken  from  an 
official  copy  of  the  minutes  of  the  presiding  judge: 


In  Re  Will  of  J.  L.  Chaffin,  Deed. 
North  Carolina,  Davie  County.  In  Superior  Court. 

December  Term,  1925 
Judgment,  Decree: 

This  case  coming  on  to  be  heard,  and  being  heard,  and  the  following 
issues  having  been  submitted  to  the  Jury,  "Is  the  paper  writing  dated 
January  16,  1919,  and  every  part  thereof  the  last  Will  and  Testament  of 
the  deceased — Jas.  L.  Chaffin?" 

Answer— -"Yes." 

And  the  Jury  having  answered  said  issue  Yes,  It  is  now  on  motion 
of  E.  H.  Morris,  A.  H.  Price,  and  J.  E.  Busby,  attorneys  for  the  Plaintiffs, 
Ordered,  Decreed,  and  Adjudged  that  the  said  last  Will  and  Testament 
of  James  L.  Chaffin,  deceased,  be  recorded  in  the  office  of  the  Clerk  of  the 
Superior  Court  of  Davie  County  in  the  Book  of  Wills,  and  that  the  will 
dated  November  16,  1905,  and  probated  on  September  24,  1921,  Will 
Book  No.  2,  Page  579,  purporting  to  be  the  last  will  and  testament  of  the 
deceased  James  L.  Chaffin  is  hereby  cancelled,  rescinded,  annulled  and 
made  void. 

When  the  trial  commenced,  Marshall's  widow  and  son  had  been  pre- 
pared to  contest  the  second  will.  However,  during  the  luncheon  interval 
they  were  shown  the  second  will.  Ten  witnesses  were  prepared  to  give 
evidence  that  the  second  will  was  in  the  testator's  handwriting,  and  the 
widow  and  the  son  themselves  seem  to  have  admitted  this  as  soon  as 
they  saw  it.  At  any  rate,  they  at  once  withdrew  their  opposition.  The 
public,  which  had  crowded  the  court  in  the  hopes  of  watching  a  bitter 
family  feud  fought  out,  retired  disappointed. 

Mr.  Johnson  in  his  statement  said :  "I  endeavored  with  all  my  skill  and 
ability  by  cross-examination  and  otherwise  to  induce  some  admission  that 
possibly  there  was  a  subconscious  knowledge  of  the  will  in  the  old  Bible, 


or  of  the  paper  in  the  coat  pocket,  that  was  brought  to  the  fore  by  the 
dream:  but  I  utterly  failed  to  shake  their  faith.  The  answer  was  a  quiet: 
'No,  such  an  explanation  is  impossible.  We  never  heard  of  the  existence 
of  the  will  till  the  visitation  from  my  father's  spirit.'  Clearly,  they  none  of 
them  had  any  conscious  recollection,  at  the  date  of  testator's  death,  of 
any  mention  of  a  second  will,  or  they  would  not  have  allowed  the  first 
will  to  be  proved  without  opposition.  Nor  was  it  a  matter  which,  if 
once  mentioned,  they  were  likely  to  forget,  during  the  short  period  which 
intervened  between  the  making  of  the  second  will  (January,  1919)  and 
the  testator's  death  (September,  1921).  ...  I  was  much  impressed  with 
the  evident  sincerity  of  these  people,  who  had  the  appearance  of  honest, 
honorable  country  people,  in  well-to-do  circumstances." 

case  no.  10 
The  Beede  Case1 
Professor  O.  R.  Libby,  of  North  Dakota  University,  in  forwarding  an 
account  of  this  case  to  Dr.  Walter  F.  Prince,  testified  to  the  character 
of  Judge  Beede  as  follows: 

"I  have  known  Judge  Beede  for  about  twenty  years,  and  he  is  a  man 
of  unusual  intellectual  ability.  .  .  .  He  for  a  long  time  served  as  a  mis- 
sionary among  the  Indians.  .  .  .  Judge  Beede  has  made  some  remarkable 
observations  among  the  Indians,  and  has  obtained,  apparently,  their  com- 
plete confidence.  I  believe  ethnologists  consider  his  records  in  many  re- 
spects unique  and  valuable." 

This  is  Judge  Beede 's  account: 

"February  4,  1926,  about  7:15  a.m.,  my  wife,  whom  I  had  not  seen  for 
over  ten  years,  except  once,  and  then  at  a  distance,  appeared  to  me  as 
I  lay  asleep  or  partly  asleep  on  a  cot  in  my  sleeping-room;  and  I  said 
(seemed  to  say),  'How  did  you  get  in  with  the  door  locked ?'  She  said, 
'Oh,  I  got  in,  all  right.'  Then  she  said  (seemed  to  say),  'I  have  been  un- 
happy here  in  this  world,  I  have  laid  it  to  you.  I  am  out  of  that  error  now 

and  am  in  gladness.'  I  said,  'That's  good .  It  was  in  my  mind  to  go 

on  telling  her  that  I  would  build  on  to  the  house  another  room  for  her, 

1  Prince,  Dr.  Walter  F.,  Human  Experiences  (Boston),  I,  145-46. 


for  at  the  moment  I  took  the  matter  to  mean  that  she  would  come  and  live 
with  me,  as  I  had  asked  her  to  do.  But  just  at  that  moment  there  was  a 
terrible  banging  on  the  door  by  a  nearly  deaf  Sioux  Indian  Congregational 
minister  (I  am  Episcopalian),  who  had  come  to  get  aid  from  me  on 
account  of  the  death  of  a  child,  and  I  fully  awoke,  and  Mrs.  Beede  dis- 
appeared. On  attempting  to  rise  from  the  couch  I  found  myself  so  weak 
that  I  could  hardly  get  to  the  door  (from  what  cause  I  do  not  know); 
and  at  about  10  a.m.,  as  I  was  still  on  the  couch,  a  wire  was  brought  which 
read,  'Mama  passed  on  at  7:15  this  morning.'  Due  to  variations  of  time, 
it  is  impossible  to  say  whether  the  'apparition'  was  at  the  moment  of 
death,  or  shortly  before,  or  shortly  after.  .  .  .  The  communications  (talk) 
seemed  to  be  a  sort  of  flash  by  which  a  whole  idea  was  definitely  com- 
municated, not  words  actually  spoken,  requiring  a  negligible  amount  of 
time.  She  was  dressed  as  I  last  saw  her  ten  years  before,  though  she  had 
adopted  a  quite  different  mode  of  dress,  as  I  later  learned." 

case  no.  11 
The  By  fleet  Case1 

"Like  Mother,  Mrs.  Byfleet  was  psychic,  and  after  I  received  her 
motherly  welcome,  I  found  that  she  was  very  much  disturbed.  In  a  dream 
that  night  she  had  seen  Jack  (her  son),  who  had  just  left  home,  walk 
into  her  bedroom,  as  was  his  custom  on  homecomings,  remove  his  sailor's 
cap  and  smile  at  her.  She  was  sure  from  something  in  his  manner  that  he 
was  dead. 

"As  she  finished  telling  me  the  dream,  George  Byfleet  (her  husband) 
came  in  and  told  me  that  (my)  dad  had  said  if  I  wanted  to  ride  home 
I  was  to  be  in  the  village  by  5  p.m.  Hearing  that,  I  suggested  that  there 
was  just  time  for  a  pint  of  beer,  and  took  the  old  man  to  the  village  pub. 
There  he  confided  to  me  that  he  had  seen  the  same  vision  that  his  wife 
had,  but  that  he  hadn't  mentioned  it  to  her.  He  had  seen  Jack  come  into 
his  room,  and  was  so  sure  that  it  was  the  boy  that  he  had  gotten  out  of 
bed  and  followed  him  downstairs  to  have  the  usual  glass  of  whiskey,  which 
was  ritual  between  father  and  son  on  homecomings. 

"Dad  came  along  punctually  and  I  knew,  as  soon  as  I  saw  him,  that 
he  was  very  much  upset.  Hardly  had  old  Jack,  his  horse,  pulled  up  before 

1  Alexander,  Patrick,  As  the  Sparks  Fly  Upward  (London:  Jonathan  Cape),  269-70. 



the  pub  when  Dad  burst  out,  'This  is  a  hell  of  a  bloody  start  for  the  New 
Year.  The  Formidable  has  been  torpedoed.'  Byfleet  swallowed  his  beer 
and,  refusing  another,  asked  us  to  go  home  with  him.  As  soon  as  Mrs. 
Byfleet  heard  the  evil  news,  she  declared  that  Jack  had  gone  down  with 
that  ship.  Dad  said,  'That's  damned  nonsense;  Jack  was  told  to  report  to 
another  ship,  and  you  know  it.'  Nothing  would  convince  her,  though, 
that  Jack  hadn't  been  killed,  for  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  he  had  gone  to 
join  another  ship,  in  her  dream  he  had  had  the  letters  H.M.S.  Formidable 
on  his  cap.  Her  premonition  proved  true.  At  the  last  moment  before  sail- 
ing, Jack  Byfleet  had  volunteered  to  take  the  place  of  a  sick  comrade  on 
the  Formidable,  and  within  two  hours  the  ship  had  been  sunk  by  mine  or 

case  no.  12 
The  Austrian  Case1 

This  case,  which  was  brought  to  the  notice  of  the  Society  for  Psychical 

Research  by  an  Austrian  member  of  the  Society,  concerns  Baroness  X , 

an  old  friend  of  his.  The  Baroness  had  been  ill  for  a  long  time  and  died 
in  agony  at  11:20  p.m.  (Austrian  time)  on  April  29,  1930,  in  Vienna. 

Mrs.  F ,  then  living  in  Scodand,  and  who  had  been  on  very  intimate 

terms  with  the  Baroness,  received  a  printed  notification  of  the  death 
which  merely  stated  "on  the  evening  of  April  29,  1930" — the  hour  was 
not  mentioned. 

When   Mrs.   F received    this    news    she   immediately    wrote   to 

Baron  X on  May  5,  1930: 

"Now  I  must  tell  you  a  very  strange  thing  happened  on  the  night  of 
April  29.  I  already  knew  on  that  night  that  the  Baroness  had  died — 
because  she  came  here  and  said  good-bye  to  me.  It  was  like  this:  On 
Tuesday  evening  I  went  to  bed  feeling  very  tired  about  9  p.m.  and  fell 
sound  asleep.  About  11:15  p.m.  I  awoke  with  someone  pressing  a  kiss 
on  my  forehead  and  on  looking  up  I  saw  the  Baroness  standing  by  the 
side  of  my  bed;  she  looked  as  though  she  desired  to  say  something,  or 
was  waiting  for  me  to  speak  or  answer,  but  I  was  so  startled,  not  to  say 
afraid,  I  was  speechless,  so  after  gazing  at  one  another  for  a  minute  or 
two  the  Baroness  vanished.  Her  expression  was  so  sad  and  inquiring  I 

1  Salter,  W.  H.,  Ghosts  and  Apparitions  (London:  G.  Bell  &  Sons,  Ltd.). 


cannot  forget  it.  What  I  have  just  written  you  is  not  a  hallucination 

but  real  fact.  I  related  it  to  Mr.  F on  Wednesday  morning  and  he 

said,  'You  were  dreaming.'  .  .  .  I  really  saw  the  Baroness  as  clearly  as  I 
see  the  paper  I  am  now  writing  on  and  I  was  wide  awake." 

On  July  7,  1930,  Mr.  F wrote  to  the  Society  stating  that  on  the 

morning  of  April  30  Mrs.  F had  said  she  had  seen  the  Baroness  on 

April  29,  and  that  he  had  regarded  the  incident  as  only  a  dream,  although 
his  wife  thought  otherwise. 

Later,  Mrs.  F ,  when  asked  how  she  fixed  the  time  of  the  vision, 

replied  that  soon  after  the  Baroness  vanished  the  hall-clock  struck  the 
half-hour  and  that  when  she  regained  her  composure  and  looked  at  the 
bedroom  clock  it  showed  "the  hour  to  be  eleven  (i.e.,  that  the  hour  hand 
stood  between  eleven  and  twelve)  :  therefore  the  vision  was  somewhere  be- 
tween 11:15  and  11:30.  I  fixed  it  at  11:20." 

It  should  be  observed  that  at  the  time  of  the  vision,  Austrian  and  British 

(summer)  time  were  identical,  and  that  11:15  mentioned  by  Mrs.  F 

before  she  knew  of  the  death  was  very  close  to  the  actual  time  of  death  in 
Vienna.  , 

case  no.  13 
The  Michigan  Boulevard  Case1 

This  incident  is  not  quoted  in  direct  support  of  the  survival  theory, 
although  evidence  on  behalf  of  survival  is  often  obtained  by  clairvoyance 
of  this  type.  Strictly  speaking,  the  most  that  can  be  claimed  in  this  case 
is  that  it  shows  how  a  flash  of  clairvoyance  functioned  just  once,  unex- 
pectedly, in  the  lifetime  of  Irene  Kuhn,  an  American  newspaperwoman 
who  had  worked  on  behalf  of  American  journalism  in  Europe  and  China. 
In  the  latter  country  she  had  met  and  married  a  fellow  American  reporter, 
Bert  L.  Kuhn,  and  when  their  baby  girl  was  two  weeks  old,  much  against 
her  will  and  mainly  to  please  her  husband,  she  returned,  taking  the  baby 
with  her,  to  the  United  States  for  a  holiday,  her  husband  remaining 
behind  in  China. 

She  was  walking  one  December  afternoon  on  Michigan  Boulevard, 
Chicago,  when  "suddenly  and  without  warning  sky,  boulevard,  people, 

1  Kuhn,  Irene,  Assigned  to  Adventure  (London:  George  Harrap  &  Co.),  280-87. 



lake,  everything  vanished,  wiping  from  my  vision  as  completely  and 
quickly  as  if  I  had  been  struck  blind.  Before  me,  as  on  a  motion  picture 
screen  in  a  dark  theatre,  unrolled  a  strip  of  green  grass  within  a  fence 
of  iron  palings.  Three  young  trees,  in  spring  verdure,  stood  at  one  side; 
beyond  the  trees  and  the  fence,  in  the  far  distance,  factory  smoke-stacks 
trailed  sooty  plumes  across  the  sky.  Across  from  the  trees  stood  a  small 
circle  of  people,  men  and  women,  a  mere  handful,  in  black  clothes.  And 
coming  to  a  halt  on  a  gravelled  road  by  the  grass  was  a  limousine  from 
which  alighted  two  men  who  turned  to  offer  their  hands  to  a  woman  in 
black,  emerging  now  from  the  car.  The  woman  was  I. 

"I  watched  myself  being  escorted  against  my  will  to  the  group  which 
now  parted  to  receive  me.  I  made  no  sound,  but  struggled  against  the 
necessity  of  moving  towards  them.  I  took  one  step  and  then  stood  stock 
still.  Gendy  the  two  men  urged  me  forward,  a  step  at  a  time,  until  at  last 
I  was  among  the  others,  and  looked  at  the  small  hole  cut  in  the  grass — 
a  hole  not  more  than  two  feet  square. 

"I  looked  once  and  turned  my  back  on  it,  wanting  to  run  away,  but 
held  there  by  some  irresistible  force.  There  was  a  small  box  which 
someone,  bending  over  now,  was  placing  in  the  earth  with  infinite  ten- 
derness— a  box  so  small  and  light  I  could  hold  it  in  my  hand  and  hardly 
feel  it.  What  was  I  doing  here  ?  Where  was  I  ?  Why  was  I  letting  someone 
put  this  box  into  the  ground — this  little  box  which  held  something  very 
precious  to  me?  I  couldn't  speak  or  move.  These  people — who  were  they? 
Then  I  recognized  only  the  faces  of  my  husband's  family,  tear-stained 
and  sad.  The  silence  screamed  and  tore  at  me.  I  looked  about.  All  the  clan 
were  there.  Only  he  was  missing.  Then  I  knew  what  was  in  the  box,  and 
I  crumpled  on  the  grass  without  a  sound." 

When  the  vision  fled  she  looked  so  ill,  as  she  supported  herself  by  a 
lamp  post,  that  a  passing  stranger  came  forward  to  assist  her.  He  called 
a  taxi  and  she  was  driven  to  the  office  of  her  brother-in-law,  who,  likewise 
startled  by  her  appearance,  poured  out  for  her  a  good  drink  of  whiskey. 
She  soon  pulled  'round,  dismissed  the  incident  from  her  mind — just  a 
piece  of  too  fervid  imagination,  the  outcome  of  her  loneliness — but  she  did 
not  forget  it. 

Her  holiday  was  continued  until  February,  when  she  decided  to  sail 
from  Vancouver  on  the  Empress  of  Canada.  As  soon  as  she  boarded  the 


ship  the  purser  advised  her  to  get  in  touch  with  the  passenger  agent,  who, 
when  she  approached  him,  produced  a  wire  from  the  Kuhn  family  in 
Chicago:  "Please  advise  Mrs.  Bert  L.  Kuhn  husband  dangerously  ill, 
best  not  sail." 

At  the  moment  the  Empress  of  Canada  sailed — without  her — she  re- 
ceived another  wire:  "Bert  dead." 

She  returned  to  Chicago,  where  she  accepted  the  ofter  of  a  job  on  the 
Mirror;  meanwhile  her  husband's  ashes  were  being  sent  home  to  Chicago 
to  rest  beside  his  father's  in  the  city  of  his  birth. 

"And  it  was  on  May  30  that,  all  arrangements  having  been  completed, 
I  went  with  my  two  brothers-in-law  in  a  limousine  to  Rosehill  Cemetery, 
which  I  had  never  seen  before. 

"We  drove  across  the  city,  through  the  cemetery  gates  and  came  to  a 
stop.  The  men  got  out  first  and  waited  to  help  me.  I  put  my  foot  on 
the  ground,  and  something  held  me  back.  For  a  second  I  couldn't 
raise  my  eyes  because  I  knew  what  I  should  see.  At  last  I  looked.  There 
was  the  spring  grass  underfoot.  There  were  the  three  young  trees  in  fresh 
leaf;  there  the  fence  of  iron  palings,  and  the  smoke-stacks  of  the  city's 
industries  far  beyond  in  the  distance.  My  feet  were  weighted  with  lead. 
I  didn't  want  to  go. 

"Bert's  brothers  urged  me  forward  gently.  I  saw  the  ring  of  black-clad 
mourners  over  to  one  side,  waiting.  I  stopped. 

"  'You  didn't  have  to  open  a  full  grave,  did  you?'  I  asked. 

"'How  do  you  know?'  asked  Paul  with  astonishment. 

"  'There's  just  a  little  square  hole  big  enough  to  take  the  box  with  Bert's 
ashes,  isn't  there?'  I  pressed  on. 

"Paul's  face  was  white  beneath  his  natural  tan. 

"  'Yes,  that's  right.  They  said  it  would  be  foolish  to  open  a  full  grave  for 
a  small  box  of  ashes.  But  how  did  you  know?'  he  persisted. 

"I  didn't  answer.  I  was  thinking  of  that  December  day  on  Michigan 
Boulevard  when  I  had  seen  into  the  future,  over  the  bridge  of  time.  .  .  ." 

Lest  anyone  should  imagine  that  Irene  Kuhn  was  a  woman  much  given 
to  dreams  and  fancies,  a  perusal  of  her  book  will  soon  alter  that  opinion. 
Her  life,  before  this  incident,  although  full  of  adventure  and  excitement, 
was  lived  in  a  practical  fashion,  her  emotions  and  feelings  always  under 
strict  control. 

Chapter  2 


There  is  nothing  superstitious  in  the  investigation  of  such  curiosities  as 
haunted  houses;  if  phenomena  occur,  as  is  so  often  alleged,  then  it  is  the 
duty  of  the  psychical  researcher  to  investigate,  record,  and  study  them,  and 
this  has  been  done  in  many  cases  in  a  perfectly  cool,  calm,  and  judicial 
manner.  Attempts  have  been  made  to  obtain  permanent  records  of  visual 
and  auditory  phenomena  by  means  of  scientific  instruments  and  to  observe 
what  happens  in  a  purely  dispassionate  manner. 

Various  theories  have  been  advanced  to  account  for  this  type  of  phe- 
nomenon. The  common  version  is  that  it  is  due  to  the  direct  action  of  the 
discarnate,  while  others  hold  the  view  that  certain  "atmospheres"  exist 
in  houses  of  this  nature,  permeating  and  affecting  the  minds  and  senses 
of  all  dwellers  sensitive  enough  to  feel  this  influence.  Telepathy 
from  the  living  and  the  dead  are  other  theories  advanced,  while  the 
materialist  considers  the  entire  phenomenon  can  be  explained  by  natural 
causes,  rats,  mice,  wind,  heat,  cold,  and  creaking  boards,  etc.,  and  if  these 
explanations  do  not  cover  the  entire  range,  then  hallucination  and  imag- 
ination meet  the  case.  Nevertheless,  the  fact  remains  that  figures  have 
been  seen,  and  that  animals — which  know  nothing  of  theories — have  acted 
in  an  extraordinary  manner,  as  well  as  physical  noises  heard  that  seem 
to  invalidate  all  the  theories. 

Only  the  future  can  decide  what  the  final  verdict  will  be. 

According  to  Ingram's  The  Haunted  Houses  and  Family  Traditions 
of  Great  Britain  there  are  at  least  150  haunted  houses  in  this  country.  The 
most  ancient  case  of  haunting  is  that  of  Pausanias,  a  traitorous  general, 
who,  immured  in  the  Temple  of  Athene  at  Sparta,  died  of  starvation. 
After  his  death  terrifying  noises  were  heard  in  the  temple,  but  when  a 
magician  came  and  laid  his  ghost  they  ceased  entirely. 

There  is  one  type  of  haunting  that  is  in  a  class  by  itself,  that  of  pre- 
monitory haunting  which  usually  foretells  disaster  or  death,  and  many 
old  castles  in  Europe  have  a  traditional  ghost,  the  appearance  of  which  is 



usually  regarded  as  the  herald  of  death.  The  White  Lady  of  the  Royal 
Palace,  Berlin,  the  White  Lady  of  Schonbrunn,  the  Dark  Lady  of  Norfolk 
Castle  and  the  Grey  Lady  of  Windsor  Castle  are  traditional  and  well 
known.  The  Berlin  apparition  is  well  authenticated;  she  is  supposed  to  be 
the  ghost  of  Countess  Agnes  of  Orlemunde  who  murdered  her  two  chil- 
dren. She  appeared  eight  days  before  the  death  of  the  Prince  Elector  John 
George  in  1589  and  twenty-three  days  previous  to  the  death  of  Sigismund 
in  1619.  The  attempt  on  the  life  of  Count  Frederick  William  was  made  in 
1850,  shortly  after  she  had  been  seen  in  the  palace  gardens.  The  Schon- 
brunn White  Lady  has  a  similar  record ;  her  appearances  were  prior  to  the 
death  of  the  Emperor  Maximilian  of  Mexico  in  1867,  the  Mayer  ling 
drama,  and  before  information  was  received  of  the  death  of  the  ex-Arch- 
duke John  Orth  in  1889. 

As  recently  as  November,  1930,  the  question  came  before  the  Berlin 
courts  as  to  the  right  of  a  man  to  keep  his  family  ghosts  on  the  premises. 
Lucy  Regulski,  eleven  years  of  age,  was  alleged  to  be  disturbed  by  the 
spirit  of  her  uncle,  and  as  the  house  had  acquired  a  bad  name,  the  owner 
applied  for  the  eviction  of  his  tenants.  The  court  decided  in  favor  of  the 
tenant  Herr  Regulski;  he  could  keep  as  many  ghosts  as  he  wished,  the 
value  of  the  property  had  not  deteriorated  thereby. 

case  no.  14 
The  D Case1 

"In  relating  simply  what  I  saw  one  July  morning  in  the  year  1873, 
I  will  first  describe  the  room  in  which  I  saw  it.  It  is  a  bedroom  with 
a  window  at  either  end,  a  door  and  a  fireplace  at  opposite  sides.  .  .  .  The 

room  is  on  the  upper  story  of  a  house  some  miles  from  the  city  of  D . 

One  morning  .  .  .  opening  my  eyes  I  saw  right  before  me  the  figure  of 
a  woman,  stooping  down  and  apparently  looking  at  me.  Her  head  and 
shoulders  were  wrapped  in  a  common  grey  woolen  shawl.  Her  arms  were 
folded,  and  they  were  also  wrapped,  as  if  for  warmth,  in  the  shawl.  I 
looked  at  her  in  my  horror  and  dare  not  cry  out  lest  I  might  move  the 
awful  thing  to  speech  or  action.  .  .  .  After  what  may  have  been  only 
seconds — of  the  duration  of  this  I  cannot  judge — she  raised  herself  and 
went  backwards  towards  the  window,  stood  at  the  table  and  gradually  van- 

1  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  II,  141-44. 


ished.  .  .  .  Now  I  could  take  my  oath  that  I  did  not  mention  this  circum- 
stance to  either  my  brother  or  the  servant,  as  had  I  done  so,  the  latter, 
whom  we  valued,  might  have  left. 

"Exactly  a  fortnight  afterwards,  I  noticed  my  brother  was  out  of  sorts 
at  breakfast  time.  'I've  had  a  horrid  nightmare,'  he  said.  'I  saw  it  early 
this  morning  as  distinctly  as  I  see  you.  A  villainous  looking  old  hag,  with 
her  head  and  arms  wrapped  up  in  a  cloak,  stooping  over  me.'  'Oh,  Henry,' 
I  said,  'I  saw  the  same  thing  a  fortnight  ago.'  He  answered,  'Why  did  you 
not  tell  me?'  'I  was  afraid  you  would  laugh  at  me,'  I  said.  'This  is  no 
laughing  matter,'  he  said,  'for  it  has  quite  upset  me.' 

"About  four  years  later,  a  boy  of  four  or  five  years  of  age  left  alone  in 
the  drawing-room  came  out  pale  and  trembling,  and  said  to  my  sister, 
'Who  is  that  old  woman  that  went  upstairs?'  My  sister  tried  to  convince 
him  that  there  was  no  old  woman,  and  though  they  searched  every  room 
in  the  house,  the  child  did  maintain  that  the  old  woman  'did  go  upstairs.' 

"A  gentleman  with  whom  we  became  acquainted  in  the  neighborhood 
started  when  we  first  told  him  of  what  we  had  seen,  and  asked  had  we 
never  heard  that  a  woman  had  been  killed  in  that  house  many  years 
previously  and  that  it  was  said  to  be  haunted." 

The  witnesses  in  this  case  were  all  alive  at  the  time  it  was  published  in 
the  Proceedings  of  the  S.P.R.  and  known  personally  to  Professor  Henry 
Sidgwick  and  Sir  William  F.  Barrett. 

CASE  NO.   15 

The  Morton  Case1 
This  case  was  submitted  to  F.  W.  H.  Myers  by  his  friend,  Miss  R.  C. 
Morton,  a  lady  of  scientific  training.  It  was  very  well  authenticated  and 
corroborated  by  six  written  and  signed  statements,  as  well  as  by  the 
original  informant: 

"The  house  was  built  about  the  year  1860;  the  first  occupant  was 
Mr.  S.,  an  Anglo-Indian,  who  lived  in  it  for  about  sixteen  years.  During 
this  time,  year  uncertain,  he  lost  his  wife  to  whom  he  was  passionately 
attached  and  to  drown  his  grief  took  to  drinking.  His  second  wife,  a 
Miss  I.  H,  hoped  to  cure  him  of  his  intemperate  habits,  but  instead  she 

l  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  VIII,  311-32. 


also  took  to  drinking,  and  their  married  life  was  embittered  by  constant 
quarrels,  frequently  resulting  in  violent  scenes.  A  few  months  before 
Mr.  S.'s  death  on  July  14,  1876,  his  wife  separated  from  him  and  went 
to  live  in  Clifton.  She  was  not  present  at  the  time  of  his  death,  nor,  as  far 
as  is  known,  was  ever  in  the  house  afterwards.  She  died  on  September  23, 

"After  Mr.  S.'s  death  the  house  was  bought  by  Mr.  L.,  an  elderly  gentle- 
man, who  died  rather  suddenly  within  six  months  of  going  into  it.  The 
house  then  remained  empty  for  some  years — probably  four." 

Miss  Morton  takes  up  the  story: 

"My  father  took  the  house  in  March,  1882,  none  of  us  ever  having  then 
heard  of  anything  unusual  about  the  house.  We  moved  in  towards  the  end 
of  April  and  it  was  not  until  the  following  June  that  I  first  saw  the 

"I  had  gone  up  to  my  room,  but  was  not  yet  in  bed  when  I  heard  some- 
one at  the  door  and  went  to  it,  thinking  it  might  be  my  mother.  On 
opening  the  door,  I  saw  no  one;  but  on  going  a  few  steps  along  the 
passage,  I  saw  the  figure  of  a  tall  lady  dressed  in  black  standing  at  the 
head  of  the  stairs.  After  a  few  moments  she  descended  the  stairs,  and  I 
followed  for  a  short  distance,  feeling  curious. 

"During  the  next  two  years — from  1882  to  188-1 — I  saw  the  figure  about 
half  a  dozen  times,  at  first  at  long  intervals,  and  afterwards  at  shorter, 
but  I  only  mentioned  these  appearances  to  one  friend,  who  did  not  speak 
of  them  to  anyone.  During  this  period,  as  far  as  we  know,  there  were 
only  three  appearances  to  anyone  else : 

"1.  In  the  summer  of  1882  to  my  sister,  Mrs.  K.,  when  a  figure  was 
thought  to  be  that  of  a  Sister  of  Mercy  who  had  called  at  the  house,  and 
no  further  curiosity  was  aroused.  She  was  coming  down  the  stairs  rather 
late  for  dinner  at  6:30,  it  being  then  quite  light,  when  she  saw  the  figure 
cross  the  hall  in  front  of  her,  and  pass  into  the  drawing-room. 

"2.  In  the  autumn  of  1883  it  was  seen  by  the  housemaid  about  10  p.m., 
she  declaring  that  someone  had  got  into  the  house;  her  description  agreed 
fairly  with  what  I  had  seen. 

"3.  On  or  about  December  18,  1883,  it  was  seen  in  the  drawing-room 
by  my  brother  and  another  little  boy.  They  were  playing  outside  on  the 


terrace  when  they  saw  the  figure  in  the  drawing-room,  close  to  the  win- 
dow, and  ran  in  to  see  who  it  could  be  that  was  crying  so  bitterly.  They 
found  no  one  in  the  drawing-room  and  the  parlormaid  told  them  that 
no  one  had  come  into  the  house. 

"After  the  first  time,  I  followed  the  figure  several  times  downstairs  into 
the  drawing-room,  where  she  remained  a  variable  time,  generally  standing 
to  the  right-hand  side  of  the  bow-window.  From  the  drawing-room  she 
went  along  the  passage  towards  the  garden  door,  where  she  always 

'The  first  time  I  spoke  to  her  was  on  January  29,  1884.  I  opened  the 
drawing-room  door  softly  and  went  in,  just  standing  by  it.  She  came  in 
past  me  and  walked  to  the  sofa  and  stood  still  there,  so  I  went  up  to  her 
and  asked  if  I  could  help  her.  She  moved,  and  I  thought  she  was  going 
to  speak,  but  she  gave  only  a  slight  gasp  and  moved  towards  the  door. 
Just  at  the  door  I  spoke  to  her  again,  but  she  seemed  as  if  she  were  quite 
unable  to  speak.  She  walked  into  the  hall  and  then  by  the  side  door  she 
seemed  to  disappear  as  before. 

"I  have  also  attempted  to  touch  her,  but  she  always  eluded  me.  It  was 
not  that  there  was  nothing  there  to  touch,  but  she  always  seemed  to  be 
beyond  me,  and  if  followed  into  a  corner,  simply  disappeared. 

"The  appearances  during  the  months  of  July  and  August,  1884,  became 
much  more  frequent;  indeed,  they  were  then  at  their  maximum,  from 
which  time  they  seem  gradually  to  have  decreased. 

"On  the  night  of  August  1, 1  again  saw  the  figure.  I  heard  the  footsteps 
outside  on  the  landing  about  2  a.m.  I  got  up  at  once  and  went  outside. 
She  was  then  at  the  end  of  the  landing  at  the  top  of  the  stairs,  with  her 
side  view  towards  me.  She  stood  there  some  minutes,  then  went  down- 
stairs, stopping  again  when  she  reached  the  hall  below.  I  opened  the 
drawing-room  door  and  she  went  in,  walked  across  the  room  to  the 
couch  in  the  bow-window,  stayed  there  a  little,  then  came  out  of  the  room, 
went  along  the  passage  and  disappeared  by  the  garden  door.  I  spoke  to 
her  again,  but  she  did  not  answer. 

"On  the  evening  of  August  11  we  were  sitting  in  the  drawing-room 
with  the  gas  lit  but  the  shutters  were  not  shut,  the  light  outside  getting 
dark,  my  brother  and  a  friend  having  just  given  up  tennis;  my  eldest 
sister,  Mrs.  K.,  and  myself  both  saw  the  figure  on  the  balcony  outside, 


looking  in  at  the  window.  She  stood  there  for  some  minutes,  then  walked 
to  the  end  and  back  again,  after  which  she  seemed  to  disappear.  She  soon 
after  came  into  the  drawing-room,  when  I  saw  her  but  my  sister  did  not. 
The  same  evening  my  sister  E.  saw  her  on  the  stairs  as  she  came  out  of  a 
room  on  the  upper  landing. 

"The  following  evening,  August  12,  while  coming  up  the  garden  I 
walked  towards  the  orchard,  when  I  saw  the  figure  cross  the  orchard,  go 
along  the  carriage  drive  in  front  of  the  house  and  in  at  the  open  side 
door,  across  the  hall  and  into  the  drawing-room,  I  following.  She  crossed 
the  drawing-room  and  took  up  her  usual  position  behind  the  couch  in  the 
bow-window.  My  father  came  in  soon  after  and  I  told  him  she  was  there. 
He  could  not  see  the  figure,  but  went  up  to  where  I  showed  him  she  was. 
She  then  went  swiftly  'round  behind  him,  across  the  room,  out  of  the 
door,  and  along  the  hall,  disappearing  as  usual  near  the  garden  door, 
we  both  following  her.  We  looked  out  into  the  garden,  having  first  to 
unlock  the  garden  door,  which  my  father  had  locked  as  he  came  through, 
but  saw  nothing  of  her. 

"On  August  12,  about  8  p.m.  and  still  quite  light,  my  sister  E.  was 
singing  in  the  back  drawing-room.  I  heard  her  stop  abruptly,  come  out 
into  the  hall  and  call  me.  She  said  she  had  seen  the  figure  in  the  drawing- 
room  close  behind  her  as  she  sat  at  the  piano.  I  went  back  into  the  room 
with  her  and  saw  the  figure  in  the  bow-window  at  her  usual  place.  I 
spoke  to  her  several  times  but  had  no  answer.  She  stood  there  for  ten 
minutes  or  a  quarter  of  an  hour;  then  went  across  the  room  to  the  door 
and  along  the  passage,  disappearing  in  the  same  place  by  the  garden  door. 

"My  sister  M.  then  came  in  from  the  garden,  saying  she  had  seen  her 
coming  up  the  kitchen  steps  outside.  We  all  three  then  went  into  the 
garden,  when  Mrs.  K.  called  out  from  a  window  on  the  first  story  that 
she  had  just  seen  her  pass  across  the  lawn  in  front  and  along  the  carriage 
drive  towards  the  orchard.  This  evening,  then,  altogether  four  people 
saw  her.  My  father  was  then  away  and  my  youngest  brother  was  out. 

"On  the  morning  of  August  14,  the  parlormaid  saw  her  in  the  dining- 
room  about  8:30  a.m.,  having  gone  into  the  room  to  open  the  shutters. 
The  room  is  very  sunny  and  even  with  all  the  shutters  closed  it  is  quite 
light,  the  shutters  not  fitting  well  and  letting  sunlight  through  the  cracks. 
She  had  opened  one  shutter  when,  on  turning  'round,  saw  the  figure 


cross  the  room.  We  were  all  on  the  look-out  for  her  that  evening;  in  fact, 
whenever  we  had  made  arrangements  to  watch  and  were  especially  expect- 
ing her,  we  never  saw  anything. 

"During  the  rest  of  that  year  and  the  following,  1885,  the  apparition 
was  frequently  seen  through  each  year,  especially  during  July,  August 
and  September.  In  these  months  the  three  deaths  took  place,  viz.,  Mr.  S. 
on  July  14,  1876;  the  first  Mrs.  S.  in  August  and  the  second  Mrs.  S.  on 
September  23.  The  apparitions  were  of  exactly  the  same  type,  seen  in  the 
same  places  and  by  the  same  people  at  varying  intervals. 

"At  Mr.  Myers'  suggestion,  I  kept  a  camera  constantly  ready  to  try  to 
photograph  the  figure,  but  on  the  few  occasions  I  was  able  to  do  so  I  got 
no  result;  at  night,  usually  by  candle-light,  a  long  exposure  would  be 
necessary  for  so  dark  a  figure  and  this  I  could  not  obtain.  I  also  tried  to 
communicate  with  the  figure,  constantly  speaking  to  it  and  asking  it 
to  make  signs,  with  no  result.  I  also  tried  especially  to  touch  her,  but  did 
not  succeed.  On  cornering  her,  as  I  did  once  or  twice,  she  disappeared. 

"Some  time  in  the  summer,  of  1886,  Mrs.  Twining,  our  regular  char- 
woman, saw  the  figure,  while  waiting  in  the  hall  at  the  door  leading  to 
the  kitchen  stairs,  for  her  payment.  Until  it  suddenly  vanished  from  her 
sight,  as  no  real  figure  could  have  done,  she  thought  it  was  a  lady  visitor 
who  had  mistaken  her  way. 

"During  the  next  two  years,  1887  to  1889,  the  figure  was  very  seldom 
seen,  though  footsteps  were  heard,  the  louder  noises  having  gradually 
ceased.  From  1889  to  the  present,,  1892,  so  far  as  I  know,  the  figure  has 
not  been  seen  at  all;  the  lighter  footsteps  lasted  a  little  longer,  but  now 
even  they  have  ceased.  The  figure  became  much  less  substantial  on  its 
later  appearances.  Up  to  about  1886  it  was  so  solid  and  lifelike  that  it  was 
often  mistaken  for  a  real  person.  It  gradually  became  less  distinct.  At 
times  it  intercepted  the  light;  we  have  not  been  able  to  ascertain  if  it 
cast  a  shadow." 

Proofs  of  Immateriality 
"1.  I  have  several  times  fastened  fine  strings  across  the  stairs  at  various 
heights  before  going  to  bed,  after  all  the  others  have  gone  up  to  their 
rooms.  I  have  at  least  twice  seen  the  figure  pass  through  the  cords,  leaving 
them  intact. 


"2.  The  sudden  and  complete  disappearance  of  the  figure,  while  still  in 
full  view. 

"3.  The  impossibility  of  touching  the  figure.  I  have  repeatedly  followed 
it  into  a  corner,  when  it  disappeared,  and  have  tried  to  suddenly  pounce 
upon  it,  but  have  never  succeeded  in  touching  it  of  getting  my  hand  up 
to  it,  the  figure  eluding  my  touch. 

"4.  It  has  appeared  in  a  room  with  the  doors  shut. 

"On  the  other  hand,  the  figure  was  not  called  up  by  a  desire  co  see  it, 
for  on  every  occasion  when  we  have  made  special  arrangements  to  watch 
for  it,  we  never  saw  it.  On  several  occasions  we  have  sat  up  at  night, 
hoping  to  see  it,  but  in  vain — my  father,  with  my  brother-in-law,  myself 
with  a  friend  three  or  four  times,  an  aunt  and  myself  twice,  and  my 
sisters  with  friends  more  than  once;  on  none  of  these  occasions  was  any- 
thing seen.  Nor  have  all  the  appearances  been  seen  after  we  have  been 
talking  or  thinking  much  of  the  figure. 

"The  figure  has  been  connected  with  the  second  Mrs.  S.,  the  grounds 
for  which  are: 

"1.  The  complete  history  of  the  house  is  known,  and  if  we  are  to  con- 
nect the  figure  with  any  of  the  previous  occupants  she  is  the  only  person 
who  in  any  way  resembled  the  figure. 

"2.  The  widow's  garb  excludes  the  first  Mrs.  S. 

"3.  Although  none  of  us  had  ever  seen  the  second  Mrs.  S.,  several  people 
who  had  known  her  identified  her  from  our  description.  On  being  shown 
a  photograph  containing  a  number  of  portraits,  I  picked  out  one  of  her 
sister  as  being  most  like  that  of  the  figure  and  was  afterwards  told  that 
the  sisters  were  much  alike. 

"4.  Her  step-daughter  and  others  told  us  that  she  especially  used  the 
front  drawing-room  in  which  she  continually  appeared  and  that  her 
habitual  seat  was  on  a  couch  placed  in  similar  position  to  ours. 

"5.  The  figure  is  undoubtedly  connected  with  the  house,  none  of  the 
percipients  having  seen  it  anywhere  else,  nor  had  any  other  hallucinations." 

Conduct  of  Animals  in  the  House 
"We  have  strong  ground  for  believing  that  the  apparition  was  seen  by 
two  dogs.  Twice  I  remember  seeing  our  dog  run  up  to  the  mat  at  the 


foot  of  the  stairs,  wagging  its  tail  and  moving  its  back  the  way  dogs  do 
when  they  are  expecting  to  be  caressed.  It  jumped  up,  fawning  as  it 
would  do  if  a  person  were  standing  there,  but  suddenly  slunk  away  with 
its  tail  between  its  legs  and  retreated,  trembling,  under  a  sofa.  Its  action 
was  peculiar  and  was  much  more  striking  to  the  onlooker  than  it  could 
possibly  appear  from  a  description. 

"In  conclusion,  as  to  feelings  aroused  by  the  presence  of  the  figure,  it  is 
very  difficult  to  describe  them;  on  a  few  occasions  I  think  the  feeling  of 
awe  at  something  unknown,  mixed  with  a  strong  desire  to  know  more 
about  it,  predominated.  Later,  when  I  was  able  to  analyze  my  feelings 
more  closely  and  the  first  novelty  had  worn  off,  I  was  conscious  of  a 
feeling  of  loss,  as  if  I  had  lost  power  to  the  figure.  Most  of  the  other  per- 
cipients speak  of  feeling  a  cold  wind,  but  I  myself  have  not  experienced 

"R.  C.  Morton." 

CASE  NO.   16 

The  Egham  Case1 
This  case  was  vouched  for  by  the  English  poet  and  dramatist,  Stephen 
Phillips  (1868-1915),  regarding  a  house  he  leased  in  Egham,  near  Windsor: 

"I  went  there  for  peace  and  quiet,  and  yet,  although  many  people  knew 
my  purpose,  nobody  had  the  pluck  to  tell  me  that  the  place  had  the 
reputation  of  being  haunted.  We  found  it  out  pretty  quickly  ourselves, 
my  household  and  I.  No  sooner  had  we  been  installed  in  the  place  than 
the  uncanniest  noises  conceivable  beset  us.  There  were  knockings  and 
rappings,  footfalls,  soft  and  loud;  hasty,  stealthy  hurryings  and  scurryings 
and  sounds  as  of  a  human  creature  being  chased  and  caught  and  then 
strangled  or  choked.  Doors  banged  and  were  opened  and  closed  unac- 
countably as  if  by  unseen  hands.  I  would  be  sitting  quietly  in  the  study 
writing  when  the  door  would  open  soundlessly.  That  in  itself  is  enough 
in  the  dead  of  night  to  a  man  with  his  imagination  aflame.  It  was  sus- 
ceptible of  explanation,  however:  'It  is  only  a  bit  of  a  draught,'  I  would 
say  to  myself,  as  I  held  my  breath  and  watched,  but  draughts  do  not 

1The  Herald  (New  York:  July  24,  1904).  Prince,  Dr.  Walter  F.,  Noted  Witnesses 
for  Psychic  Occurrences. 


turn  door  handles,  and  on  my  life  the  handle  would  turn  as  the  door 
opened,  and  there  was  no  hand  visible. 

"This  happened  repeatedly.  All  the  household  heard  sounds  and  experi- 
enced the  same  sensations. 

"My  little  daughter  reported  having  seen  a  little  old  man  creeping 
about  the  house,  but  there  was  no  such  person  to  be  found.  .  .  . 

"According  to  common  report  and  local  tradition,  an  old  farmer 
strangled  a  child  fifty  years  ago  in  the  vicinity  of  our  house  at  Egham. 
This  tradition  I  learned  after  and  not  before  our  experiences. 

"If  there  really  is  a  ghost  on  the  prowl  it  explains  a  lot. 

"Needless  to  say,  we  gave  up  our  lease  of  the  residence  and  got  out 
of  it  like  a  shot.  The  servants  left  so  precipitately  that  they  did  not  even 
take  their  boxes,  so  you  may  imagine  how  scared  they  were.  The  house 
has  not  had  another  tenant  since,  and  I  learned  that  before  my  advent  it 
rarely,  if  ever,  was  occupied. 

"As  a  man  of  reasonable  intellect  I  am  open  to  accept  any  feasible 
explanation  of  our  experiences.  Indeed,  as  the  house  continues  'To  let' 
and  is  still  reported  to  be  haunted,  I  should  be  quite  glad  if  some  respect- 
able body  such  as  the  Psychical  Research  Society  would  endeavor  to  clear 
the  matter  up." 

case  no.  17  » 

The  Sayce  Case1 
When  the  Rev.  A.  H.  Sayce  was  thirteen  years  of  age,  he  and  his 
brother  visited  friends  in  a  house  near  Bath,  which  they  had  just  taken, 
and  while  there  events  took  place  which  made  an  indelible  impression 
upon  his  memory: 

"On  a  Thursday  afternoon  when  the  light  was  failing  I  closed  my 
books  and  went  upstairs  to  prepare  myself  for  dinner  while  there  was 
still  sufficient  light  to  do  so  without  the  help  of  a  candle.  I  was  standing, 
brushing  my  hair  before  the  toilet  table  which  stood  in  front  of  the 
window,  when  I  happened  to  turn  to  the  right  and  there  saw  a  man 
standing  a  few  steps  away  at  the  entrance  of  the  dressing-room.  I  can  still 
see  him  as  he  stood  facing  me,  with  a  closely  shaven  face,  fine  features, 
dark  brown  hair  parted  in  the  middle,  and  a  dark  coat  buttoned  below 

1  Prince,  Dr.  Walter  F.,  Noted  Witnesses  for  Psychic  Occurrences,  42-44. 


the  chin  like  an  oriental  stambouli  or  a  clerical  coat.  The  button  was  of 
gold;  and  there  was  a  gold  button  also  on  either  wrist. 

"The  suddenness  of  the  apparition  naturally  startled  me,  and  without 
imagining  for  a  moment  that  it  was  anything  more  than  an  ordinary 
individual  who  had  found  his  way  into  the  house,  I  rushed  downstairs 
into  the  morning-room  and  there  told  my  hosts  that  there  was  a  strange 
man  upstairs.  I  was  naturally  laughed  at,  and  informed  that  poring  over 
books  indoors  day  after  day  had  excited  my  'nerves.'  By  the  time  dinner 
was  over  I  had  been  induced  to  believe  that  such  was  really  the  case. 

"The  following  Sunday  I  awoke  early  in  the  morning.  The  log  fire 
was  nearly  extinct,  but  there  was  still  sufficient  light  from  it  to  enable 
the  outlines  of  objects  to  be  discerned.  In  the  dim  light  I  saw  a  human 
figure  pass  to  the  foot  of  the  bed  and  there  stand  for  a  moment  or  two 
between  the  bedstead  and  the  dying  fire.  I  asked  my  brother  Herbert, 
who  was  sharing  the  bed  with  me  and  happened  also  to  be  awake,  who 
it  was.  He,  too,  saw  the  figure  and  replied,  'It's  only  Lizzie' — the  daughter 
of  our  hosts,  whose  room  was  close  to  ours,  and  therefore  we  both  turned 
'round  and  went  to  sleep  again.  In  the  morning  I  mentioned  to  our 
hostess,  Mrs.  Boyd,  that  her  daughter  had  visited  our  bedroom  during 
the  night.  She  replied,  'What  could  she  have  been  doing  there?'  and  then 
the  matter  passed  out  of  our  memories  until  it  was  recalled  to  me  the 
following  autumn  by  Mrs.  Boyd. 

"The  next  event  of  which  I  know  was  a  visit  paid  by  a  Mrs.  Herbert  to 
the  house  in  the  spring.  On  a  certain  Sunday  morning  she  asked  if  she 
might  change  her  room,  as  she  had  had  an  unpleasant  experience  early 
that  morning.  She  had  seen  a  man  come  out  of  the  dressing-room,  pass 
along  the  side  of  the  bed  and  then  stoop  down  so  as  to  be  concealed  by 
its  foot.  She  jumped  out  of  bed  to  see  who  was  there,  and  nothing  was 
visible.  The  whole  story  was  naturally  treated  as  a  dream  by  those  who 
heard  it. 

"In  the  following  September  the  married  daughter  of  the  Boyds  and 
her  husband  paid  a  visit  to  the  Court.  A  few  days  later  we  were  lunching 
there,  and  I  heard  from  Mrs.  Holt  a  somewhat  vivid  account  of  the 
experiences  they  had  just  had.  They  occupied  the  drab  room,  and  she 
slept  on  the  side  of  the  bed  nearest  the  dressing-room.  Early  on  the 
previous  Friday  morning  she  was  roused  from  her  slumbers  by  feeling 


'a  cold,  clammy  hand'  laid  across  her  forehead.  She  opened  her  eyes,  and 
saw  the  dark  brown  figure  of  a  man  hieing  away  from  her  into  the  little 
dressing-room.  She  awoke  her  husband,  who  told  her  she  had  had  a 
nightmare;  but  she  refused  to  sleep  again  on  that  side  of  the  bed.  The 
next  night  Mr.  Holt  was  rendered  sleepless  by  a  toothache  and,  therefore, 
as  he  informed  his  wife,  had  there  been  any  ghosts  about,  he  must  have 
seen  them.  By  Saturday  night,  however,  his  toothache  was  cured,  and  his 
sleep  accordingly  was  sounder  than  usual.  He  was  startled  out  of  it  by 
feeling  the  same  'cold,  clammy  hand'  as  that  described  by  his  wife  and, 
as  he  opened  his  eyes,  seeing  the  same  figure  retreating  into  the  dressing- 
room.  He  looked  at  his  watch  and  found  that  it  was  four  o'clock.  He  got 
out  of  bed  and  sponged  his  face  and  head  with  cold  water;  then  returned 
to  the  bed  and  sat  up  in  it  for  a  moment  or  two.  Before  he  could  lie 
down  'the  figure'  returned  from  the  dressing-room  and  stood  close  to  his 
shoulder.  He  was  able  to  measure  it  against  the  window-frame,  but  I  do 
not  remember  what  he  said  was  the  exact  height.  His  description  of  'the 
figure,'  however,  agreed  exactly  with  what  I  had  seen,  even  to  the  three 
gilt  buttons.  While  he  sat  gazing  at  it,  the  figure  slowly  vanished  out  of 

"That  there  was  a  ghost  in  the  Court  now  began  to  be  noised  abroad, 
and  the  old  servants  of  our  friends  threatened  to  leave  them.  In  the  course 
of  the  winter,  consequently,  they  gave  up  the  place  and  took  a  house 
elsewhere.  From  that  day  to  this  I  have  heard  nothing  more  about  it  or 
its  occupants,  ghostly  or  otherwise." 

case  no.  18 
The  New  Guinea  Case1 
"One  night,  in  Moreton's  house,  I  had  a  curious  and  uncanny  experi- 
ence. I  was  sitting  at  the  table,  writing  a  long  dispatch  which  engaged 
all  my  attention;  my  table  was  in  the  middle  of  the  room,  and  on  my 
right  and  left  hand  respectively  there  were  two  doors,  one  opening  on 
to  the  front  and  the  other  on  to  the  back  veranda  of  the  house;  both 
doors  were  closed  and  fastened  with  ordinary  wooden  latches,  which 
could  not  possibly  open  of  their  own  accord  as  a  spring  lock  might  do; 

1  Monckton,  C.  A.  W.,  Experiences  of  a  New  Guinea  Resident  Magistrate  (Har- 
mondsworth:  Penguin  Books,  Ltd.). 


the  floor  of  the  room  in  which  I  was,  was  made  of  heavy  teak-wood 
boards,  nailed  down,  the  floor  of  the  veranda  being  constructed  of  laths 
of  palm,  laced  together  with  native  string.  As  I  wrote,  I  became  conscious 
that  both  doors  were  wide  open  and — hardly  thinking  what  I  was  doing — 
got  up,  closed  them  both  and  went  on  writing;  a  few  minutes  later,  I 
heard  footsteps  upon  the  coral  path  leading  up  to  the  house;  they  came 
across  the  squeaky  palm  veranda,  my  door  opened  and  the  footsteps 
went  across  the  room,  and — as  I  raised  my  eyes  from  my  dispatch — the 
other  door  opened,  and  they  passed  across  the  veranda  and  down  again 
on  to  the  coral.  I  paid  very  little  attention  to  this  at  first,  having  my 
mind  full  of  the  subject  about  which  I  was  writing,  but  half  thought  that 
either  Poruma  or  Giorgi,  both  of  whom  were  in  the  kitchen,  had  passed 
through  the  room;  however,  I  again  rose  and  absent-mindedly  shut  both 
doors  for  the  second  time. 

"Some  time  later,  once  more  the  footsteps  came,  crash  crash  on  the 
coral,  squeak  squeak  on  the  veranda;  again  my  door  opened  and  the 
squeak  changed  to  the  tramp  of  booted  feet  on  the  boarded  floor.  As  I 
looked  to  see  who  it  was,  the  tramp  passed  close  behind  my  chair  and 
across  the  room  to  the  door,  which  opened;  then  again  the  tramp  changed 
to  the  squeak  and  the  squeak  to  the  crash  on  the  coral.  I  was  by  this  time 
getting  very  puzzled,  but,  after  a  little  thought,  decided  my  imagination 
was  playing  me  tricks,  and  that  I  had  not  really  closed  the  doors  when 
I  thought  I  had.  I  made  certain,  however,  that  I  did  close  them  this  time, 
and  went  on  with  my  work  again.  Once  more  the  whole  thing  was 
repeated,  only  this  time  I  rose  from  the  table,  took  my  lamp  in  my  hand, 
and  gazed  hard  at  the  places  on  the  floor  from  which  the  sound  came, 
but  could  see  nothing. 

"Then  I  went  on  to  the  veranda  and  yelled  for  Giorgi  and  Poruma. 
'Who  is  playing  tricks  here?'  I  asked  in  a  rage.  Before  Poruma  could 
answer,  again  came  the  sound  of  footsteps  through  my  room.  'I  did  not 
know  that  you  had  anyone  with  you,'  said  Poruma  in  surprise,  as  he 
heard  the  steps.  'I  have  no  one  with  me,  but  somebody  keeps  opening  my 
door  and  walking  about,'  I  replied,  'and  I  want  him  caught.'  'No  one 
would  dare  come  into  the  Government  compound  and  play  tricks  on  the 
R.M.,'  said  Poruma,  'unless  he  were  mad.'  I  was  by  this  time  thoroughly 
angry.  'Giorgi,  go  to  the  guard-house,  send  up  the  gate-keeper  and  all 


the  men  there,  then  go  to  the  jail  and  send  Manigugu  (the  jailer)  and 
all  his  warders;  then  send  to  the  Siai  (a  sailing  ship)  for  her  men;  I 
mean  to  get  to  the  bottom  of  all  this  fooling.'  The  gate-keeper  arrived, 
and  swore  that  he  had  locked  the  gate  at  ten  o'clock,  that  no  other  than 
Government  people  had  passed  through  before  that  hour;  that  since  then, 
until  Giorgi  went  for  him,  he  had  been  sitting  on  his  veranda  with  some 
friends,  and  nobody  could  have  passed  without  his  knowledge.  Then 
came  the  men  from  the  jail  and  the  Siai,  and  I  told  them  some  scoundrel 
had  been  playing  tricks  upon  me  and  I  wanted  him  caught. 

"First  they  searched  the  house,  not  a  big  job,  as  there  were  only  three 
rooms  furnished  with  spartan  simplicity;  that  being  completed,  I  placed 
four  men  with  lanterns  under  the  house,  which  was  raised  on  piles  about 
four  feet  from  the  ground;  at  the  back  and  front  and  sides  I  stationed 
others,  until  it  was  impossible  for  a  mouse  to  have  entered  or  left  that 
house  unseen.  Then,  again  I  searched  the  house  myself;  after  which 
Poruma,  Giorgi  and  I  shut  the  doors  of  my  room  and  sat  inside.  Exactly 
the  same  thing  occurred  once  more;  through  that  line  of  men  came  the 
footsteps,  through  my  room  in  precisely  the  same  manner  came  the  tread 
of  a  heavily  booted  man,  then  on  to  the  palm  veranda,  where — in  the  now 
brilliant  illumination — we  could  see  the  depression  at  the  spots  from 
which  the  sound  came,  as  though  a  man  were  stepping  there.  'Well,  what 
do  you  make  of  it?'  I  asked  my  men.  'No  man  living  could  have  passed 
unseen,'  was  the  answer.  'It's  either  the  spirit  of  a  dead  man  or  a  devil.' 
'Spirit  of  dead  man  or  devil,  it's  all  one  to  me,'  I  remarked ;  'if  it's  taken 
a  fancy  to  prance  through  my  room,  it  can  do  so  alone;  shift  my  things 
off  to  the  Siai  for  the  night.' 

"The  following  day  I  sought  out  Armit.  'Do  you  know  anything  about 
spooks?'  I  asked.  'Because  something  of  that  nature  has  taken  a  fancy 
to  Moreton's  house.'  'Moreton  once  or  twice  hinted  at  something  of  the 
sort,'  said  Armit,  'but  he  never  would  speak  out;  I  will  come  and  spend 
tonight  with  you,  and  we  will  investigate.'  Armit  came,  but  nothing  out 
of  the  ordinary  occurred;  nor  did  I  ever  hear  of  it  afterwards,  and  before 
a  year  elapsed  the  house  had  been  pulled  down.  When  Moreton  returned, 
I  related  my  experience  to  him ;  and  he  then  told  me  that  one  night,  when 
he  was  sleeping  in  his  hammock,  he  was  awakened  by  footsteps,  such 
as  I  have  described,  and  upon  his  calling  out  angrily  to  demand  who  was 


making  the  racket,  his  hammock  was  violently  banged  against  the  wall. 
'I  didn't  care  to  say  anything  about  it,'  he  said,  'as  I  was  alone  at  the  time, 
and  didn't  want  to  be  laughed  at.' " 

I  have  told  this  story  for  what  it  is  worth;  I  leave  my  readers,  who  are 
interested  in  the  occult  or  psychical  research,  to  form  what  opinion  they 
choose.  All  I  say  is  that  the  story,  as  I  have  related  it,  is  absolutely  true. 


CASE  NO.   19 

The  Borley  Rectory  Case1 

The  criticism  that  good  accounts  of  haunted  houses  are  a  thing  of  the 
past  cannot  apply  in  this  instance;  for  this  case  is  right  up-to-date,  investi- 
gated from  1929  to  1939  by  100  people  drawn  from  many  walks  of  life: 
university  students,  B.B.C.  officials,  clergymen,  doctors,  scientists,  con- 
sulting engineers,  and  army  men,  etc.,  none  of  whom  were  interested  in 
the  subject  until  they  began  their  investigations  of  what  is  claimed  to  be 
the  best  authenticated  case  of  haunting  in  the  history  of  psychical  research. 

In  this  book,  it  is  impossible  to  do  more  than  sketch  a  bare  outline  of 
the  haunting  of  Borley  Rectory,  and  readers  desiring  the  full  account 
should  consult  Harry  Price's  record. 

In  June,  1929,  Mr.  Price,  after  a  reporter's  statement  had  been  published 
in  the  Daily  Mirror  on  the  10th  of  that  month,  was  asked  by  the  editor 
of  that  paper  to  take  charge  of  the  investigation  of  the  haunting  of  Borley 

Mr.  Price's  first  consideration  was  to  learn  something  of  the  history  of 
the  place.  It  was  built  in  1863,  on  the  foundation  of  two — probably  more — 
earlier  dwellings,  one  of  which,  according  to  tradition,  was  a  monastery. 
Local  legend  declared  that  a  lay  brother  at  the  monastery  and  a  young 
novice  in  the  nunnery  at  Bures  were  caught  in  the  act  of  eloping  by 
other  monks  and  sentenced  to  death.  The  man  was  beheaded  while  the 
woman  was  buried  alive  in  the  walls  of  the  monastery. 

The  Rev.  Henry  Bull  was  the  first  rector,  from  1862  to  1892,  and  was 
succeeded  by  his  son,  the  Rev.  Harry  Bull,  from  1892  to  1927.  The  Rev. 
Guy  E.  Smith  was  rector  from  1928  to  1930,  followed  by  the  Rev.  L.  A. 
Foyster  from  1930  to  1935.  On  account  of  the  strange  happenings  in  the 

1  Price,  Harry,  The  Most  Haunted  House  in  England  (London:  Longmans,  Green  & 
Co.,  Ltd.). 


house,  the  bishop  decided  that  no  more  rectors  should  live  there,  and  in 
1936  the  livings  of  Borley  and  Linton  were  merged  into  one,  the  Rev. 
A.  C.  Henning  acting  as  minister  of  both  parishes.  In  1938  it  was  sold  to 
Captain  W.  H.  Gregson,  in  whose  hands  it  remained  until  it  was  de- 
stroyed by  fire  in  February,  1939. 

From  the  three  surviving  sisters  of  the  Rev.  Harry  Bull,  Mr.  Price 
received  an  account  of  the  hauntings:  bells  were  rung,  articles  mysteri- 
ously disappeared  and  reappeared,  and  the  figure  of  a  nun  was  seen  on 
one  occasion  by  four  persons  collectively.  The  Rev.  L.  A.  Foyster  con- 
tinued the  story:  the  figure  of  the  Rev.  Harry  Bull  was  seen  several  times, 
articles  played  tricks,  crockery  was  smashed,  windows  were  broken,  bells 
were  rung  and  voices  and  footsteps  were  heard.  Once  Mrs.  Foyster  was 
given  a  terrific  blow  in  the  eye  by  an  unseen  assailant  and  on  another 
occasion  struck  on  the  head  by  a  piece  of  metal  thrown  downstairs. 
Unseen  hands  scribbled  messages  on  various  walls,  all  apparently  ad- 
dressed to  Marianne  (Mrs.  Foyster),  as  follows:  "Marianne  Light  Mass 
Prayer,"  "Marianne  Please  Help  Get,"  "Marianne  At  Get  Help  Enfant 
Bottom  Me,"  "Light  in  .  .  .  Write  Prayer  and  O  .  .  .','  "Edwin"  and 
"Get  Light  Mass  and  Prayers  Here." 

Lady  Whitehouse  of  Arthur  Hall,  Sudbury,  and  her  nephew,  Dom 
Richard  Whitehouse,  O.S.B.,  who  had  been  friendly  with  the  Bull  family 
and  various  occupants  of  the  Rectory,  corroborated  the  previous  state- 
ments and  added  a  bit  more:  Lady  Whitehouse's  gloves  and  parasol  had 
jumped  from  a  bed  to  a  dressing-table;  a  brass  stiletto  had  landed  in 
Dom  Richard's  lap;  Mrs.  Foyster,  seriously  ill,  had  been  thrown  out  of 
bed  on  several  occasions;  doors  were  locked  of  their  own  accord  and 
smoke  had  issued  from  a  skirting  board.  "Happening  to  turn  my  eyes," 
Dom  Richard  stated,  "towards  a  bit  of  the  wall  that  jutted  out  from  the 
landing,  I  was  surprised  to  notice  a  fresh  bit  of  writing  on  an  otherwise 
clean  bit  of  the  wall.  The  message,  which  was  scribbled  in  pencil,  but 
quite  legible,  ran  as  follows:  'Get  light  mass  and  prayers,  M.  .  .  .'  A 
little  later,  returning  to  the  spot,  the  word  'here'  was  written  up  quite 
clearly  under  the  other  writing."  Eventually,  Lady  Whitehouse  persuaded 
the  Foysters  to  live  with  her  at  Arthur  Hall. 

From  Mr.  Edward  Cooper,  groom-gardener  at  the  Rectory,  Mr.  Price 


heard,  among  other  things,  the  story  of  a  black  coach  drawn  by  two 
horses,  driven  by  two  figures  wearing  high  top  hats. 

In  June,  1929,  Mr.  Price  and  his  secretary  paid  their  initial  visit  to  the 
Rectory.  They  searched  the  house  from  roof  to  cellar  and  with  Mr.  V.  C. 
Wall  were  speculating  on  a  terrific  crash  that  they  had  just  heard  when, 
"We  descended  by  the  main  staircase  and  had  just  reached  the  hall  when 
another  crash  was  heard  and  we  found  that  a  red  glass  candlestick,  one 
of  a  pair  we  had  just  seen  on  the  mantelpiece  of  the  Blue  Room,  had 
been  hurled  down  the  main  stairs,  had  struck  the  iron  stove  and  finally 
disintegrated  into  a  thousand  fragments  on  the  hall  floor.  Both  Mr.  Wall 
and  I  saw  the  candlestick  hurtle  past  our  heads.  We  at  once  dashed 
upstairs,  made  another  search  and  found  nothing.  We  returned  to  the 
hall  .  .  .  and  the  entire  party  sat  on  the  stairs  .  .  .  just  waiting.  A  few 
minutes  later  we  heard  something  come  rattling  down  the  stairs  .  .  .  and 
in  full  light  the  following  articles  came  tumbling  down  the  stairs:  first 
of  all  some  common  seashore  pebbles,  then  a  piece  of  slate,  then  some 
more  pebbles." 

On  October  13,  1931,  Mr.  Price,  with  Mrs.  Henry  Richards,  Mrs.  A. 
Peel  Goldney  and  Miss  May  Walker,  returned  to  the  Rectory,  still  occu- 
pied by  the  Foyster  family.  The  party  arrived  at  an  appropriate  time 
for  phenomena:  a  glass  of  Chambertin  wine  was  turned  into  black  ink, 
and  an  empty  claret  bottle  was  hurled  down  the  staircase  well,  smashing 
itself  into  bits  at  their  feet;  after  that,  bell-ringing,  taps,  etc.,  were  merely 
an  anticlimax! 

Up  till  May,  1937,  Mr.  Price,  with  an  occasional  visit  to  the  Rectory, 
had  been  receiving  reports  concerning  the  phenomena,  but  on  the  19th 
of  that  month  he  decided  to  take  a  lease  of  the  house  for  one  year  from 
the  Rev.  A.  C.  Henning.  Next,  he  inserted  an  advertisement  in  The 
Times  inviting  intelligent,  critical  and  unbiased  observers  to  join  him 
in  his  investigations.  He  received  about  200  replies,  out  of  which  he 
selected  40 — all  total  strangers.  They  were  provided  with  a  book  of 
instructions  for  their  guidance  should  any  manifestations  occur.  Then 
they  set  to  work  in  couples.  Mr.  Price  and  Mr.  Ellic  Howe,  on  June  2, 
1937,  were  sitting  in  silence  when  they  heard  a  series  of  short,  sharp  taps 
and  a  quarter  of  an  hour  later  were  startled  by  two  loud  "thumps"  that 


"left  nothing  to  the  imagination."  On  June  16,  a  tobacco  tin  was  moved 
three  inches  outside  the  line  chalked  'round  it  and  a  small  box  seven  feet 
from  where  it  had  been  left.  Mr.  Mark  Kerr-Pease,  a  pro-consul  at  Geneva, 
home  on  holiday,  while  taking  his  supper  in  the  pantry  found  that  he 
had  been  locked  in.  Fortunately  for  him  the  key  was  on  the  inside  of  the 
door.  On  June  28,  at  11:40  a.m.,  he  placed  a  screw  on  the  mantelpiece  in 
the  Blue  Room,  ringing  it  very  carefully  with  chalk;  and  at  11:45  a.m., 
glancing  at  the  mantelpiece,  noticed  that  the  screw  had  been  removed 
to  one  side  of  the  chalk,  this  happening  while  he  was  in  the  room  only 
a  few  yards  away.  On  the  walls  pencil  markings  appeared  and  every  one 
was  ringed  and  dated;  yet  daily  new  markings  continued  to  show  up 
before  his  eyes.  On  September  21,  while  on  duty  with  his  cousin,  Mr. 
Rupert  Haig,  a  sack  of  coal  weighing  about  fifty  pounds  was  moved  a 
distance  of  eighteen  inches,  its  original  site  being  indicated  by  a  stain  on 
the  floor. 

On  July  28,  1937,  Professor  C.  E.  M.  Joad,  after  thoroughly  examining 
the  walls,  found  a  mark  that  had  not  been  there  previously. 

So  it  went  on  with  other  observers :  articles  were  removed  outside  their 
chalk  markings,  sounds  of  dragging  footsteps  were  heard,  doors  slammed 
on  windless  days,  new  pencil  lines  appeared  on  walls,  bells  were  rung 
and  keys  were  mysteriously  turned. 

In  October,  1937,  Mr.  S.  H.  Glanville,  his  son  Roger,  Mr.  A.  J.  Cuthbert 
and  Mr.  Mark  Kerr-Pease  decided  to  hold  seances  to  try  the  "spirits." 
They  used  a  planchette,  which  told  them  that  the  nun  whose  body  was 
buried  in  the  Rectory  ground  was  the  cause  of  the  haunting.  She  had 
been  murdered  in  1667  and,  still  earth-bound,  wanted  mass  and  prayers 
said  for  the  benefit  of  her  soul.  They  also  obtained  a  great  deal  of  infor- 
mation concerning  the  lives  of  past  rectors  that  for  obvious  reasons  cannot 
be  revealed. 

Five  months  later,  Miss  Glanville  and  her  brother  tried  the  planchette 
and  this  time  a  new  "communicator"  appeared;  his  name  was  "Sunex 
Amures"  and  he  threatened  to  burn  the  Rectory,  starting  the  fire  in  the 
hall.  On  May  19,  1938,  Mr.  Price's  lease  of  the  Rectory  expired. 

On  February  27,  1939,  exactly  eleven  months  after  the  threat,  the  Rec- 
tory was  gutted  by  fire,  which  started  exactly  as  forecast  by  Sunex  Amures. 

Captain  W.  H.  Gregson,  the  owner  of  the  Rectory  at  the  time  of  the 


fire,  informed  a  newspaperman  that  a  constable  had  seen  "a  woman  in 
grey  and  a  man  wearing  a  bowler  hat"  cross  the  courtyard  in  front  of 
him  about  four  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  fire.  Captain  Gregson  said 
there  was  no  woman  in  the  house  at  the  outbreak;  he  was  quite  alone. 
"The  fire,"  stated  the  Captain,  "was  caused  through  a  big  pile  of  books 
(which  I  was  dusting  and  sorting  in  the  main  hall)  falling  over  on  to  a 
lamp  and  upsetting  it.  The  only  suggestion  of  any  mysterious  influence 
lies  in  the  fact  that  I  stacked  the  books  quite  carefully,  and  that  in  ordinary 
common  sense  they  should  haye  remained  in  their  stack  without  falling 
over  at  all." 

Mr.  Price  summed  up  his  opinion  on  the  Rectory  phenomena  thus: 
".  .  .  Is  Borley  Rectory  haunted  or  is  it  not?  My  answer  to  my  own  ques- 
tion is  'Yes,  decidedly!'  It  is  difficult  to  put  into  cold  print  the  enthusiasm 
with  which  I  record  my  affirmation.  But  then  the  reader  has  not  had  a 
glass  candlestick  hurled  at  him  from  above  when  he  knew  there  was  no 
one  above  to  hurl  it!  The  reader  has  not  seen  two  keys  fall  from  two 
doors  simultaneously,  when  he  was  looking  at  them,  knowing  that  no 
mortal  hand  supplied  the  energy.  The  reader  has  not  interviewed  about 
100  people,  as  I  have,  who  have  experienced  similar  manifestations.  But 
I  will  ask  him  to  weigh  very  carefully  all  the  evidence  submitted  in  my 
monograph  before  he  hastily  gives  his  verdict." 

Mr.  Price  says  regarding  the  explanation  of  the  phenomena,  ".  .  .  the 
spirit  hypothesis  is  the  one  that  best  covers  many  of  the  observed  phe- 
nomena at  Borley  Rectory." 

Chapter  3 


"Only  one  thing  is  certain  about  apparitions,"  wrote  Andrew  Lang, 
"namely,  that  they  do  appear.  They  are  really  perceived."  Probably  that 
is  the  very  point  on  which  the  average  person  would  join  issue  with  him 
and  contend  that  there  are  no  such  things  as  apparitions:  science  has 
explained  them  away.  Yet  strangely  enough,  more  apparitions  are  re- 
ported today  than  ever  before.  Literally,  thousands  of  such  cases  are  on 
record,  first  hand,  well  authenticated  and  documented.  Some  years  ago, 
a  statistical  investigation  revealed  the  surprising  fact  that  approximately 
one  person  in  every  ten  had  (or  thought  he  had)  experienced  some  psy- 
chical phenomenon. 

A  systematic  inquiry  into  phantasmal  appearances  was  instigated  by 
the  S.P.R.  in  1882,  and  Myers,  Gurney,  and  Podmore  embodied  the 
results  in  their  book,  Phantasms  of  the  hiving.  Out  of  5,705  persons 
chosen  at  random,  702  provided  good  cases  that  showed  that  "between 
death  and  apparitions  a  connection  exists  not  due  to  chance  alone."  Later, 
in  1889,  32,000  answers  were  reviewed  on  the  same  subject  by  the  S.P.R. 
and  once  more  chance-coincidence  was  ruled  out  and  the  previous  con- 
clusion confirmed.  The  American  S.P.R.  and  Flammarion,  the  French 
scientist,  conducted  censuses  that  produced  the  same  result. 

What  are  apparitions?  Are  they  hallucinations?  Such  was  the  theory 
put  forward  years  ago  and  still  believed  today.  Or  are  they  due  to  the 
direct  action  of  the  discarnate?  Or  are  they  .  .  .? 

Stories  of  apparitions  are  as  old  as  the  history  of  man,  and  all  the 
ancient  writings — Greek,  Roman,  Jewish,  medieval,  and  oriental — con- 
tain many  accounts  of  them.  They  happen  to  rich  and  poor  alike.  It  is 
known  that  Josephine  appeared  to  Napoleon  at  St.  Helena  warning  him 
of  his  approaching  demise.  Mozart  saw  an  apparition  which  ordered  him 
to  compose  a  Requiem  and  frequendy  came  to  inquire  about  its  progress. 
He  completed  it  in  time  to  be  played  at  his  own  funeral. 

Do  apparitions  occupy  an  objective  area  in  space  or  are  they  merely 



ideas  externalized  by  the  percipient's  mind?  The  old-fashioned  school 
accepted  the  former  theory,  even  though  apparitions  were  seen  in  unusual 
clothes.  The  modern  school  of  psychical  research  accepts  the  latter  theory, 
and  indeed  it  is  the  better  explanation  of  the  two:  it  accounts  for  the 
clothes  as  well.  The  idea  is  that  the  discarnate,  more  or  less  successfully, 
implants  by  the  process  of  telepathy  a  certain  piece  of  information  con- 
cerning himself,  and  the  percipient's  mind  creates  a  more  or  less  veridical 
hallucination.  Apparitions  cannot  be  dismissed  as  fictitious  products  of 
the  imagination  when  it  is  remembered  that  they  often  convey  informa- 
tion found  later  to  be  correct  that  was  not  known  to  the  seer. 

The  public  are  prone  to  confuse  apparitions  with  ghosts,  yet  they  are 
entirely  different  types  of  phenomena.  Ghosts  often  appear  at  the  same 
place  at  regular  intervals,  rarely  conveying  information  or  paying  atten- 
tion to  the  beholder.  Their  visits  seem  futile  and  purposeless,  but  appari- 
tions are  entirely  different:  they  are  seen  once,  very  occasionally  twice, 
then  never  again.  They  impart  information,  sometimes  a  warning  of 
approaching  death,  often  to  inform  of  the  passing  of  an  absent  friend, 
and  occasionally  to  right  a  wrong. 

CASE  NO.  20 

The  Brougham  Case1 
In  December,  1799,  Lord  Brougham,  then  twenty-one  years  of  age,  was 
journeying  in  Sweden  with  some  friends.  He  says: 

"We  set  out  for  Gothenburg,  determining  to  make  for  Norway.  About 
one  o'clock  in  the  morning,  arriving  at  a  decent  inn,  we  decided  to  stop 
for  the  night.  Tired  with  the  cold  of  yesterday,  I  was  glad  to  take  ad- 
vantage of  a  hot  bath  before  I  turned  in,  and  here  a  most  remarkable 
thing  happened  to  me — so  remarkable  that  I  must  tell  the  story  from  the 

'After  I  left  the  high  school,  I  went  with  G.,  my  most  intimate  friend, 
to  attend  the  classes  in  the  university.  There  was  no  divinity  class,  but 
we  frequently  in  our  walks  discussed  and  speculated  upon  many  grave 
subjects — among  others,  on  the  immortality  of  the  soul,  and  on  a  future 
state.  This  question,  and  the  possibility,  I  will  not  say  of  ghosts  walking, 

1  Life  and  Times  of  Lord  Brougham,  201.  Prince,  Dr,  Walter  F.,  Noted  Witnesses 
for  Psychic  Occurrences. 


but  of  the  dead  appearing  to  the  living,  were  subjects  of  much  speculation; 
and  we  actually  committed  the  folly  of  drawing  up  an  agreement  written 
in  our  blood,  to  the  effect  that  whichever  of  us  died  the  first  should  appear 
to  the  other,  and  thus  solve  any  doubts  we  had  entertained  of  the  'life 
after  death.'  After  we  had  finished  our  classes  at  the  college,  G.  went  to 
India,  having  got  an  appointment  there  in  the  civil  service.  He  seldom 
wrote  to  me,  and  after  a  lapse  of  a  few  years  I  had  almost  forgotten  him; 
moreover,  his  family  having  little  connection  with  Edinburgh,  I  seldom 
saw  or  heard  anything  of  them,  or  of  him  through  them,  so  that  all  this 
schoolboy  intimacy  had  died  out  and  I  had  nearly  forgotten  his  existence. 
I  had  taken,  as  I  have  said,  a  warm  bath,  and  while  lying  in  it  and 
enjoying  the  comfort  of  the  heat  after  the  late  freezing  I  had  undergone, 
I  turned  my  head  'round,  looking  towards  the  chair  on  which  I  had  de- 
posited my  clothes,  as  I  was  about  to  get  out  of  the  bath.  On  the  chair 
sat  G.,  looking  calmly  at  me.  How  I  got  out  of  the  bath  I  know  not,  but 
on  recovering  my  senses  I  found  myself  sprawling  on  the  floor.  The 
apparition — or  whatever  it  was — that  had  taken  the  likeness  of  G.,  had 

"This  vision  produced  such  a  shock  that  I  had  no  inclination  to  talk 
about  it  or  to  speak  about  it  even  to  Stuart;  but  the  impression  it  made 
upon  me  was  too  vivid  to  be  easily  forgotten;  and  so  strongly  was  I  af- 
fected by  it  that  I  have  here  written  down  the  whole  story,  with  the 
date,  December  19,  and  all  the  particulars  as  they  are  now  fresh  before 
me.  No  doubt  I  had  fallen  asleep;  and  that  the  appearance  presented  so 
distinctly  to  my  eyes  was  a  dream,  I  cannot  for  a  moment  doubt;  yet 
for  years  I  had  had  no  communication  with  G.,  nor  had  there  been 
anything  to  recall  him  to  my  recollection.  Nothing  had  taken  place  during 
our  Swedish  travels  either  connected  with  G.  or  with  India,  or  with  any- 
thing relating  to  him  or  to  any  member  of  his  family.  I  recollected 
quickly  enough  our  old  discussion  and  the  bargain  we  had  made.  I  could 
not  discharge  from  my  mind  the  impression  that  G.  must  have  died, 
and  that  his  appearance  to  me  was  to  be  received  by  me  as  proof  of  a 
future  state;  yet  all  the  while  I  felt  convinced  that  the  whole  was  a  dream; 
and  so  painfully  vivid,  so  unfading  was  the  impression,  that  I  could  not 
bring  myself  to  talk  of  it  or  to  make  the  slightest  allusion  to  it." 


Lord  Brougham  afterwards  wrote  that  "Soon  after  my  return  to  Edin- 
burgh, there  arrived  a  letter  from  India  announcing  G.'s  death,  and 
stating  that  he  had  died  on  December  19." 

case  no.  21 
The  Lanne  Case1 
The  unusual  feature  of  this  interesting  case  is  that  it  contains  the  in- 
stance of  a  warning  from  a  person  recently  deceased  to  one  who  was  about 
to  die,  and  the  percipient  was  totally  unaware  of  the  death  of  the  com- 

"On  last  November  27,  an  old  woman  named  Mme  Guerin,  sixty-six 
years  of  age,  living  at  No.  34  (fourth  story)  in  the  street  Fosses-du-Temple, 
was  slightly  ill  with  what  the  doctor  thought  was  a  slight  attack  of  in- 
digestion. It  was  five  o'clock  in  the  morning;  her  daughter,  a  widow 
named  Mme  Guerard,  had  risen  early,  lit  the  lamp  and  was  working  at 
the  fire  by  her  mother's  bedside.  While  working  the  daughter  said  to  her 
mother,  'Why,  Mme  Lanne  must  have  come  back  from  the  country.' 
(This  Mme  Lanne,  a  good-natured  stout  woman  of  sixty,  had  retired  from 
<a  grocery  business  at  the  corner  of  the  streets  St.  Louis  and  St.  Claude 
with  an  income  of  40,000  francs  and  lived  on  the  first  floor  in  the  Boule- 
vard Beaumarchais  in  a  new  house.)  Mme  Guerard  added,  'I  must  go 
to  see  her  today.'  'No  use  to  do  that,'  said  her  mother. 

"'Why,  Mother?' 

"'She  died  an  hour  ago.' 

"  'Why,  Mother,  what  do  you  mean?  Are  you  dreaming?' 

'"No,  I  am  quite  awake.  I  have  not  slept,  but  as  four  o'clock  struck 
I  saw  Mme  Lanne  pass  and  she  said  to  me,  "I  am  going,  are  you 
coming?" ' 

"The  daughter  thought  that  her  mother  had  dreamed  it  and  later  in 
the  day  went  to  see  Mme  Lanne,  only  to  find  that  she  had  died  at  4  a.m. 

"The  same  evening  Mme  Guerin  vomited  blood  and  the  doctor  said, 
'She  will  not  last  twenty-four  hours.'  The  next  day  at  noon  she  had  a 
second  attack  and  died. 

1  Hugo,  Victor,  Choses  Vues. 


"I  knew  Mme  Guenn,  and  the  story  was  told  me  by  Mme  Guerard,  a 
pious,  good  woman." 

case  no.  22 
The  Marry  at  Case1 
Florence  Marryat,  in  her  biography  of  her  father,  Captain  Frederick 
Marryat  (1792-1848),  the  great  writer  of  novels  of  the  sea,  gives  this  inci- 
dent as  she  heard  it  from  him,  which  happened  towards  the  end  of  his  life : 

"The  last  fifteen  years  of  my  father's  life  were  passed  on  his  own  estate 
at  Langham,  in  Norfolk,  and  among  his  country  friends  were  Sir  Charles 
and  Lady  Townshend,  of  Raynham  Hall.  At  the  time  I  speak  of,  the 
title  and  property  had  lately  changed  hands,  and  the  new  baronet  had 
repapered,  painted,  and  furnished  the  Hall  throughout,  and  come  down 
with  his  wife  and  a  large  party  of  friends  to  take  possession.  But  to  their 
annoyance,  soon  after  their  arrival  rumors  arose  that  the  house  was 
haunted,  and  their  guests,  one  and  all  (like  those  in  the  parable),  began 
to  make  excuses  to  go  home  again.  It  was  all  on  account  of  a  Brown  Lady, 
whose  portrait  hung  in  one  of  the  bedrooms,  and  in  which  she  was  repre- 
sented as  wearing  a  brown  satin  dress  with  yellow  trimmings,  and  a  ruff 
around  her  throat — a  very  harmless,  innocent-looking  young  woman.  But 
they  all  declared  they  had  seen  her  walking  about  the  house — some  in  the 
corridor,  some  in  their  bedrooms,  others  in  the  lower  premises,  and  neither 
guests  nor  servants  would  remain  in  the  Hall.  The  baronet  was  naturally 
very  much  annoyed  about  it  and  confided  his  trouble  to  my  father,  and 
my  father  was  indignant  at  the  trick  he  believed  had  been  played  upon 
him.  There  was  a  great  deal  of  smuggling  and  poaching  in  Norfolk  at 
that  period,  as  he  knew  well,  being  a  magistrate  of  the  county,  and  he 
felt  sure  that  some  of  these  depredators  were  trying  to  frighten  the 
Townshends  away  from  the  Hall  again.  So  he  asked  his  friends  to  let  him 
stay  with  them  and  sleep  in  the  haunted  chamber,  and  he  felt  sure  he 
could  rid  them  of  the  nuisance.  They  accepted  his  offer,  and  he  took 
possession  of  the  room  in  which  the  portrait  of  the  apparition  hung,  and 
in  which  she  had  often  been  seen,  and  slept  each  night  with  a  loaded 
revolver  under  his  pillow.  For  two  days,  however,  he  saw  nothing,  and 

1  Prince,  Dr.  Walter  F.,  Noted  Witnesses  for  Psychic  Occurrences,  164-66. 


the  third  was  to  be  the  limit  of  his  stay.  On  the  third  night,  however, 
two  young  men  (nephews  of  the  baronet)  knocked  at  his  door  as  he 
was  undressing  to  go  to  bed,  and  asked  him  to  step  over  to  their  room 
(which  was  at  the  other  end  of  the  corridor),  and  give  them  his  opinion 
of  a  new  gun  just  arrived  from  London.  My  father  was  in  his  shirt  and 
trousers,  but  as  the  hour  was  late,  and  everybody  had  retired  to  rest  except 
themselves,  he  prepared  to  accompany  them  as  he  was.  As  they  were 
leaving  the  room,  he  caught  up  his  revolver,  'in  case  we  meet  the  Brown 
Lady,'  he  said,  laughing.  When  the  inspection  of  the  gun  was  over,  the 
young  men  in  the  same  spirit  declared  they  would  accompany  my  father 
back  again,  'in  case  you  meet  the  Brown  Lady,'  they  repeated,  laughing 
also.  The  three  gentlemen  therefore  returned  in  company. 

"The  corridor  was  long  and  dark,  for  the  lights  had  been  extinguished, 
but  as  they  reached  the  middle  of  it  they  saw  the  glimmer  of  a  lamp 
coming  towards  them  from  the  other  end.  'One  of  the  ladies  going  to 
visit  the  nurseries,'  whispered  the  young  Townshends  to  my  father.  Now, 
the  bedroom  doors  in  that  corridor  faced  each  other,  and  each  room  had 
a  double  door  with  a  space  between,  as  is  the  case  in  many  old-fashioned 
country  houses.  My  father  (as  I  have  said)  was  in  shirt  and  trousers 
only,  and  his  native  modesty  made  him  feel  so  uncomfortable,  so  he 
slipped  within  one  of  the  outer  doors  (his  friends  following  his  example), 
in  order  to  conceal  himself  until  the  lady  should  have  passed  by.  I  have 
heard  him  describe  how  he  watched  her  approaching  nearer  and  nearer, 
through  the  chink  of  the  door,  until,  as  she  was  close  enough  for  him 
to  distinguish  the  colors  and  style  of  her  costume,  he  recognized  the 
figure  as  the  facsimile  of  the  portrait  of  'The  Brown  Lady.'  He  had  his 
finger  on  the  trigger  of  his  revolver,  and  was  about  to  demand  it  to  stop 
and  give  the  reason  for  its  presence  there,  when  the  figure  halted  of  its 
own  accord  before  the  door  behind  which  he  stood,  and,  holding  the 
lighted  lamp  she  carried  to  her  features,  deliberately  grinned  at  him.  This 
act  so  infuriated  my  father,  who  was  anything  but  lamb-like  in  disposition, 
that  he  sprang  into  the  corridor  with  a  bound,  and  discharged  the 
revolver  right  in  her  face.  The  figure  instantly  disappeared — the  figure  at 
which  for  the  space  of  several  minutes  three  men  had  been  looking  to- 
gether— and  the  bullet  passed  through  the  outer  door  of  the  room  on  the 
opposite  side  of  the  corridor  and  lodged  in  the  panel  of  the  inner  door. 


My  father  never  attempted  again  to  interfere  with  the  Brown  Lady,  and  I 
have  heard  that  she  haunts  the  premises  to  this  day.  That  she  did  so  at  the 
time  there  is  no  shadow  of  doubt." 

Sir  Charles  Townshend,  proprietor  of  Raynham  Hall,  told  Miss  Lucia 
C.  Stone  that  "I  cannot  but  believe,  for  she  (the  Brown  Lady)  ushered  me 
into  my  room  last  night."  Miss  Stone  also  reported  that  Colonel  Loftus, 
a  cousin  of  Sir  Charles,  saw  the  apparition  while  staying  at  the  Hall. 
According  to  the  Rev.  W.  P.  M.  McLean,  rector  of  West  Raynham,  the 
apparition  was  also  seen  in  1903. 

Note. — See  also  Case  No.  36,  page  76. 

CASE  NO.  23 

The  Bellamy  Case1 

"When  she  was  a  schoolgirl  my  wife  made  a  pact  with  one  of  her  com- 
rades that  the  one  who  died  first  should  appear  to  the  surviving  one, 
God  willing.  In  1874  my  wife,  who  had  neither  seen  her  school  friend 
nor  heard  of  her,  learned  of  her  death.  This  news  reminded  her  of  the 
compact  they  had  made  and  she  then  began  to  dwell  upon  it  and  spoke 
of  it  to  me.  I  knew  of  this  agreement  with  my  wife,  but  had  never  seen  a 
photograph  of  her  friend,  nor  heard  anything  concerning  her. 

"One  or  two  nights  afterwards  we  were  sleeping  quietly;  a  bright  fire 
shone  in  the  room  and  there  was  a  lighted  candle.  I  awakened  suddenly 
and  saw  a  lady  seated  beside  the  bed  in  which  my  wife  was  sleeping 
deeply.  I  sat  up  in  bed  and  gazed  at  her.  I  saw  her  so  clearly  that  I  can 
still  remember  form  and  attitude.  If  I  had  an  artist's  skill  I  could  paint  her 
likeness  upon  canvas.  I  remember  that  I  was  struck  particularly  with  the 
careful  way  in  which  her  hair  was  dressed;  it  was  arranged  with  a  certain 
elegance.  I  cannot  say  how  long  I  sat  gazing  at  her,  but  as  soon  as  this 
odd  phantom  vanished  I  got  up  out  of  bed  to  see  if  the  garments  hung 
over  the  bed  had  caused  some  optical  illusion.  But  there  was  nothing  in 
my  line  of  vision  between  me  and  the  wall.  Since  I  could  not  think  it  a 
hallucination,  I  did  not  doubt  that  I  had  really  seen  an  apparition. 

"I  got  back  into  bed  and  remained  there  until  my  wife  awakened, 
some  hours  afterwards.  Only  then  did  I  describe  to  her  the  face  which  I 
had  seen.  Complexion,  stature,  etc. — all  in  exact  accordance  with  my  wife's 

1  Myers,  F.  W.  H.,  Human  Personality  (London:  Longmans,  Green  &  Co.),  II,  350. 


recollection  of  her  childhood  friend.  I  asked  my  wife  if  there  was  anything 
particularly  striking  in  her  friend's  appearance;  she  answered  at  once, 
'Yes,  at  school  we  used  to  tease  her  about  her  hair,  which  she  always 
arranged  with  special  care.'  It  was  precisely  this  which  had  struck  me. 

"I  must  add  that  I  have  never  seen  an  apparition  before  this  and  have 
not  since. 

"The  Rev.  Arthur  Bellamy, 

CASE  NO.  24 

The  Rosa  Case1 
This  case,  guaranteed  by  Harriet  Hosmer,  the  first  prominent  American 
woman  sculptor,  occurred  while  she  was  studying  her  art  in  Italy  and 
was  published  in  the  Atlantic  Monthly  of  May,  1862,  and  later  in  the 
Phantasms  of  the  Living: 

"An  Italian  girl  named  Rosa  was  in  my  employ  for  some  time,  but  was 
finally  obliged  to  return  home  to  her  sister  on  account  of  confirmed  ill- 
health.  When  I  took  my  customary  exercise  on  horseback  I  frequently 
called  to  see  her.  On  one  of  the  occasions  I  called  about  6  p.m.,  and  found 
her  brighter  than  I  had  seen  her  for  some  time  past.  I  had  long  relin- 
quished hopes  of  her  recovery,  but  there  was  nothing  in  her  appearance 
that  gave  me  the  impression  of  immediate  danger.  I  left  her  with  the 
expectation  of  calling  to  see  her  again  many  times.  She  expressed  a  wish  to 
have  a  bottle  of  a  certain  kind  of  wine,  which  I  promised  to  bring  her 
myself  next  morning. 

"During  the  remainder  of  the  evening  I  do  not  recollect  that  Rosa  was 
in  my  thoughts  after  I  parted  from  her.  I  retired  to  rest  in  good  health 
and  in  a  quiet  frame  of  mind.  But  I  woke  from  a  sound  sleep  with  an 
oppressive  feeling  that  someone  was  in  the  room.  I  reflected  that  no 
one  could  get  in  except  my  maid,  who  had  the  key  of  one  of  the  two 
doors  of  my  room — both  of  which  doors  were  locked.  I  was  able  dimly 
to  distinguish  the  furniture  in  the  room.  My  bed  was  in  the  middle  of  the 
room  with  a  screen  around  the  foot  of  it.  Thinking  someone  might  be 
behind  the  screen  I  said,  'Who's  there?'  but  got  no  answer.  Just  then  the 
clock  in  the  adjoining  room  struck  five;  and  at  that  moment  I  saw  the 

1  Prince,  Dr.  Walter  F.,  Noted  Witnesses  for  Psychic  Occurrences,  249-50. 


figure  of  Rosa  standing  by  my  bedside;  and  in  some  way,  though  I  could 
not  venture  to  say  it  was  through  the  medium  of  speech,  the  impression 
was  conveyed  to  me  from  her  of  these  v/ords :  ' Adesso  son  jelice,  son  con- 
tents*! And  with  that  the  figure  vanished. 

"At  the  breakfast  table  I  said  to  the  friend  who  shared  the  apartment 
with  me,  'Rosa  is  dead.'  'What  do  you  mean  by  that?'  she  inquired; 
'you  told  me  she  seemed  better  when  you  called  to  see  her  yesterday.'  I 
related  the  occurrence  of  the  morning,  and  told  her  that  I  had  a  strong 
impression  Rosa  was  dead.  She  laughed,  and  said  I  had  just  dreamed  it  all. 
I  assured  her  that  I  was  thoroughly  awake.  She  continued  to  jest  on  the 
subject,  and  slightly  annoyed  me  by  her  persistence  in  believing  it  a  dream, 
when  I  was  perfectly  sure  of  having  been  wide  awake.  To  settle  the 
question  I  summoned  a  messenger,  and  sent  him  to  inquire  how  Rosa 
died.  He  returned  with  the  ansv/er  that  she  died  that  morning  at  five 

"I  was  living  at  the  Via  Babuino  at  the  time." 

case  no.  25 
The  Russell  Case1 
This  case  was  sent  to  Professor  Adams  of  Cambridge,  Massachusetts, 
who  in  turn  forwarded  it  to  F.  W.  H.  Myers: 

"St.  Luke's  Church, 
San  Francisco, 
September  11,  1890. 

"Some  weeks  ago  our  choir  leader,  a  man  robust  in  health  and  of  a 
most  skeptical  turn  of  mind,  saw  positively  the  apparition  of  one  of  his 
singers  who  had  just  died. 

"Mr.  Russell,  the  bass  of  the  choir,  had  a  stroke  of  apoplexy  in  the 
street,  on  a  certain  Friday  at  ten  o'clock;  he  died  in  his  home  at  eleven 
o'clock.  My  wife,  learning  of  his  death,  sent  my  brother-in-law  to  the 
home  of  Mr.  Reeves,  the  choir  leader,  to  discuss  the  music  to  be  played  at 
his  funeral.  He  arrived  at  the  choir  leader's  house  at  about  half  past  one. 
Suddenly  he  heard  an  exclamation  in  the  vestibule.  Someone  had  just 
cried  out,  'Good  God!'  In  the  middle  of  the  stairway,  sitting  on  a  step,  was 
the  choir  leader,  in  his  shirt  sleeves,  showing  signs  of  great  terror. 

1  Myers,  F.  W.  H.,  Human  Personality,  II,  45. 


"When  Mr.  Reeves  had  come  out  of  his  room,  he  had  seen  Mr.  Russell 
standing  on  the  stairway,  one  hand  on  his  forehead  and  the  other  holding 
a  roll  of  music  out  to  him.  The  choir  leader  went  towards  him,  but  the 
phantom  vanished.  It  was  then  that  he  uttered  the  exclamation  mentioned 

"He  knew  nothing  of  Mr.  Russell's  death. 

"This  is  the  most  authentic  ghost-story  that  I  have  ever  heard.  I  know 
all  these  persons  very  well  and  can  swear  to  their  sincerity.  I  have  no 
doubt  that  the  choir  leader  saw  something,  subjectively  or  objectively; 
it  made  him  ill  for  several  days,  in  spite  of  his  usual  fine  health. 

"To  state  my  own  personal  conviction,  Mr.  Russell  was  a  man  of  very 
regular  habits,  very  loyal  and  very  dependable;  he  had  sung  in  the  choir 
for  years  without  pay;  his  last  thoughts  must  have  been:  'How  shall  I  let 
the  choir  leader  know  that  I  cannot  rehearse  tomorrow  evening?'  He 
died  in  an  hour,  without  having  regained  consciousness. 

"The  attitude  in  which  he  showed  himself  bears  out  this  hypothesis; 
it  indicated  his  malady  (pain  in  the  head)  and  his  desire  to  perform  his 

"W.  M.  W.  Davis, 

A  reporter  of  The  San  Francisco  Chronicle  later  published  Mr.  Reeves's 
version  of  the  incident: 

"On  Friday  morning  Edwin  Russell,  a  well-known  Englishman,  had 
reached  the  corner  of  Stutter  and  Mason  streets,  when  he  had  a  stroke  of 
apoplexy  and  died  before  noon.  He  had  lived  in  our  city  for  ten  years  and 
was  respected  in  the  commercial  world.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
Protestant  Episcopal  Church  and  had  a  magnificent  bass  voice.  For  this 
reason  he  was  a  great  asset  to  the  choir  of  St.  Luke's  Church,  and  was  in 
constant  touch  with  the  Rev.  W.  M.  W.  Davis,  rector  of  the  church,  and 
with  Harry  Reeves,  the  new  choir  leader. 

"It  was  to  Mr.  Reeves  that  the  sensational  thing  happened  which 
people  are  talking  about.  I  interviewed  him  at  the  home  of  his  sister, 
Mrs.  Cavanagh,  in  California  Street,  and  he  gave  me  the  following 
account : 

"  'I  had  seen  Russell  on  the  Saturday  before  his  death.  He  had  come 


to  rehearse.  I  had  asked  him  where  I  might  find  a  good  cigar  and  he  had 
taken  me  to  a  good  cigar  store.  Then  I  invited  him  to  my  home — or, 
rather,  to  my  sister's  home — to  rehearse  and  we  arranged  to  meet  on  the 
following  Saturday.  I  thought  no  more  of  the  matter  until  Friday  after- 
noon. As  is  my  custom  to  look  through  my  volumes  of  music  one  or  two 
days  beforehand  for  selection  to  be  sung  on  Sunday,  I  chose  two 
Te  Deums.  I  left  my  room  and  saw  on  the  landing,  which  was  half  lighted 
as  it  is  now,  my  friend  Mr.  Russell,  so  real,  so  alive,  that  I  went  forward  at 
once  to  give  him  my  hand  in  welcome. 

"  'He  had  a  roll  of  music  in  one  hand  and  the  other  was  before  his 
face.  It  was  really  he.  I  am  absolutely  sure  of  it.  Well,  he  melted  away  like 
a  cloud  which  vanishes  into  thin  air. 

"  'I  was  about  to  speak  to  him  but  was  struck  dumb.  I  sank  down 
against  the  wall,  crying  out,  "Oh,  my  God!"  My  sister,  my  niece,  and 
another  person  came  up.  My  niece  asked,  "Uncle  Henry,  what's  the 
matter?"  I  wished  to  explain  but  could  not  speak.  Then  my  niece  said  to 
me,  "Did  you  know  that  Mr.  Russell  is  dead?"  I  was  literally  stupefied 
by  this.  I  saw  this  Russell  three  hours  after  his  death  as  well  as  I  see  you 
in  that  armchair.' " 

case  no.  26 
The  Court  Dress  Case1 

"My  mother  married  at  a  very  early  age,  without  the  consent  of  her 
parents.  My  grandmother  vowed  that  she  would  never  see  her  daughter 
again.  A  few  weeks  after  her  marriage  my  mother  was  awakened  about 
2  a.m.  by  a  loud  knocking  at  the  door.  To  her  great  surprise  my  father 
did  not  wake.  The  knocking  was  resumed;  my  mother  spoke  to  my 
father,  but,  as  he  still  slept,  she  got  up,  opened  the  window  and  looked  out, 
when  to  her  amazement  she  saw  her  mother  in  full  court  dress,  standing 
on  the  step  and  looking  up  at  her.  My  mother  called  to  her,  but  my 
grandmother,  frowning  and  shaking  her  head,  disappeared. 

"At  this  moment  my  father  awoke  and  my  mother  told  him  what  had 
happened.  He  went  to  the  window  but  saw  nothing.  My  mother  was  sure 
that  my  grandmother,  even  at  that  late  hour,  had  come  to  forgive  her  and 
entreated  my  father  to  let  her  in.  He  went  down  and  opened  the  door  but 

1  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  I,  126. 


nobody  was  there.  He  assured  my  mother  that  she  had  been  dreaming 
and  she  at  last  believed  it  was  so. 

"The  next  morning  the  servants  were  questioned,  but  they  had  heard 
nothing  and  the  matter  was  dismissed  from  the  minds  of  my  parents  till 
the  evening,  when  they  heard  that  my  grandmother  had  been  in  full 
court  dress  at  a  ball  the  night  before — I  think  at  Kensington  Palace,  but 
of  this  I  am  not  sure — that,  feeling  unwell,  she  had  returned  home  and 
after  an  hour's  illness  had  died  at  2  a.m.  She  had  not  mentioned  my 
mother's  name  during  her  short  illness." 

case  no.  27 
The  Harford  Case1 

;     "12th  May,  1884. 

"When  my  old  friend  John  Harford,  who  had  been  a  Wesleyan  lay 
preacher  for  half  a  century,  lay  dying  in  June  of  1851,  he  sent  for  me, 
and  when  I  went  to  his  bedside  he  said,  'I  am  glad  you  have  come,  friend 
Happerfield;  I  cannot  die  easy  until  il  am  assured  that  my  wife  will  be 
looked  after  and  cared  for  until  she  may  be  called  to  join  me  in  the  other 
world.  I  have  known  you  for  many  years,  and  now  want  you  to  promise 
to  look  to  her  well-being  during  the  little  time  which  she  may  remain 
after  me.'  I  said,  'I  will  do  what  I  can,  so  let  your  mind  be  at  rest.'  He  said, 
'I  can  trust  you,'  and  soon  after,  on  the  20th  day  of  the  month,  he  fell 
asleep  in  the  Lord. 

"I  administered  his  affairs,  and  when  all  was  settled  there  remained 
a  balance  in  favor  of  the  widow,  but  not  sufficient  to  keep  her.  I  put  her 
into  a  small  cottage,  interested  some  friends  in  her  case,  and  saw  that 
she  was  comfortable.  After  a  while  Mrs.  Harford's  grandson  came  and 
proposed  to  take  the  old  lady  to  his  house  in  Gloucestershire,  where  he 
held  a  situation  as  schoolmaster.  The  request  seemed  reasonable.  I  con- 
sented, providing  she  was  quite  willing  to  go;  and  the  young  man  took 
her  accordingly.  Time  passed  on.  We  had  no  correspondence.  I  had  done 
my  duty  to  my  dying  friend,  and  there  the  matter  rested. 

"But  one  night  as  I  lay  in  bed  wakeful,  towards  morning,  turning  over 
business  and  other  matters  in  my  mind,  I  suddenly  became  conscious  that 
someone  was  in  the  room.  Then  the  curtain  of  my  bed  was  drawn,  and 

1  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  IV,  29. 


there  stood  my  departed  friend,  gazing  upon  me  with  a  sorrowful  and 
troubled  look.  I  felt  no  fear,  but  surprise  and  astonishment  kept  me 
silent.  He  spoke  to  me  distinctly  and  audibly  in  his  own  familiar  voice, 
and  said,  'Friend  Happerfield,  I  have  come  to  you  because  you  have  not 
kept  your  promise  to  see  my  wife.  She  is  in  trouble  and  in  want.'  I  assured 
him  that  I  had  done  my  duty  and  was  not  aware  that  she  was  in  any 
difficulty,  and  that  I  would  see  about  her  first  thing  and  have  her  attended 
to.  He  looked  satisfied  and  vanished  from  my  sight. 

"I  awoke  my  wife,  who  was  asleep  at  my  side,  and  told  her  what  had 
occurred.  Sleep  departed  from  us  and,  on  rising,  the  first  thing  I  did  was 
to  write  the  grandson.  In  reply  he  informed  me  that  he  had  been  deprived 
of  his  situation  through  persecution,  and  was  in  great  straits,  insomuch 
that  he  had  decided  on  sending  his  grandmother  to  the  Union.  Forthwith 
I  sent  some  money  and  a  request  to  have  the  old  lady  forwarded  to  me. 

"She  came,  and  was  again  provided  with  a  home  and  had  her  wants 
supplied.  These  are  the  circumstances  as  they  occurred.  I  am  not  a  nervous 
man;  nor  am  I  superstitious.  At  the  time  my  old  friend  came  to  me  I 
was  wide  awake,  collected,  and  calm.  The  above  is  very  correct  and  not 

"C.  Happerfield." 

case  no.  28 
The  Madeira  Case1 
Mr.  Edmond  Gurney  of  the  S.P.R.  investigated  this  case  and  saw  both 
percipient  and  witness,  receiving  full  viva  voce  accounts  from  each.  The 
incident  is  told  in  two  letters : 

"September  15, 

"The  facts  are  simply  these.  I  was  sleeping  in  a  hotel  in  Madeira  early 
in  1885.  It  was  a  bright  moonlight  night.  The  windows  were  open  and 
the  blinds  were  up.  I  felt  someone  was  in  my  room.  On  opening  my  eyes, 
I  saw  a  young  fellow  about  twenty-five,  dressed  in  flannels,  standing  at 
the  side  of  my  bed  and  pointing  with  the  first  finger  of  his  right  hand 
to  the  place  I  was  lying  in.  I  lay  there  for  some  seconds  to  convince 
myself  of  someone  being  really  there.  I  then  sat  up  and  looked  at  him. 
l  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  V,  416. 


1  saw  his  features  so  plainly  that  I  recognized  them  in  a  photograph  which 
was  shown  me  some  days  after.  I  asked  him  what  he  wanted;  he  did 
not  speak,  but  his  eyes  and  hand  seemed  to  tell  me  I  was  in  his  place. 
As  he  did  not  answer  I  struck  out  at  him  with  my  fist  as  I  sat  up,  but 
did  not  reach  him,  and  as  I  was  going  to  spring  out  of  bed  he  slowly 
vanished  through  the  door,  which  was  shut,  keeping  his  eyes  upon  me 
all  the  time. 

"Upon  inquiry  I  found  that  the  young  fellow  who  appeared  to  me  died 
in  the  room  I  was  occupying. 

"John  E.  Husbands." 

"Church  Terrace, 

October  8,  1886. 
"The  figure  that  Mr.  Husbands  saw  while  in  Madeira  was  that  of  a 
young  fellow  who  died  unexpectedly  some  months  previously,  in  the 
room  which  Mr.  Husbands  was  occupying.  Curiously  enough,  Mr.  Hus- 
bands had  never  heard  of  him  or  his  death.  He  told  me  the  story  the 
morning  after  he  had  seen  the  figure,  and  I  recognized  the  young  fellow 
from  the  description.  It  impressed  me  very  much,  but  I  did  not  mention 
it  to  him  or  anyone.  I  loitered  about  until  I  heard  Mr.  Husbands  tell  the 
same  story  to  my  brother;  we  left  Mr.  Husbands  and  said  simultaneously, 

'He  has  seen  Mr.  D .' 

"No  more  was  said  on  the  subject  for  days;  then  I  abruptly  showed 
him  the  photograph.  Mr.  Husbands  said  to  me  at  once,  'This  is  the 
young  fellow  who  appeared  to  me  the  other  night,  but  he  was  dressed  dif- 
ferently'— describing  a  dress  he  often  wore— 'cricket  suit  (or  tennis) 
fastened  at  the  neck  with  a  sailor  knot.'  I  must  say  Mr.  Husbands  is  a  most 
practical  man,  and  the  very  last  one  would  expect  a  'spirit'  to  visit. 

"K.  Falkener." 

Mr.  Gurney  interviewed  Mr.  Husbands  and  Miss  Falkener  and  summed 
them  up:  "They  are  both  thoroughly  practical  and  as  far  removed  as 
possible  from  a  superstitious  love  of  marvels.  ...  So  far  as  I  could  judge 
Mr.  Husbands'  view  on  himself  is  entirely  correct — that  he  is  the  last 
person  to  give  a  spurious  importance  to  anything  that  might  befall  him, 


or  to  allow  facts  to  be  distorted  by  imagination.  As  will  be  seen,  his 
account  of  his  vision  preceded  any  knowledge  on  his  part  of  the  death 
which  had  occurred  in  the  room." 

CASE  NO.  29 

The  St.  Louis  Case1 
This  account  was  sent  to  the  American  Society  for  Psychical  Research 

by  Mr.  F.  G of  Boston.  Professor  Josiah  Royce  and  Dr.  Richard 

Hodgson  knew  him  well  and  vouched  for  his  high  character: 

"Sir:  "11th  January,  1888. 

"Replying  to  the  recently  published  request  of  your  Society  for 
actual  occurrences  of  psychical  phenomena,  I  respectfully  submit  the  fol- 
lowing remarkable  occurrence  to  the  consideration  of  your  distinguished 
Society,  with  the  assurance  that  the  event  made  a  more  powerful  impres- 
sion on  my  mind  than  the  combined  incidents  of  my  whole  life.  I  have 
never  mentioned  it  outside  my  family  and  a  few  intimate  friends,  know- 
ing well  that  few  would  believe  it,  or  else  ascribe  it  to  some  disordered 
state  of  my  mind  at  the  time;  but  I  know  well  I  never  was  in  better  health 
or  possessed  a  clearer  head  and  mind  than  at  the  time  it  occurred. 

"In  1867,  my  only  sister,  a  young  lady  of  eighteen  years,  died  suddenly 
of  cholera  in  St.  Louis,  Mo.  My  attachment  for  her  was  very  strong,  and 
the  blow  a  severe  one  to  me.  A  year  or  so  after  her  death  the  writer 
became  a  commercial  traveller,  and  it  was  in  1876,  while  on  one  of  my 
western  trips,  that  the  event  occurred. 

"I  had  'drummed'  the  city  of  St.  Joseph,  Mo.,  and  had  gone  to  my 
room  at  the  Pacific  House  to  send  in  my  orders,  which  were  unusually 
large  ones,  so  that  I  was  in  a  very  happy  frame  of  mind  indeed.  My 
thoughts,  of  course,  were  about  these  orders,  knowing  how  pleased  my 
house  would  be  at  my  success.  I  had  not  been  thinking  of  my  late  sister, 
or  in  any  manner  reflecting  on  the  past.  The  hour  was  high  noon,  and 
the  sun  was  shining  cheerfully  into  my  room.  While  busily  smoking  a 
cigar  and  writing  out  my  orders,  I  suddenly  became  conscious  that  some- 
one was  sitting  on  my  left  with  one  arm  resting  on  the  table.  Quick  as 
a  flash  I  turned  and  distinctly  saw  the  form  of  my  dead  sister,  and  for  a 

i  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  VI,  17. 


brief  second  or  so  looked  her  squarely  in  the  face;  and  so  sure  was  I  that  it 
was  she,  that  I  sprang  forward  in  delight,  calling  her  by  name,  and  as 
I  did  so  the  apparition  instantly  vanished.  Naturally,  I  was  starded  and 
dumbfounded,  almost  doubting  my  senses;  but  with  the  cigar  in  my 
mouth,  and  pen  in  hand,  with  the  ink  still  moist  on  my  letter,  I  satisfied 
myself  that  I  had  not  been  dreaming  and  was  wide  awake.  I  was  near 
enough  to  touch  her,  had  it  been  a  physical  possibility,  and  noted  her 
features,  expression,  and  details  of  dress,  etc.  She  appeared  as  if  alive. 
Her  eyes  looked  kindly  and  perfectly  naturally  into  mine.  Her  skin  was 
so  lifelike  that  I  could  see  the  glow  or  moisture  on  its  surface,  and,  on 
the  whole,  there  was  no  change  in  her  appearance  otherwise  than  when 

"Now  comes  the  most  remarkable  confirmation  of  my  statement,  which 
cannot  be  doubted  by  those  who  know  what  I  state  actually  occurred. 
This  visitation,  or  whatever  you  may  call  it,  so  impressed  me  that  I  took 
the  next  train  home,  and  in  the  presence  of  my  parents,  and  others,  I 
related  what  had  occurred.  My  father,  a  man  of  rare  good  sense  and 
very  practical,  was  inclined  to  ridicule  me,  as  he  saw  how  earnestly  I 
believed  what  I  had  stated;  but  he,  too,  was  amazed  when  later  on  I  told 
them  of  a  bright  red  line  or  scratch  on  the  right  hand  side  of  my  sister's 
face,  which  I  distinctly  had  seen.  When  I  mentioned  this  my  mother 
rose  trembling  to  her  feet  and  nearly  fainted  away,  and  as  soon  as  she 
sufficiently  recovered  her  self-possession,  with  tears  streaming  down  her 
face  she  exclaimed  that  I  had  indeed  seen  my  sister,  as  no  living  mortal 
but  herself  was  aware  of  the  scratch,  which  she  had  accidentally  made 
while  doing  some  little  act  of  kindness  after  my  sister's  death.  She  said 
she  well  remembered  how  pained  she  was  to  think  that  she  should  have 
unintentionally  marred  the  features  of  her  dead  daughter  and,  un- 
known to  all,  how  she  had  carefully  obliterated  all  traces  of  the  slight 
scratch  with  the  aid  of  powder,  etc.,  and  that  she  had  never  mentioned 
it  to  a  human  being  from  that  day  to  this.  In  proof,  neither  my  father 
nor  any  of  our  family  had  detected  it  and  positively  were  unaware  of  the 
incident,  yet  /  saw  the  scratch  as  bright  as  if  just  made. 

"So  strangely  impressed  was  my  mother  that  even  after  she  had  retired 
to  rest  she  got  up  and  dressed,  came  to  me  and  told  me  she  \new  at 
least  that  I  had  seen  my  sister.  A  few  weeks  later  my  mother  died,  happy 


in  her  belief  that  she  would  rejoin  her  favorite  daughter  in  a  better  world." 

Later,  Dr.  Hodgson  received  letters  from  the  father  and  brother  of 
Mr.  F.  G corroborating  the  incident,  exactly  as  he  had  stated. 

case  no.  30 
The  Wiinscher  Case1 

"  About  a  year  ago  there  died  in  a  neighboring  village  a  brewer  called 
Wiinscher,  with  whom  I  stood  in  friendly  relations.  His  death  ensued 
after  a  short  illness,  and  as  I  seldom  had  an  opportunity  of  visiting  him, 
I  knew  nothing  of  his  illness  nor  of  his  death.  On  the  day  of  his  death  I 
went  to  bed  at  nine  o'clock,  tired  with  the  labor  which  my  calling  as  a 
farmer  demands  of  me.  Here  I  must  observe  that  my  diet  is  of  a  frugal 
kind:  beer  and  wine  are  rare  things  in  my  house,  and  water,  as  usual, 
had  been  my  drink  that  night.  Being  of  a  very  healthy  constitution,  I  fell 
asleep  as  soon  as  I  lay  down.  In  my  dream  I  heard  the  deceased  call  out 
with  a  loud  voice,  'Boy,  make  haste  and  give  me  my  boots.' 

"This  awoke  me,  and  I  noticed  that,  for  the  sake  of  our  child,  my  wife 
had  left  the  light  burning.  I  pondered  with  pleasure  on  my  dream,  think- 
ing in  my  mind  how  Wiinscher,  who  was  a  good-natured,  humorous  man, 
would  laugh  when  I  told  him  of  this  dream.  Still  thinking  on  it,  I  heard 
Wiinscher 's  voice  scolding  outside,  just  under  my  window.  I  sat  up  in 
bed  at  once  to  listen  but  could  not  understand  his  words.  What  can  the 
brewer  want?  I  thought,  and  I  knew  for  certain  that  I  was  much  vexed 
with  him  that  he  should  make  a  disturbance  in  the  night,  as  I  felt  that 
his  affairs  might  surely  have  waited  till  the  morrow. 

"Suddenly  he  comes  into  the  room  from  behind  the  linen  press,  steps 
with  long  strides  past  the  bed  of  my  wife  and  the  child's  bed;  wildly 
gesticulating  with  his  arms  all  the  time,  as  his  habit  was,  he  called  out, 
'What  do  you  say  to  this,  Herr  Oberamtmann?  This  afternoon  at  five 
o'clock  I  have  died.'  Startled  by  this  information,  I  exclaim,  'Oh,  that  is 
not  true!'  He  replied,  'Truly  as  I  tell  you,  and  what  do  you  think?  They 
want  to  bury  me  already  on  Tuesday  afternoon  at  two  o'clock,'  accentu- 
ating his  assertions  all  the  while  by  his  gesticulations.  During  this  long 
speech  of  my  visitor  I  examined  myself  as  to  whether  I  was  really  awake 
and  not  dreaming. 

i  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  VI,  341. 


"I  asked  myself:  Is  this  a  hallucination?  Is  my  mind  in  full  possession 
of  its  faculties?  Yes,  there  is  the  light,  there  the  jug,  this  is  the  mirror, 
and  this  is  the  brewer;  and  I  came  to  the  conclusion:  I  am  awake.  Then 
the  thought  occurred  to  me,  what  will  my  wife  think  if  she  awakes  and 
sees  the  brewer  in  our  bedroom?  In  this  fear  of  her  waking  up  I  turn 
'round  to  my  wife,  and  to  my  great  relief  I  see  from  her  face,  which  is 
turned  towards  me,  that  she  is  still  asleep,  but  she  looks  very  pale.  I  say 
to  the  brewer,  'Herr  Wiinscher,  we  will  speak  softly,  so  that  my  wife 
may  not  wake  up;  it  would  be  very  disagreeable  to  her  to  find  you  here.' 
To  which  Wiinscher  answered  in  a  lower  and  calmer  tone:  'Don't  be 
afraid,  I  will  do  no  harm  to  your  wife.'  Things  do  happen  indeed  for 
which  we  find  no  explanation — I  thought  to  myself,  and  said  to  Wiinscher : 
'If  this  be  true,  that  you  have  died,  I  am  sincerely  sorry  for  it;  I  will 
look  after  your  children.'  Wiinscher  stepped  towards  me,  stretched  out 
his  arms,  and  moved  his  lips  as  though  he  would  embrace  me;  therefore 
I  said  in  a  threatening  tone,  and  looking  steadfastly  at  him  with  a  frown- 
ing brow:  'Don't  come  so  near,  it  is  disagreeable  to  me,'  and  lifted  my 
right  arm  to  ward  him  off,  but  before  my  arm  reached  him  the  apparition 
had  vanished.  My  first  look  was  to  my  wife  to  see  if  she  were  still  asleep. 
She  was.  I  got  up  and  looked  at  my  watch;  it  was  seven  minutes  past 
twelve.  My  wife  woke  up  and  asked  me:  'To  whom  did  you  speak  so 
loud  just  now?'  'Have  you  understood  anything?'  I  said.  'No,'  she  an- 
swered and  went  to  sleep  again. 

"I  impart  this  experience  to  the  Society  for  Psychical  Research,  in  the 
belief  that  it  may  serve  as  a  new  proof  for  the  real  existence  of  telepathy. 
I  must  further  remark  that  the  brewer  had  died  that  afternoon  at  five 
o'clock,  and  was  buried  on  the  following  Tuesday  at  two. 

"Karl  Dignowity, 

(Landed  Proprietor) 
Dober  Und  Pause, 
"12th  December,  1889."  Schlesien." 

In  a  letter  to  F.  W.  H.  Myers,  Fraulein  Schneller  (sister-in-law  to  the 
percipient),  who  had  reported  the  case,  wrote,  "The  usual  time  for  burial 
in  Germany  is  three  days  after  death.  This  time  may  be  prolonged  on 
application.  There  are  no  special  hours  fixed." 


In  conversation  Fraulein  Schneller  described  her  brother-in-law  as  a 
man  of  strong  practical  sense  and  of  extremely  active  habits. 

The  S.P.R.  received  the  "Sterbeurkunde"  from  the  "Standesbeamte" 
Siegismund,  Kreis  Sagan,  certifying  that  Karl  Wiinscher  died  on  Satur- 
day, September  15,  1888,  at  4:30  p.m.,  and  was  buried  on  Tuesday,  Sep- 
tember 18,  1888,  at  2  p.m. 

Later  Herr  Dignowity  wrote  on  January  18,  1890:  "Frau  Wiinscher 
told  me  that  the  time  of  the  burial  was  settled  in  the  death-room  immedi- 
ately after  Wunscher's  death,  because  relations  at  a  distance  had  to  be 
summoned  by  telegram.  Wiinscher  had  suffered  from  inflammation  of 
the  lungs,  which  ended  in  a  spasm  of  the  heart.  During  his  illness  his 
thoughts  had  been  much  occupied  with  me,  and  he  often  wondered  what 
I  should  say  if  I  knew  how  ill  he  was." 

Finally,  Frau  Dignowity  (born  Schneller)  wrote  from  Pause,  January 
18,  1890: 

"I  confirm  that  my  husband  told  me  on  the  morning  of  September  16, 
1888,  that  the  brewer  Wiinscher  had  given  him  intimation  of  his  death." 

CASE  NO.  31 

The  Belasco  Case1 
David  Belasco  was  owner  and  manager  of  the  Belasco  Theatre  in  New 
York,  and  in  a  booklet  issued  in  connection  with  the  production  of  his 
own  play,  The  Return  of  Peter  Grimm,  he  makes  the  following  statement: 

"My  mother  convinced  me  that  the  dead  come  back  by  coming  to  me 
at  the  time  of  her  death.  One  night,  after  a  long,  exhausting  rehearsal,  I 
went  to  bed,  worn  out,  in  my  Newport  home,  and  fell  at  once  into  a 
deep  sleep.  Almost  immediately,  however,  I  was  awakened  and  attempted 
to  rise,  but  could  not,  and  was  then  greatly  startled  to  see  my  dear  mother 
(whom  I  knew  to  be  in  San  Francisco)  standing  close  by  me.  As  I  strove 
to  speak  and  to  sit  up  she  smiled  at  me  a  loving,  reassuring  smile,  spoke 
my  name — the  name  she  called  me  in  my  boyhood — 'Davy,  Davy,  Davy,' 
and  then  leaning  down,  seemed  to  kiss  me;  then  drew  away  a  little  and 
said,  'Do  not  grieve.  All  is  well  and  I  am  happy,'  then  moved  towards  the 
door  and  vanished. 

1  Prince,  Dr.  Walter  F.,  Noted  Witnesses  for  Psychic  Occurrences,  150-51. 


"The  next  day  I  related  the  incident  to  my  family  and  expressed  the 
conviction  that  my  mother  was  dead.  A  few  hours  later  (I  was  still 
directing  rehearsals  of  Zoza)  I  went  to  luncheon  during  a  recess  with 
a  member  of  my  staff,  who  handed  me  some  letters  and  telegrams  which 
he  had  brought  from  the  box-office  of  the  theatre.  Among  them  was  a 
telegram  telling  me  that  my  darling  mother  had  died  the  night  before, 
at  about  the  time  I  had  seen  her  in  my  room.  Later  I  learned  that  just 
before  she  died  she  roused  herself,  smiled,  and  three  times  murmured, 
'Davy,  Davy,  Davy.' 

"I  am  aware  that  such  experiences  as  this  are,  by  some,  explained  on 
a  theory  of  what  they  call  'thought  transference,'  but  such  explanation, 
to  me,  is  totally  inadequate.  1  am  sure  that  I  did  see  her.  And  other 
experiences  of  a  kindred  nature  served  to  confirm  my  knowledge  that 
what  we  call  supernatural  is,  after  all,  at  most  but  supernormal.  Then, 
after  long  brooding  on  the  subject,  I  determined  to  write  a  play  in  terms 
of  what  I  conceive  to  be  actuality,  dealing  with  the  return  of  the  dead." 

case  no.  32 
The  Bowyer-Bower  Case1 
On  the  early  morning  of  March  19,  1917,  Captain  Eldred  Bowyer- 
Bower  of  the  R.F.C.  was  shot  down  while  flying  in  France. 

On  that  day,  his  half-sister,  Mrs.  Spearman,  was  living  at  the  Grand 
Hotel,  Calcutta,  totally  unaware  that  her  brother  was  in  France;  he  had 
been  there  only  three  weeks  before  he  was  killed. 
On  January  18,  1918,  she  wrote  to  her  mother: 

"Now  I  have  never  told  you  this  before  because  I  was  afraid  you  would 
not  understand.  Eldred  was  greatly  in  mind  when  baby  was  born  and 
I  could  only  think  of  him.  On  March  19,  in  the  late  part  of  the  morning, 
I  was  sewing  and  talking  to  baby;  Joan  (another  child)  was  in  the  sitting- 
room  and  did  not  see  anything.  I  had  a  great  feeling  I  must  turn  'round 
and  did,  to  see  Eldred;  he  looked  so  happy  and  had  that  dear,  mischievous 
look.  I  was  so  glad  to  see  him  and  told  him  I  would  just  put  baby  in  a 
safer  place,  then  we  could  talk.  'Fancy  coming  out  here,'  I  said,  turning 
'round  again,  and  was  just  putting  my  hands  out  to  give  him  a  hug  and 

l  Journal,  S.P.R.,  IX,  39-46.  Salter,  W.  H.,  op.  cit.,  53. 


a  kiss,  but  Eldred  had  gone.  I  called  and  looked  for  him.  I  never  saw  him 
again.  At  first  I  thought  it  was  simply  my  brain.  Then  I  did  think 
for  a  second  something  must  have  happened  to  him  and  a  terrible  fear 
came  over  me.  Then  again  I  thought  how  stupid  I  was  and  it  must  be 
my  brain  playing  tricks.  But  now  I  know  it  was  Eldred,  and  all  the  time 
in  church  at  baby's  christening  he  was  there,  because  I  felt  he  was  and 
knew  he  was,  only  I  could  not  see  him.  ...  I  did  not  tell  anyone  of  the 
vision  I  saw  of  my  brother  for  quite  one  or  two  months  after  I  heard  of 
his  death.  .  .  .  My  husband  was  not  with  me,  and  I  did  not  write  to  him 
about  it,  because  he  did  not  believe  in  that  sort  of  thing." 

On  June  5,  1918,  Mrs.  Chater,  Captain  Bowyer-Bower's  sister,  wrote: 

".  .  .  One  morning  while  I  was  still  in  bed,  about  9:15,  she  (the  child) 
came  to  my  room  and  said,  'Uncle  Alley-Boy  is  downstairs.'  Although  I 
told  her  he  was  in  France,  she  insisted  that  she  had  seen  him.  Later  in 
the  day  I  happened  to  be  writing  to  my  mother  and  mentioned  this,  not 
because  I  thought  much  about  it,  but  to  show  that  Betty  still  thought  and 
spoke  of  her  uncle,  of  whom  she  was  very  fond.  A  few  days  afterwards 
we  found  that  the  date  my  brother  was  missing  was  the  date  of  my  letter. 
This  letter  has  since  been  destroyed." 

"Alley-Boy"  was  Captain  Bowyer-Bower's  pet  name  since  childhood, 
and  his  niece  Betty  was  only  a  little  under  three  years  of  age  at  the  time. 
Captain  Bowyer-Bower's  mother  wrote : 

"Mrs.  Watson,  an  elderly  lady  I  have  known  many  years,  wrote  to  me 
on  the  afternoon  of  March  19  after  not  corresponding  with  me  for  quite 
eighteen  months,  and  said  she  felt  she  must  write  because  she  felt  I  was 
in  great  anxiety  over  Eldred  .  .  .  and  I  asked  her  in  my  reply  what  she 
felt  about  Eldred,  and  she  replied  to  this  effect:  On  the  afternoon  of  the 
day  she  wrote,  about  tea-time,  a  certain  and  awful  feeling  came  over  her 
that  he  was  killed." 

Two  weeks  after  March  19,  1917,  Mrs.  Spearman  saw  the  name  of  her 
brother  in  the  "Missing  List"  in  the  newspaper.  His  mother,  however, 
received  notice  on  March  23,  1917,  that  he  was  officially  reported  missing, 
but  it  was  not  till  May  10,  1917,  when  his  body  was  found,  that  his  death 
was  ascertained. 


CASE  NO.  33 

The  Schenc\  Case1 
Colonel  C.  de  W.  Willcox,  former  professor   in  the  U.S.  Military 
Academy,  wrote  to  Dr.  Walter  F.  Prince: 

"One  day  (in  about  1900),  Mrs.  A.  D.  Schenck,  the  wife  of  Captain 
A.  D.  Schenck,  of  the  Second  Artillery  (my  old  regiment),  stationed  at 
Fort  Warren,  Boston  Harbor,  at  eleven  in  the  morning,  gave  a  cry  and 
said  she  had  seen  her  son  killed  in  action  in  the  Philippines,  where  this 
youngster  was  serving  during  the  insurrection.  No  effort  made  by  her 
family  or  friends  could  calm  her.  Later  in  the  day  a  telegram  from  the 
War  Department  brought  the  news  that  the  young  man  had  been  killed, 
and  on  making  allowance  for  the  difference  of  longitude,  it  was  found 
that  the  hour  given  agreed  with  that  of  Mrs.  Schenck's  vision.  What  I 
have  given  here  is  my  recollection  of  what  we  all  regarded  as  a  remark- 
able incident." 

Dr.  Prince  obtained  the  address  of  Mrs.  Charles  C.  Smith  of  Wash- 
ington, D.C.,  a  daughter  of  the  Mrs.  Schenck  referred  to,  who  corroborated 
with  this  testimony: 

"My  mother  was  sewing  one  morning  at  Fort  Screven,  Georgia,  outside 
Savannah  on  Tybee  Island.  She  got  up  from  her  chair  with  a  little  cry. 
It  impressed  us  very  much,  because  she  said,  'Oh,  I  saw  your  brother.  I 
saw  Will's  shoulder  disappear  as  he  fell  backward.' 

"She  was  restless  all  that  day,  nor  could  we  quiet  her  anxiety.  When 
the  evening  papers  came,  they  spoke  of  a  clash  in  the  Philippines,  and 
we  hid  the  papers  from  her.  The  next  morning  (copied  from  my  scrap- 
book)  appeared  this  notice:  'A  scouting  party  of  Americans,  led  by 
Lieutenant  Schenck,  ran  into  a  Filipino  ambush.  Four  men  were  killed 
and  five  wounded.'  After  that,  more  definite  news  seeped  in,  until  General 
Otis'  report  of:  'Twenty-fifth  Inf.,  Jan.  29,  1900,  near  Subig,  Luzon,  First 
Lieut.  William  T.  Schenck  killed.' 

"This  accorded  to  the  very  hour  and  day  that  my  mother  had  felt  his 
departing  presence.  My  mother  was  always  particularly  close  to  this  one 
of  her  six  children,  afterwards  posthumously  cited  for  bravery  in  action. 

"Elizabeth  Schenck  Smith." 

1  Prince,  Dr.  Walter  F.,  Human  Experiences,  I,  78-79. 


Dr.  Prince  applied  to  the  War  Department,  who  confirmed  the  date — 
but  not  the  hour — of  Lieutenant  Schenck's  death.  The  place  of  the  inci- 
dent was  not  at  Fort  Warren,  as  stated  by  Colonel  Willcox,  but  at  Fort 
Screven.  The  error  is  extraneous  to  the  psychic  core  of  the  incident,  and 
is  easy  to  understand,  after  it  is  learned  that  Captain  Schenck  was  stationed 
at  Fort  Warren  in  1897-98,  and  went  from  there  to  Fort  Screven.  The 
more  so,  when,  as  Colonel  Willcox  afterwards  wrote,  it  was  found  that  his 
informant,  a  brother  officer  of  his  and  of  Captain  Schenck's,  was  also  at 
Fort  Warren. 

case  no.  34 
The  Byers  Case1 
This  case  was  guaranteed  by  Professor  Horace  G.  Byers,  Ph.D.,  LL.D., 

University  of  Washington,  who  wrote  as  follows: 

"About  three  days  before  the  birth  of  our  first  child  my  wife  was  in  a 
highly  nervous  and  sensitive  condition.  She  awakened  me  by  sitting  up 
suddenly  in  bed  and  crying  out,  'Grandmother.'  We  at  that  time  lived 
in  Seattle,  and  my  wife's  grandmother,  by  whom  she  had  been  brought 
up,  was  in  Chicago.  I  inquired  what  caused  the  excitement  and  was  told 
that  her  grandmother  had  stood  by  the  side  of  the  bed,  looking  intently 
at  her.  Such  a  dream  is  perhaps  nothing  remarkable,  but  the  fact  remains 
that  the  next  morning  I  received  a  telegram,  saying  that  the  grandmother 
had  died  the  preceding  night.  The  above  are  the  bare  facts.  I  am  unable 
to  explain  the  event  other  than  as  a  strange  coincidence  or  a  long  range 
example  of  telepathy  between  two  sensitized  minds.  I  have  no  accurate 
data  as  to  hours  of  death  or  vision." 

At  request,  Professor  Byers'  wife  also  wrote,  March  14,  1929: 

"Mr.  Byers  has  asked  me  to  add  my  version  of  my  experience  in  what 
we  have  always  felt,  mental  telepathy. 

"As  a  word  of  introduction,  please  let  me  say  that  I  was  the  only  grand- 
child and  had  lived  with  my  grandmother  ever  since  I  could  remember; 
and  when  my  mother  died  my  grandmother  felt  a  strong  sense  of  trust 
and  responsibility  in  my  care,  as  it  had  been  my  own  and  my  mother's 
wish,  expressed  after  a  talk  together  shortly  before  her  death,  that  I  con- 
tinue to  live  with  her.  Also,  it  was  easy  to  fix  the  date,  as  it  was  the  night 

l  Prince,  Dr.  Walter  F.,  Human  Experiences,  I,  79-80. 


she,  my  grandmother,  died  and  three  days  prior  to  the  birth  of  my  eldest 

"It  was  some  time  during  the  night  of  June  2,  maybe  really  early  on 
June  3,  1904,  as  I  don't  remember  that  I  looked  at  the  time.  My  grand- 
mother had  been  ill  and  in  St.  Luke's  Hospital,  Chicago,  for  some  weeks. 
I  had  felt  that  I  should  be  with  her,  but,  under  the  circumstances,  she 
knew  and  I  knew  that  it  was  impossible.  Anyhow,  I  didn't  realize  how 
ill  she  was.  I  awoke  enough  to  feel  that  she  was  bending  over  me,  had 
been  there  for  some  time,  trying  to  tell  me  something.  I  made  out  a 
figure,  but  couldn't  see  her,  as  it  was  dark,  but  il  \new  it  was  she  and 
that  she  was  wanting  to  tell  or  ask  me  something.  I  put  up  my  arm  to  slip 
it  around  her  neck,  and  it  was  the  absence  of  any  physical  presence  that 
startled  me  wide  awake.  I  don't  mean  that  I  was  startled  by  fear,  but  by 
dismay,  because  I've  always  felt  she  was  trying  to  tell  me  something. 

"I  don't  know  the  hour  of  my  grandmother's  death.  The  telegram 
reached  us  in  Seattle  the  afternoon  of  June  3.  But  my  husband  didn't  tell 
me  of  her  death  till  after  my  baby  was  born.  It  was  several  weeks  later, 
in  thinking  over  the  Vision,'  that  I  asked  my  husband  if  it  had  occurred 
on  the  night  of  her  death,  and  he  assented  immediately  with  a  very  definite 
answer,  as  though  he  had  been  thinking  of  the  two  things  in  conjunction." 

In  response  to  queries,  Professor  Byers  stated  that  his  wife's  experience 
took  place  at  3  a.m.  of  June  3,  that  it  certainly  was  not  a  dream,  but  a 
"vision,"  while  awake,  and  that  never  at  any  other  time,  so  far  as  he 
knows,  has  she  cried  out  in  the  night  on  account  of  any  similar  impres- 
sions. The  telegram  arrived  the  next  morning,  according  to  Professor 
Byers;  the  next  afternoon,  according  to  Mrs.  Byers.  But  they  are  clear 
that,  at  any  rate,  it  arrived  the  next  day,  and  that  the  grandmother  died 
the  same  night  as  the  vision.  She  was  old — seventy  years  of  age — and  had 
been  in  the  hospital  several  weeks  and  was  not  known  to  be  seriously  ill; 
her  death  was  unexpected. 

case  no.  35 
The  McConnel  Case1 
In  this  example,  it  will  be  observed  that  the  correspondence  of  time 
between  the  death  and  the  apparition  are  well  vouched  for  by  several 
competent  witnesses  of  the  R.F.C.  (R.A.F.) 

1  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  XXXIII.  Salter,  W.  H.,  op.  cit.,  58. 


On  December  7,  1918,  at  3:25  p.m.,  Lieutenant  David  McConnel,  while 
flying  from  Scampton,  Lines.,  to  Tadcaster,  was  killed  by  his  machine 
crashing.  The  accident  was  witnessed,  and  his  watch,  which  had  stopped 
at  3:25  p.m.,  fixed  the  exact  time.  At  his  funeral  on  December  11,  his 
father,  hearing  that  one  of  his  friends,  Lieutenant  Larkin,  at  Scampton, 
had  a  vision  of  him  about  the  time  of  his  crash,  wrote  to  him  a  letter 
which  produced  the  following  reply: 

"David  [McConnel],  in  his  flying  clothes,  about  11  a.m.  went  to  the 
hangars  intending  to  take  a  machine  to  the  'Aerial  Range'  for  machine- 
gun  practice.  He  came  into  the  room  again  at  11:30  and  told  me  that  he 
did  not  go  to  the  range,  but  that  he  was  taking  a  'camel'  to  Tadcaster 
drome.  He  said,  'I  expect  to  be  back  in  time  for  tea.  Cheero.'  He  walked 
out  and  half  a  minute  later  knocked  at  the  window  and  asked  me  to  hand 
him  his  map,  which  he  had  forgotten.  After  I  had  lunch,  I  spent  the 
afternoon  writing  letters  and  reading,  sitting  in  front  of  the  stove  fire. 
[After  disclaiming  any  previous  belief  in  the  supernormal,  he  continued] 
I  was  sitting  as  I  have  said,  in  front  of  the  fire,  the  door  of  the  room 
being  about  eight  feet  away  at  my  back.  I  heard  someone  walking  up  the 
passage;  the  door  opened  with  the  usual  noise  and  clatter  which  David 
always  made;  I  heard  his  'Hello,  boy!'  and  I  turned  half  'round  in  my 
chair  and  saw  him  standing  in  the  doorway,  half  in  and  half  out  of  the 
room,  holding  the  door-knob  in  his  hand.  He  was  dressed  in  his  full 
flying  clothes,  but  wearing  his  naval  cap,  there  being  nothing  unusual  in 
his  appearance.  His  cap  was  pushed  back  on  his  head  and  he  was  smiling, 
as  he  always  was  when  he  came  into  the  room  and  greeted  us.  In  reply 
to  his  'Hello,  boy!'  I  remarked,  'Hello!  Back  already?'  He  replied,  'Yes, 
got  there  all  right,  had  a  good  trip.'  I  am  not  positively  sure  of  the  exact 
words  he  used,  but  he  said,  'Had  a  good  trip,'  or  'Had  a  fine  trip,'  or 
words  to  that  effect.  I  was  looking  at  him  the  whole  time  he  was  speaking. 
He  said,  'Well,  cheero!'  closed  the  door  noisily  and  went  out.  I  went  on 
with  my  reading  and  thought  he  had  gone  to  visit  some  friends  in  one 
of  the  other  rooms,  or  perhaps  had  gone  back  to  the  hangars  for  some 
of  his  flying-gear,  helmet,  goggles,  etc.,  which  he  may  have  forgotten.  I 
did  not  have  a  watch,  so  could  not  be  sure  of  the  time,  but  was  certain 
it  was  between  a  quarter  and  half-past  three,  because  shortly  afterwards 


Lieutenant  Garner-Smith  came  into  the  room  and  it  was  a  quarter  to  four. 
He  said,  'I  hope  Mac  (David)  gets  back  early,  we  are  going  to  Lincoln 
this  evening.'  I  replied,  'He  is  back,  he  was  in  the  room  a  few  minutes 
ago.'  He  said,  'Is  he  having  tea?'  and  I  replied  that  I  did  not  think  so, 
as  he  (Mac)  had  not  changed  his  clothes,  but  that  he  was  probably  in 
some  other  room.  Garner -Smith  then  said,  'I'll  try  and  find  him.'  I  then 
went  into  the  room,  had  tea,  and  afterwards  dressed  and  went  to  Lincoln. 
In  the  smoking-room  of  the  Albion  Hotel  I  heard  a  group  of  officers  talk- 
ing, and  overheard  their  conversation  and  the  words  'crashed,'  'Tadcaster,' 
and  'McConnel.'  I  joined  them,  and  they  told  me  that  just  before  they  had 
left  Scampton,  word  came  through  that  McConnel  had  crashed  and 
been  killed,  taking  the  'camel'  to  Tadcaster.  At  that  moment  I  did  not 
believe  it,  that  he  had  been  killed  on  the  Tadcaster  journey.  My  impression 
was  that  he  had  gone  up  again  after  I  had  seen  him,  as  I  felt  positive 
that  I  had  at  3 :30.  Naturally  I  was  eager  to  hear  something  more  definite, 
and  later  in  the  evening  I  heard  that  he  had  been  killed  on  the  Tad- 
caster journey.  .  .  ." 

The  account  of  their  conversation  was  corroborated  by  Lieutenant 
Garner-Smith,  which  he  stated  took  place  at  3 :45,  and  another  officer  wrote 
that  Lieutenant  Larkin  told  him  about  the  incident  on  the  following 

The  mention  of  the  "naval  cap" — an  important  detail — is  explained  by 
Mr.  McConnel: 

"My  son  David  was  proud  of  his  connection  with  the  earlier  service. 
Having  a  complete  kit  of  the  naval  flying  service,  he  always  wore  the 
naval  flying  uniform  about  the  aerodrome  and  was  one  of  only  three 
at  the  drome  who  had  followed  the  same  course  in  entering.  .  .  ." 

Lieutenant  Larkin  had  no  doubt  as  to  the  identity  of  the  man  he  saw, 
and  later  he  wrote  that  the  room  he  was  sitting  in  was  a  small  one;  the 
electric  stove  was  on  and  also  a  good  fire  burning  in  an  open  stove.  "I 
may  mention  that  the  light  was  particularly  good  and  bright,  and  there 
were  no  shadows  or  half-shadows  in  the  room." 

•  In  this  case,  W.  H.  Salter  puts  forward  the  theory  that  Lieutenant 
McConnel,  fatigued  by  the  long  flight,  may  not  have  known  that  he  was 
crashing,  but  may  have  imagined  that  he  had  safely  arrived  at  Tadcaster 
and  was  back  again  at  Scampton. 


CASE  NO.  36 

The  Raynham  Hall  Case1 

This  case  is  valuable  because  the  individuals  connected  with  it  were  not 
in  the  least  interested  in  any  branch  of  psychical  research,  and  thoughts 
of  apparitions  were  not  in  their  minds  when  the  event  occurred.  The 
phenomenon  happened  spontaneously  when  Captain  Provand,  Art  Di- 
rector, and  Mr.  Indre  Shira,  of  the  firm  of  Indre  Shira,  Ltd.,  Court 
Photographers,  49  Dover  Street,  Piccadilly,  London,  W.I.,  were  photo- 
graphing Raynham  Hall,  Norfolk,  the  seat  of  the  Marquess  of  Town- 
shend,  as  part  of  their  routine  work  and  not  in  any  special  circumstances. 
Lady  Townshend  had  commissioned  them  to  photograph  the  entire  place. 

Shortly  after  eight  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  September  19,  1936, 
they  commenced  to  take  a  large  number  of  pictures  of  the  grounds  and 
the  house,  and  by  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  were  ready  to  photograph 
the  oak  staircase.  Captain  Provand  took  one  photograph  of  the  staircase 
while  Mr.  Shira  flashed  the  light  and,  just  as  the  Captain  was  focusing 
for  another  exposure,  Mr.  Shira — flashlight  pistol  in  hand — stood  beside 
him  at  the  back  of  the  camera  looking  right  up  the  staircase.  Detecting 
what  he  described  as  "an  ethereal  veiled  form"  moving  slowly  down  the 
staircase,  he  shouted  out  excitedly,  "Quick!  Quick!  There's  something! 
Are  you  ready?"  The  Captain,  answering  "Yes,"  removed  the  cap  from 
the  lens  and  Mr.  Shira  pressed  the  flashlight  pistol  worked  at  the  speed 
of  one-fiftieth  of  a  second,  by  a  Sasha  bulb. 

Captain  Provand  was  mystified  by  Mr.  Shira's  demeanor  and  removing 
the  focusing  cloth  from  his  head  asked,  "What's  all  the  excitement  about?" 
Mr.  Shira  replied  that  he  had  distinctly  seen,  coming  down  the  staircase, 
a  transparent  figure  through  which  the  steps  could  be  seen.  The  Captain 
laughed  and  said  that  he  must  have  been  imagining  things,  for  there  was 
nothing  in  sight  now;  but  Mr.  Shira  maintained  that  he  had  seen  a  per- 
fectly real  ethereal  form. 

On  the  journey  back  to  London  they  argued  and  discussed  the  incident 
over  and  over  again,  Captain  Provand  stating  that  it  was  impossible  to 
secure  a  genuine  ghost  photograph  outside  a  seance  room — not  that  he  had 
experience  in  such — and  he  would  stake  his  reputation  as  a  court  photog- 

l  Country  Life  (December  16,  1936),  673-75. 


rapher  of  thirty  years'  experience  on  his  statement.  Mr.  Shira  conceded 
that  he  did  not  possess  the  same  amount  of  skill  and  knowledge  in 
photography  as  Captain  Provand  and  neither  was  he  interested  in  psychic 
photography,  but  he  stoutly  affirmed  that  he  had  seen  a  figure  on  the 
staircase  that  must  have  been  caught  at  the  psychological  moment  by  the 
lens  of  the  camera.  As  others  have  done  when  both  sides  are  adamant, 
they  decided  to  have  a  bet  on  it,  and  shaking  hands  agreed  to  stake  /5 

They  were  in  the  darkroom  together  when  the  negatives,  one  after 
another,  were  being  developed.  Suddenly  Captain  Provand  exclaimed, 
"Good  Lord,  there's  something  on  the  staircase  negative,  after  all!"  Mr. 
Shira  took  one  glance  and  decided  to  call  in  a  third  party,  Mr.  Benjamin 
Jones,  manager  of  Blake,  Sandford  and  Blake,  chemists,  whose  premises 
were  downstairs,  as  a  witness.  Mr.  Jones,  arriving  in  time  to  see  the  nega- 
tive being  taken  from  the  developer  and  placed  in  the  hypo  bath,  de- 
clared that  if  he  had  not  actually  seen  the  negative  being  fixed  he  would 
not  have  accepted  the  subsequent  picture  as  genuine.  Mr.  Jones  was  an 
amateur  photographer  of  some  experience  and  had  often  developed  his 
own  plates  and  films. 

Mr.  Shira  concluded  his  article  thus: 

"Mr.  Jones,  Captain  Provand,  and  I  vouch  for  the  fact  that  the  negative 
has  not  been  retouched  in  any  way.  It  has  been  examined  critically  by  a 
number  of  experts.  No  one  can  account  for  the  appearance  of  the  ghostly 
figure.  But  it  is  there  clear  enough — and  I  am  still  waiting  for  payment 
of  that  £5! 

"Indre  Shira." 

The  Editor  of  Country  Life  submitted  the  photograph  for  criticism  to 
Mr.  Harry  Price,  who  examined  the  negative  and  cross-examined  the 
photographers,  but  could  not  alter  them  in  their  statements.  "I  could  not 
shake  their  story,"  wrote  Mr.  Price,  "and  I  had  no  right  to  disbelieve  them. 
Only  collusion  between  the  two  men  would  account  for  the  'ghost'  if  it 
is  a  fake.  The  negative  is  entirely  innocent  of  any  faking." 

Note. — The  compiler  regrets  that  he  could  not  obtain  permission  to 
publish  the  photograph  in  this  book,  but  any  reader  desiring  to  see  it 
will  find  it  in  Country  Life  (December  16,  1936),  page  673.  This  astonish- 


ing  photograph  is  7%  inches  by  6%  inches.  Mr.  Shira  has  not  exaggerated 
one  iota  in  his  account:  it  is  a  definite  human  figure  not  unlike  a  nun 
dressed  in  white,  bi/t  face,  hands,  and  feet  are  not  discernible,  although  the 
folds  of  the  dress  can  be  seen  distinctly  and  the  steps  are  visible  through 
the  ethereal  form.  [See  Case  No.  22,  page  54.] 

case  no.  37 
The  Great  Dunmow  Case1 

It  is  very  seldom  that  one  comes  across  a  really  first-class  story  about  an 
apparition.  My  skeptical  friends  always  say  that  people  talk  very  freely 
about  such  things,  but  that  it  is  always  difficult  to  find  someone  who  has 
really  had  such  an  experience. 

I  personally  know  quite  a  number  who  have,  but  I  have  never  come 
across  an  account  of  an  apparition  being  seen  which  is  so  conclusive  as  the 
one  I  am  about  to  relate. 

A  few  miles  from  my  house,  near  the  market  town  of  Great  Dun- 
mow,  there  lived  a  woman  who  shot  herself  one  evening  (Monday, 
December  5,  1938)  after  having  shot  her  husband.  They  were  both  alone 
in  the  house  at  the  time,  and  the  discovery  was  not  made  until  7:45  on 
the  following  morning  when  the  servant,  who  came  by  the  day,  arrived 
at  the  house  to  find  the  woman's  body  in  the  garden. 

She  immediately  informed  the  police,  who  were  on  the  scene  by  8:30 
with  a  doctor,  who  certified  that  they  must  both  have  been  dead  since 
the  previous  evening.  The  radio  had  not  even  been  turned  off. 

There  is,  therefore,  no  doubt  that  these  two  people  were  dead  at  8 :30  in 
the  morning.  A  husband  and  wife,  both  friends  of  mine  (who  do  not 
wish  their  name  mentioned),  gave  me  the  following  information: 

They  were  motoring  to  the  station  on  the  morning  the  discovery  was 
made,  to  catch  the  9:30  train.  They  passed  the  house  where  the  tragedy 
occurred  at  about  9:20. 

As  they  came  in  sight  of  the  house  they  saw  the  woman  who  had  shot 
herself  walking  along  the  pavement  towards  them.  She  was  seen  first 
by  the  man  driving  the  car,  who  said  to  his  wife  beside  him,  "Oh,  there 
is  Mrs. .  She  gives  me  the  creeps." 

His  wife  replied,  "Oh,  so  it  is,"  as  she  also  saw  her.  As  they  passed, 

1  Findlay,  Arthur,  The  Psychic  News  (January  2,  1939),  5. 


they  smiled  in  recognition,  though  they  cannot  remember  whether  she 
responded  or  not.  They  thought  nothing  more  about  the  affair,  and  after 
spending  the  day  in  London  they  bought  an  evening  paper  on  their  way 
home  in  which  they  read  the  story  of  the  tragedy. 

This  was  the  first  they  had  heard  of  it  and  my  friend  went  to  the 
police  on  his  return  home  and  told  them  that  the  woman  could  not  have 
been  dead  at  the  time  stated  as  he  and  his  wife  had  seen  her  at  9:20. 

The  police,  however,  assured  him  that  they  were  in  the  house  by  8:30 
that  morning,  and  that  the  doctor  had  certified  that  the  woman  they  saw 
had  been  dead  since  the  previous  evening. 

Such  is  the  story  told  to  me  by  my  friends,  who  both  agree  about  the 
facts.  They  have  not  the  slightest  doubt  that  the  woman  they  saw  was 

Mrs.  ,  who  had  killed  her  husband  and  then  herself  the  previous 

evening.  There  was  nothing  about  her  dress  which  occasioned  my  friends 
any  surprise,  and  when  I  asked  whether  she  looked  happy  or  sad  I  was 
told,  "She  looked  just  as  she  always  did."  All  these  details  as  to  time 
of  death  came  out  at  the  inquest  and  are  to  be  found  in  the  local  newspaper. 

This  is  an  interesting  case,  because  when  my  friends  saw  the  apparition 
they  were  unaware  that  the  woman  was  dead  and  discovered  only  some 
seven  hours  later  that  the  woman  they  had  seen  that  morning  walking 
along  the  pavement  had  died  the  previous  evening.  Because  they  were 
going  for  a  train  they  knew  the  time  they  saw  her,  and  the  police  and 
the  doctor  were  able  to  certify  that  the  woman  was  dead  when  they 
arrived  at  the  house  an  hour  earlier.  Both  my  friends  saw  the  apparition 

and  are  quite  definite  that  it  was  Mrs.  ,  the  dead  woman.  Thus  we 

have  two  witnesses  who  saw  the  apparition  at  the  same  time,  which 
greatly  strengthens  the  evidence. 

I  cannot  imagine  that  telepathy  can  be  brought  in  here  as  an  explanation. 
The  two  witnesses  are  reliable  and  can  be  trusted.  There  is  not  the 
slightest  doubt  that  the  woman  was  dead  when  they  saw  her,  so  here  we 
have  another  instance  of  a  person  being  seen  after  death. 

This  is  one  more  stone  added  to  the  mountain  of  evidence  which  has 
been  built  up  over  past  ages,  and  proves  to  us  that  we  on  earth  do 
get  glimpses  from  time  to  time  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  other  world. 

This  seeing  of  apparitions,  I  believe,  has  been  the  cause  of  all  religions 
from  the  time  of  early  man. 

Chapter  4 


This  class  of  physical  phenomena — the  alleged  visions  which  many  dying 
persons  have  had  of  deceased  friends,  some  of  whom  have  died  unknown 
to  them — is  well  worthy  of  the  most  careful  attention,  and  such  cases, 
if  well  enough  attested  as  facts,  have  a  tremendous  scientific  value. 

It  would  be  natural  to  suppose  that  the  crisis  of  death  is  often  attended 
by  all  sorts  of  hallucinations  and  may  be  dismissed  as  such,  but  when  we 
discover  that  dying  persons  impart  supernormal  information  that  cannot 
be  accounted  for  by  telepathy  or  chance-coincidence,  it  is  apparent  that 
this  fact  possesses  a  special  significance,  giving  the  strongest  support  to 
the  theory  of  the  survival  of  human  personality  after  bodily  death. 

It  is  regretted  that  this  is  the  rarest  type  of  phenomenon,  but  cases  of 
this  nature  cannot  be  produced  to  order;  we  can  only  accept  them  grate- 
fully when  they  happen.  Doubtless,  there  are  innumerable  instances  kept 
hidden  in  family  circles  that  have  never  been  divulged;  everyone  does 
not  rush  to  display  such  sacred  things  to  a  cold  and  skeptical  world,  not 
even  in  the  cause  of  truth.  Professor  Charles  Richet,  who  resisted  the 
survival  theory  almost  to  the  end  of  his  days,  said  that  when  cases  of 
death-bed  visions,  particularly  when  a  young  child  was  involved,  came  to 
his  notice,  he  felt  uneasy  in  denying  survival.  He  thought  this  was  the 
purest  type  of  phenomenon  in  the  vast  realm  of  psychical  research. 

Miss  Frances  Power  Cobbe  in  The  Pea\  in  Darien  well  described  cases 
when  deceased  friends  came  to  welcome  a  new  arrival: 

"The  dying  person  is  lying  quietly,  when  suddenly,  in  the  very  act  of 
expiring,  he  looks  up — sometimes  starts  up  in  bed — and  gazes  at  what 
appears  to  be  vacancy,  with  an  expression  of  astonishment  sometimes 
developing  into  joy,  and  sometimes  cut  short  in  the  first  emotion  of 
solemn  wonder  and  awe.  If  the  dying  person  were  to  see  some  utterly 
unexpected  but  instantly  recognized  vision,  causing  him  great  surprise 
or  rapturous  joy,  his  face  could  not  better  reveal  the  fact.  The  very  instant 



this  phenomenon  occurs,  death  is  actually  taking  place,  and  the  eyes  glaze 
even  when  they  gaze  at  the  unknown  sight." 

One  curious  feature  of  death-bed  visions  should  be  kept  in  mind,  and 
that  is,  that  the  dying  only  claim  to  see  those  who  have  died  before  them, 
whereas,  if  hallucination  were  at  work,  he  might  also  imagine  that  he 
saw  some  person  still  alive  but  absent  from  the  room.  Rarely  do  we  hear 
of  this  happening. 

Sometimes  the  witnessing  of  a  death-bed  of  this  nature  is  sufficient 
to  convince  skeptics  of  survival;  the  demonstration  of  one  instance  of  this 
natural  psychical  phenomenon  is  worth  all  the  second-hand  cases — however 
well  attested — in  the  world. 

case  no.  38 
The  Edward  Case 
This  case  was  vouched  for  by  Mr.  Hensleigh  Wedgwood,  who  con- 
tributed it  to  The  Spectator  many  years  ago: 

"A  young  girl,  a  near  connection  of  mine,  was  dying  of  consumption 
and  she  had  lain  for  some  days  in  a  prostrate  condition  taking  no  notice 
of  anything,  when  she  opened  her  eyes  and  looking  upwards,  said  slowly, 
'Susan  and  Jane  and  Ellen,'  as  if  recognizing  the  presence  of  three  sisters 
who  had  previously  died  of  the  same  disease. 

"Then  after  a  short  pause  she  added,  'And  Edward  too,'  naming  a 
brother  then  supposed  to  be  well  and  alive  in  India,  as  if  surprised  at 
seeing  him  in  the  company.  She  said  no  more  and  sank  shortly  afterwards. 

"In  the  course  of  the  post  letters  were  received  from  India  which  stated 
that  Edward  had  died  as  the  result  of  an  accident  one  or  two  weeks 
previous  to  the  death  of  his  sister  in  England. 

"This  incident  was  related  to  me  by  an  elder  sister  who  nursed  the 
dying  girl,  and  was  present  at  the  bedside  at  the  time  of  the  apparent 

case  no.  39 
The  Julia  Case1 
The  writer  of  the  following  account  is  Colonel  B.,  a  well-known  Irish 
gendeman.  He  explains  that  his  wife  engaged  to  sing  with  her  daughters 
1  Lodge,  Sir  Oliver,  The  Survival  of  Man  (New  York:  George  H.  Doran  Co.),  148. 


a  Miss  X.,  who  was  training  as  a  public  singer  but  who  ultimately  did 
not  come  out  in  that  capacity,  having  married  a  Mr.  Z. 

Six  or  seven  years  afterwards  Mrs.  B.,  who  was  dying,  spoke  in  the 
presence  of  her  husband  of  voices  she  heard  singing,  saying  that  she  had 
heard  them  several  times  that  day  and  that  there  was  one  voice  among 
them  which  she  knew,  but  could  not  remember  whose  voice  it  was. 

"Suddenly  she  stopped  and  said,  pointing  over  my  head,"  says  Colo- 
nel B.,  "  'Why,  there  she  is  in  the  corner  of  the  room;  it  is  Julia  X.  She  is 
coming  on;  she  is  leaning  over  you;  she  has  her  hands  up;  she  is  praying. 
Do  look;  she  is  going.'  I  turned  but  could  see  nothing.  Mrs.  B.  then  said, 
'She  is  gone.'  All  these  things  [the  hearing  of  singing  and  the  vision  of 
the  singers]  I  imagined  to  be  the  fantasies  of  a  dying  person. 

"Two  days  afterwards,  taking  up  The  Times,  I  saw  recorded  the  death 
of  Julia  Z.,  the  wife  of  Mr.  Z.  I  was  so  astounded  that  in  a  day  or  so 

after  the  funeral  I  went  up  to  and  asked  Mr.  X.  if  Mrs.  Z.,  his 

daughter,  was  dead.  He  said,  'Yes,  poor  thing,  she  died  of  puerperal  fever. 
On  the  day  she  died  she  began  singing  in  the  morning,  and  sang  and 
sang  until  she  died.' " 

case  no.  40 
The  Aspley  Case1 
This  case  was  given  in  a  paper  to  the  S.P.R.  by  Edmund  Gurney  and 
Frederic  W.  H.  Myers,  who  had  it  from  the  Rev.  C.  J.  Taylor,  who  in 

turn  received  it  direct  from  the  narrator,  the  Vicar  of  H ,  who  wished 

to  remain  anonymous: 

"On  November  2  and  3,  1870,  I  lost  my  two  eldest  boys,  David  Edward 
and  Harry,  from  scarlet  fever,  they  being  three  and  four  years  old 

"Harry  died  at  Abbot's  Langley  on  November  2,  fourteen  miles 
from  my  vicarage  at  Aspley,  David  the  following  day  at  Aspley.  About 
one  hour  before  the  death  of  this  latter  child,  he  sat  up  in  bed,  and  point- 
ing to  the  bottom  of  the  bed  said  distinctly,  'There  is  little  Harry  calling 
to  me.'  Of  the  truth  of  this  fact  I  am  sure,  and  it  was  heard  also  by  the 

"(Signed)  X.  Z.,  Vicar  of  H ." 

1  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  V,  459. 


Frank  Podmore  in  letters  and  conversations  with  Mr.  Taylor  received 
the  following  details:  "Mr.  Z.  (the  Vicar)  tells  me  that  great  care  was 
taken  to  keep  David  from  knowing  that  Harry  was  dead,  and  that  he 
feels  sure  that  David  did  not  know  it.  Mr.  Z.  was  himself  present  and 
heard  what  the  boy  said.  The  boy  was  not  delirious  at  the  time." 

case  no.  41 

The  Ogle  Case1 

"My  brother,  John  Alkin  Ogle,  died  at  Leeds,  July  17,  1879.  About  an 

hour  before  he  expired  he  saw  his  brother,  who  had  died  about  sixteen 

years  before,  and  looking  up  with  fixed  interest  said,  'Joe!   Joe!'  and 

immediately  exclaimed  with  ardent  surprise,  'George  Hanley!' 

"My  mother,  who  had  come  from  Melbourne,  a  distance  about  forty 
miles,  where  George  Hanley  resided,  was  astonished  at  this,  and  turning 
to  my  sister-in-law,  asked  if  anybody  had  told  John  of  George  Hanley's 
death.  She  said,  'No  one,'  and  my  mother  was  the  only  one  present  who 
was  aware  of  the  fact.  I  was  present  and  witnessed  this. 

"(Signed)     Harriet  H.  Ogle." 

In  answer  to  inquiries  Miss  Ogle  stated: 

"John  A.  Ogle  was  neither  delirious  nor  unconscious  when  he  uttered 
the  words  recorded.  George  Hanley  was  an  acquaintance  of  John  A. 
Ogle,  not  a  particular,  familiar  friend.  The  death  of  Hanley  was  not 
mentioned  in  his  hearing." 

case  no.  42 
The  Priscilla  Case 
Dr.  E.  H.  Plumtree,  the  Dean  of  Wells,  forwarded  this  case  to  The 
Spectator,  which  published  it  on  August  26,  1882: 

"The  mother  of  one  of  the  foremost  thinkers  and  theologians  of  our 
time  was  lying  on  her  death-bed  in  April  of  1854.  She  had  been  foi 
some  days  in  a  state  of  almost  complete  unconsciousness.  A  short  time 
before  her  death,  the  following  words  came  from  her  lips,  'There  they 
are,  all  of  them — William,  Elizabeth,  Emma  and  Anne.'  Then  after  a 
pause,  she  added,  'And  Priscilla  too.' 

1  Bozzano,  Ernest,  Annates  des  Sciences  Psychiques. 


"William  was  a  son  who  had  died  in  infancy,  and  whose  name  had 
never  for  years  passed  the  mother's  lips.  Priscilla  had  died  two  days 
before,  but  her  death,  though  known  to  the  family,  had  not  been  reported 
to  her." 

CASE  NO.  43 

The  F Case1 

"Notice  of  F 's  death  was  in  a  Boston  morning  paper  and  I  (Dr. 

Richard  Hodgson)  happened  to  see  it  on  my  way  to  the  sitting.  The  first 
writing  came  from  Madame  Elisa,  without  my  expecting  it.  She  wrote 

clearly  and  strongly,  explaining  that  F was  there  with  her  but  unable 

to  speak  direcdy,  that  she  wished  to  give  me  an  account  of  how  she  had 
helped  F to  reach  her. 

"She  said  that  she  had  been  present  at  his  death-bed  and  had  spoken 
to  him;  and  she  repeated  what  she  had  said,  an  unusual  form  of  expres- 
sion, and  indicated  that  he  had  heard  and  recognized  her. 

"This  was  confirmed  in  detail  in  the  only  way  possible  at  that  time, 
by  a  very  intimate  friend  of  Madame  Elisa  and  myself,  and  also  of  the 
nearest  surviving  relative  of  F . 

"I  showed  my  friend  the  account  of  the  sitting,  and  to  this  friend, 
a  day  or  two  later,  the  relative  who  was  present  at  the  death-bed  stated 

spontaneously  that  F ,  when  dying,  said  that  he  saw  Madame  Elisa 

who  was  speaking  to  him,  and  he  repeated  what  she  was  saying. 

"The  expression  so  repeated,  which  the  relative  quoted  to  my  friend, 
was  that  which  I  had  received  from  Madame  Elisa  through  Mrs.  Piper's 
trance,2  when  the  death-bed  incident  was  of  course  entirely  unknown 
to  me." 

case  no.  44 
The  Jennie  Case3 
This  is  a  well-authenticated  case  on  the  authority  of  Dr.  Minot  J. 
Savage,  who  knew  the  names  and  addresses  of  the  witnesses  concerned: 

1  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  XIII,  378,  footnote. 

2  A  celebrated  American  medium. 

3  Journal,  A.S.P.R.  (January,  1907),  50. 


"In  a  neighboring  city  were  two  little  girls,  Jennie  and  Edith,  one  about 
eight  years  of  age  and  the  other  a  little  older.  They  were  schoolmates 
and  intimate  friends.  In  June,  1889,  both  were  taken  ill  of  diphtheria.  At 
noon  on  Wednesday,  Jennie  died.  Then  the  parents  of  Edith,  and  her 
physician  as  well,  took  particular  pains  to  keep  from  her  the  fact  that  her 
little  playmate  was  gone.  They  feared  the  effect  of  the  knowledge  on 
her  own  condition.  To  prove  that  they  had  succeeded  and  that  she  did  not 
know,  it  may  be  mentioned  that  on  Saturday,  June  8,  at  noon,  just  as  she 
became  unconscious  of  all  that  was  passing  about  her,  she  selected  two 
of  her  photographs  to  be  sent  to  Jennie,  and  also  told  her  attendants  to 
bid  her  good-bye. 

"She  died  at  half-past  six  on  the  evening  of  Saturday,  June  8.  She  had 
roused  and  bidden  her  friends  good-bye,  and  was  talking  of  dying  per- 
sons and  seemed  to  have  no  fear.  She  appeared  to  see  one  and  another 
of  the  friends  she  knew  were  dead.  So  far  it  was  like  the  common  cases. 
But  now  suddenly,  and  with  every  appearance  of  surprise,  she  turned 
to  her  father  and  exclaimed,  'Why,  Papa,  I  am  going  to  take  Jennie  with 
me!'  Then  she  added,  'Why,  Papa!  Why,  Papa!  You  did  not  tell  me  that 
Jennie  was  here!'  And  immediately  she  reached  out  her  arms  as  if  in 
welcome,  and  said,  'Oh,  Jennie,  I'm  so  glad  you  are  here.' " 

case  no.  45 
The  Notari  Case 
In  a  strict  sense,  this  case  is  out  of  category  in  this  chapter,  but  since 
it  concerns  the  death-bed  of  a  baby,  it  is  given  because  of  the  apparition 
seen  by  the  percipient,  a  girl  three  years  of  age.  It  was  reported  by  Signor 
Pelusi,  Librarian  of  the  Victor  Emmanuel  Library  in  Rome,  and  pub- 
lished in  Luce  e  Ombra,  1920: 

"A  little  girl  of  three,  Hippolyte  Notari,  partly  paralyzed,  was  in  the 
same  room  with  her  little  brother  of  four  months,  who  was  dying.  The 
father,  mother,  and  grandmother  of  the  two  children  were  present.  About 
fifteen  minutes  before  the  death  of  the  infant,  little  Hippolyte  stretched 
out  her  arms,  saying,  'Look,  Mother,  Aunt  Olga.'  This  Aunt  Olga  was  a 
younger  sister  of  the  mother,  who  had  killed  herself  a  year  previously 
owing  to  a  disappointment  in  love.  The  parents  asked,  'Where  do  you  see 


Aunt  Olga?'  The  child  replied,  'There,  there!'  and  tried  insistently  to 
get  out  of  bed  to  go  to  her  aunt.  They  let  her  get  up,  she  ran  to  an  empty 
chair,  and  was  much  discountenanced  because  the  vision  had  moved  to 
another  part  of  the  room. 

"The  child  turned  'round  and  said,  pointing  to  a  corner,  'Aunt  Olga 
is  there.'  Then  she  became  quiet  and  the  baby  died." 

case  no.  46 
The  Moore  Case1 
It  is  conceded  that  there  is  no  evidence  in  this  instance,  but  Dr.  Wilson 
of  New  York  City,  who  witnessed  this  death-bed  scene,  declared  it  was  one 
of  the  most  beautiful  examples  of  this  kind  he  had  ever  known. 

Mr.  James  Moore,  a  well-known  American  tenor,  was  dying,  and 
Dr.  Wilson,  happening  to  be  in  the  room  when  the  death  occurred,  de- 
scribed the  incident  as  follows: 

"Then  something  which  I  shall  never  forget  to  my  dying  day  happened, 
something  which  is  utterly  indescribable.  While  he  appeared  perfectly 
rational  and  as  sane  as  any  man  I  have  ever  seen,  the  only  way  that  I  can 
express  it  is  that  he  was  transported  into  another  world;  and  though  I 
cannot  satisfactorily  explain  the  matter  to  myself,  I  am  fully  convinced  that 
he  had  entered  the  Golden  City — for  he  said  in  a  stronger  voice  than  he 
had  used  since  I  had  attended  him,  'There  is  Mother.  Why,  Mother,  have 
you  come  to  see  me?  No,  no,  I'm  coming  to  see  you.  Just  wait,  Mother, 
I  am  almost  over.  I  can  jump  it.  Wait,  Mother.'  On  his  face  there  was  a 
look  of  inexpressible  happiness,  and  the  way  in  which  he  said  the  words 
impressed  me  as  I  have  never  been  before,  and  I  am  as  firmly  convinced 
that  he  saw  and  talked  with  his  mother  as  I  am  that  I  am  sitting  here. 
In  order  to  preserve  what  I  believe  to  be  his  conversation  with  his  mother 
and  also  to  have  a  record  of  the  strangest  happening  of  my  life,  I  imme- 
diately wrote  down  every  word  he  said.  It  was  one  of  the  most  beautiful 
deaths  I  have  ever  seen." 

1  First  published  in  Light. 


CASE  NO.  47 

The  Adamina  Case1 

In  its  issue  of  September,  1924,  The  Review  Verdade  e  Luz  of  San 
Paolo  has  remarks  on  the  striking  incident  in  which  the  dying  Adamina 
Lazare  was  the  heroine. 

A  few  hours  before  her  death,  the  patient  said  to  her  father  that  she 
saw  near  the  bed  several  members  of  the  family,  all  deceased  some  years 
previously.  The  father  attributed  this  declaration  in  extremis  to  a  state  of 
delirium,  but  Adamina  insisted  with  renewed  force,  and  among  the 
invisible  "visitors"  named  her  own  brother  Alfredo,  who  was  employed  at 
the  time  at  a  distance  of  423  kilometers,  on  the  lighthouse  of  the  port  of 

The  father  was  more  and  more  convinced  of  the  imaginary  nature  of 
these  visions,  well  knowing  that  his  son  Alfredo  was  in  perfect  health, 
for  a  few  days  previously  he  had  sent  the  best  possible  news  of  himself. 

Adamina  died  the  same  evening,  and  the  next  morning  her  father 
received  a  telegram  informing  him  of  the  death  of  young  Alfredo.  The 
dying  girl  was  still  living  at  the  time  of  the  death  of  her  brother. 

case  no.  48 
The  Moody  Case2 

As  D.  L.  Moody,  the  famous  American  preacher,  lay  dying  in  1899, 
he  was  heard  to  exclaim  on  his  last  day: 

"Earth  recedes;  Heaven  opens  before  me."  The  first  impulse  of  the 
attendants  was  to  try  and  rouse  him  from  what  appeared  to  be  a  dream. 
"No,  this  is  no  dream,  Will,"  he  repeated.  "It  is  beautiful.  It  is  like  a 
trance.  If  this  is  death,  it  is  sweet." 

He  then  conversed  with  perfect  rationality  about  what  should  be  done 
regarding  his  work  after  his  death. 

Then  his  face  lit  up,  and  he  said  in  a  voice  of  joyful  rapture:  "D wight! 
Irene!  I  see  the  children's  faces,"  referring  to  the  two  little  grandchildren 
God  had  taken  from  his  life  the  past  year. 

1  Revue  Spirite  (December,  1924). 

2  Moody,  W.  R.,  Life  of  D.  L.  Moody,  552-53.  Prince,  Dr.  Walter  F.,  Noted  Wit- 
nesses for  Psychic  Occurrences. 



He  then  became  unconscious,  revived  and  said:  "What  does  all  this 
mean?  What  are  you  all  doing  here?" 

Then,  realizing  the  situation,  he  went  on: 

"This  is  a  very  strange  thing.  I  have  been  beyond  the  gates  of  death 
and  to  the  very  portals  of  Heaven.  And  here  I  am  back  again." 

case  no.  49 
The  Durocq  Case1 
Sir  William  F.  Barrett,  in  his  book,  Death  Bed  Visions,  quotes  this  and 
the  case  which  follows: 

"My  uncle,  M.  Paul  Durocq,  left  Paris  in  1893  for  a  trip  to  America, 
with  my  aunt  and  other  members  of  the  family.  While  they  were  at 
Venezuela  my  uncle  was  seized  with  yellow  fever,  and  he  died  at  Caracas 
on  June  24,  1894. 

"Just  before  his  death,  and  while  surrounded  by  all  his  family,  he  had 
a  prolonged  delirium  during  which  he  called  out  the  names  of  certain 
friends  left  in  France  and  whom  he  seemed  to  see.  'Well,  well,  you  too, 
,  and  you ,  you  as  well.' 

"Although  struck  by  this  incident,  nobody  attached  any  extraordinary 
importance  to  these  words  at  the  time  they  were  uttered,  but  they  acquired 
later  an  exceptional  importance  when  the  family  found,  on  their  return 
to  Paris,  the  funeral  invitation  cards  of  the  persons  named  by  my  uncle 
before  his  death,  and  who  had  died  before  him.  It  is  only  recently  that 
I  have  been  able  to  collect  the  testimony  of  the  only  two  survivors  of  this 
event,  my  cousins  Germaine  and  Maurice  Durocq." 

Germaine  corroborated  as  follows: 

"You  ask  me  details  of  the  death  of  my  poor  father.  I  well  remember 
him  as  he  lay  dying,  though  it  is  many  years  ago.  The  thing  which  prob- 
ably interests  you  is  that  he  told  us  of  having  seen  some  persons  in  Heaven 
and  of  having  spoken  to  them  at  length.  We  were  much  astonished  on 
returning  to  France  to  find  the  funeral  cards  of  those  same  persons  whom 
he  had  seen  when  dying.  Maurice,  who  was  older  than  I,  could  give  you 
more  details  on  this  subject." 

Maurice  Durocq  wrote: 

1  Barrett,  Sir  William  F.,  Death  Bed  Visions  (London:  Methuen  &  Co.,  Ltd.). 


"Concerning  what  you  ask  me  with  regard  to  the  death  of  my  father, 
which  occurred  a  good  many  years  ago,  I  recall  that  a  few  moments 
before  his  death  my  father  called  out  the  name  of  one  of  his  old  com- 
panions— M.  Etcheverry — with  whom  he  had  not  kept  up  any  connection, 
even  by  correspondence,  for  a  long  time  past,  crying  out,  'Ah!  you  too,' 
or  some  similar  phrase.  It  was  only  on  returning  home  to  Paris  that  we 
found  the  funeral  card  of  this  gentleman.  Perhaps  my  father  may  have 
mentioned  other  names  as  well,  but  I  do  not  remember  them." 

case  no.  50 

The  B Case 

Lady  Barrett  brought  this  case  to  the  notice  of  Sir  William  F.  Barrett, 
who  included  it  in  his  book,  Death  Bed  Visions,  page  10.  It  occurred  when 
Lady  Barrett  was  attending  a  patient  in  the  Mothers'  Hospital  at  Clapton, 
of  which  she  is  one  of  the  obstetric  surgeons.  She  received  an  urgent 
message  from  the  resident  medical  officer,  Dr.  Phillips,  to  come  to  a 
patient,  Mrs.  B.,  who  was  in  labor  and  suffering  from  serious  heart 
trouble.  Lady  Barrett  went  at  once,  and  the  child  was  delivered  safely, 
though  the  mother  was  dying  at  the  time.  After  seeing  other  patients 
Lady  Barrett  went  back  to  Mrs.  B.'s  ward,  and  the  following  conversation 
occurred,  which  was  written  down  soon  afterwards.  Lady  Barrett  writes: 

"When  I  entered  the  ward  Mrs.  B.  held  out  her  hands  to  me  and  said, 
'Thank  you,  thank  you  for  what  you  have  done  for  me — for  bringing  the 
baby.  Is  it  a  boy  or  a  girl?'  Then  holding  my  hand  lightly  she  said,  'Don't 
leave  me,  don't  go  away,  will  you?'  And  after  a  few  minutes,  while  the 
house  surgeon  carried  out  some  restorative  measures,  she  lay  looking  up 
towards  the  open  part  of  the  room,  which  was  brightly  lighted,  and  said, 
'Oh,  don't  let  it  get  dark,  it's  getting  so  dark  .  .  .  darker  and  darker.' 
Her  husband  and  mother  were  sent  for. 

Suddenly  she  looked  eagerly  towards  one  part  of  the  room,  a  radiant 
smile  illuminating  her  whole  countenance.  'Oh,  lovely,  lovely,'  she  said. 
I  asked,  'What  is  lovely?'  'What  I  see,'  she  replied  in  low  intense  tones. 
'What  do  you  see?'  'Lovely  brightness,  wonderful  beings.'  It  is  difficult 
to  describe  the  sense  of  reality  conveyed  by  her  intense  absorption  in  the 


"Then — seeming  to  focus  her  attention  more  intently  on  one  place  for 
a  moment — she  exclaimed,  almost  with  a  joyous  cry,  'Why,  it's  Father! 
Oh,  he  is  so  glad  I'm  coming;  he  is  so  glad.  It  would  be  perfect  if  only  W. 
(her  husband)  could  come  too.'  Her  baby  was  brought  for  her  to  see. 
She  looked  at  it  with  interest  and  then  said,  'Do  you  think  I  ought  to 
stay  for  baby's  sake?'  Then  turning  towards  the  vision  again,  she  said, 
'I  can't,  I  can't  stay;  if  you  could  see  what  I  do,  you  would  know  I  can't 

"But  she  turned  to  her  husband,  who  had  come  in,  and  said,  'You 
won't  let  baby  go  to  anyone  who  won't  love  him,  will  you?'  Then  she 
gently  pushed  him  to  one  side,  saying,  'Let  me  see  the  lovely  brightness.' 

"I  left  shortly  after  and  the  matron  took  my  place  by  the  bedside.  She 
lived  for  another  hour  and  appeared  to  have  retained  to  the  last  the 
double  consciousness  of  the  bright  forms  she  saw  and  also  of  those  attend- 
ing her  at  the  bedside;  e.g.,  she  arranged  with  the  matron  that  her  pre- 
mature baby  should  remain  in  the  hospital  till  it  was  strong  enough 
to  be  cared  for  in  an  ordinary  household. 

"(Signed)  Florence  E.  Barrett." 

Dr.  Phillips,  who  was  present,  after  reading  the  notes  wrote  to  Sir 
William  F.  Barrett,  saying  that  he  "fully  agrees  with  Lady  Barrett's 

The  most  important  evidence  is  yet  to  come,  and  it  was  supplied  by 
the  matron  of  the  hospital,  who  sent  the  following  account: 

"I  was  present  shortly  before  the  death  of  Mrs.  B.,  together  with  her 
husband  and  her  mother.  Her  husband  was  leaning  over  her  and  speak- 
ing to  her  when,  pushing  him  aside,  she  said,  'Oh,  don't  hide  it,  it's  so 
beautiful.'  Then  turning  away  from  him  towards  me,  I  being  on  the  other 
side  of  the  bed,  Mrs.  B.  said,  'Oh,  why,  there's  Vida,'  referring  to  a  sister 
of  whose  death  three  weeks  previously  she  had  not  been  told.  Afterwards 
the  mother,  who  was  present  at  the  time,  told  me,  as  I  have  said,  that  Vida 
was  the  name  of  a  dead  sister  of  Mrs.  B.'s,  of  whose  illness  and  death  she 
was  quite  ignorant,  as  they  had  carefully  kept  this  news  from  Mrs.  B. 
owing  to  her  serious  illness. 

"(Signed)  Miriam  Castle,  Matron." 


Mrs.  B.'s  mother — Mrs.  Clark — furnished  Sir  William  F.  Barrett  with 
an  independent  report: 

"I  have  heard  you  are  interested  in  the  beautiful  passing  of  my  dear 
daughter's  spirit  from  this  earth  on  January  12,  1924. 

"The  wonderful  part  of  it  is  the  history  of  the  death  of  my  dear  daugh- 
ter, Vida,  who  had  been  an  invalid  some  years.  Her  death  took  place  on 
December  25,  1923,  just  two  weeks  and  four  days  before  her  younger 
sister,  Doris,  died.  My  daughter  Doris,  Mrs.  B.,  was  very  ill  at  that  time, 
and  the  matron  at  the  Mothers'  Hospital  deemed  it  unwise  for  Mrs.  B. 
to  know  of  her  sister's  death.  Therefore  when  visiting  her  we  put  oflf 
mourning  and  visited  her  as  usual.  All  her  letters  were  also  kept  by 
request  until  her  husband  had  seen  who  they  might  be  from  before 
letting  her  see  them.  This  precaution  was  taken  lest  outside  friends  might 
possibly  allude  to  the  recent  bereavement  in  writing  to  her,  unaware  of  the 
very  dangerous  state  of  her  health. 

"When  my  dear  child  was  sinking  rapidly  .  .  .  she  said,  'I  can  see 
Father.  .  .  .  He  has  Vida  with  him,'  turning  again  to  me  saying,  'Vida  is 
with  him.'  Then  she  said,  'Do  you  want  me,  Dad  ?  I  am  coming.  .  .  .' 

"Yours  respectfully, 

"(Signed)  Mary  C.  Clark." 

Chapter  5 

This  type  of  mediumship  may  be  classified  into  two  groups : 

(1)  Automatic  writing  performed  with  pencil  and  paper  by  the  autom- 
atist  who  may,  or  may  not,  be  in  a  trance;  such  writings  by  their  very 
nature  must  be  strongly  suspected  as  emanating  from  the  subconscious — 
or  even  conscious — mind  of  the  medium  and  95  per  cent,  revealing  noth- 
ing but  hidden  desires  and  wishes,  may  be  safely  dismissed  as  rubbish. 
This  form  of  mediumship  is  the  happy  hunting-ground  of  persons  pos- 
sessing a  super-abundance  of  imagination  with  a  great  poverty  of  critical 
faculties;  and  unfortunately  the  long-suffering  public  has  been  deluged 
with  books  written  by  individuals  of  this  type. 

(2)  The  ouija-board,1  an  apparatus  consisting  of  a  "traveller"  and  a 
board  with  alphabet  and  figures  printed  thereon  in  alphabetical  and 
numerical  rotation,  with  the  words  "Yes,"  "No"  and  "Uncertain"  added 
for  convenience.  The  traveller  is  usually  a  small  heart-shaped  piece  of 
wood  half  an  inch  thick.  The  medium — or  a  combination  of  two — places 
his  hands  on  the  traveller  and  it  moves  over  the  board,  from  letter  to 
letter,  spelling  out  messages.  The  remarks  concerning  handwriting  may 
also  be  applied  to  ouija-board  work. 

Automatic  writing,  like  apparitions  and  dreams,  is  "as  old  as  the  hills," 
and  many  ancient,  as  well  as  modern,  writers  have  declared  that  they 
have  produced  work  in  the  semi-trance  condition.  Harriet  Beecher  Stowe, 
the  authoress  of  Uncle  Tom's  Cabin,  said  she  did  not  write  that  book:  her 
hand  was  the  instrument  of  another  personality.  William  Blake,  in  the 
preface  to  his  great  poem  Jerusalem,  wrote  that  it  was  dictated  to  him. 
"The  grandest  poem  that  this  world  contains ;  I  may  praise  it  since  I  dare 
not  pretend  to  be  other  than  the  secretary.  I  have  written  this  poem  from 
immediate  dictation,  twelve  or  sometimes  twenty  or  thirty  lines  at  a  time, 
without  premeditation  and  even  against  my  will."  One  of  the  most  volu- 
minous  examples   of  automatic   writing  ever   produced   was    Hudson 

1  A  combination  of  the  French  and  German  words  Out  and  Ja,  both  meaning  "Yes." 




Tuttle's  Arcana  of  Nature,  from  which  Charles  Darwin  quoted  in  his 
Origin  of  Species.  Would  the  great  naturalist  have  mentioned  Tuttle's 
work  had  he  known  its  mystical  origin? 

There  are  various  theories  in  vogue  regarding  the  inspiration  of  both 
types  of  automatic  writing.  Some  mediums  state  the  idea  takes  hold  of 
their  minds  and  they  express  it  in  their  own  language  in  normal  con- 
ditions. Others  aver  they  are  in  a  state  of  trance  and  are  totally  unaware 
of  what  the  hand  has  produced  until  they  recover  consciousness.  Critics, 
however,  are  indifferent  to  the  technique;  they  judge  the  communica- 
tion by  its  content. 

case  no.  51 
The  Hall  Case1 

"First  let  me  say  that  I  was  a  most  hardened  skeptic  before  the  message 
came  through  to  me  which  converted  me. 

"My  sister,  to  whom  I  was  gready  attached,  had  for  many  years  been 
in  close  touch  and  affectionate  friendship  with  a  Miss  Wingfield,  who 
possessed  in  a  very  high  degree  the  power  of  .  .  .  'automatic  writing.' 

"In  order  to  make  the  matter  quite  clear  to  my  reader,  I  am  afraid 
I  shall  have  to  go  into  a  matter  of  family  history  which  is  not  altogether 
a  pleasant  recollection.  For  some  time  previous  to  this  date  in  March, 
1894,  a  brother  of  mine  much  older  than  myself,  who,  after  great  pros- 
perity, had  fallen  into  great  poverty,  was  in  South  Africa  in  receipt  of  an 
allowance,  and  this  allowance  was  paid  by  me  on  behalf  of  the  family 
through  a  kind  friend,  Archdeacon  Gaul,  who  very  reluctantly  had  ac- 
cepted the  somewhat  disagreeable  task. 

"To  put  it  very  shortly,  my  brother  was  an  inebriate,  and  as  is  always 
the  case,  any  money  coming  direct  to  his  hands  went  in  drink.  To  avoid 
this,  Archdeacon  Gaul  had  kindly  procured  a  lodging  where  the  unfortu- 
nate fellow  could  be  looked  after,  fed,  and  clothed,  and,  as  far  as  possible, 
deprived  of  the  means  of  procuring  drink.  As  so  often  happens  in  this 
class  of  case,  the  recipient  of  this  form  of  assistance  resented  very  much 
that  the  payment  should  be  made  in  that  way,  and  demanded  that  the 
money  should  be  paid  to  him  direct.  There  had  been  some  considerable 
correspondence  between  us  on  this  subject.  I  had  absolutely  refused  to 

1  Hall,  Sir  Edward  Marshall,  Evidences  of  Survival  (London:  Putnam's  Sons). 


accede  to  his  request,  and  the  tone  of  his  letters  had  become  more  and 
more  unpleasant.  He  had  even  gone  so  far  as  to  write  and  threaten  me 
with  an  action,  unless  I  paid  him  a  sum  approximately  ,£50,  being,  as  he 
alleged,  the  arrears  of  an  agreement  which  I  was  said  to  have  made  with 
him,  that  if  he  would  go  to  South  Africa  I  would  give  him  ^1  per  week. 
The  unpleasant  details  of  this  correspondence  I  had  never  communi- 
cated to  my  sister,  but  of  course  she  knew  that  he  was  in  South  Africa, 
and  she  also  knew  that  Archdeacon  Gaul  was  interesting  himself  on  his 

"On  Friday  or  Saturday,  March  9  or  10,  I  had  received  from  South 
Airica  a  short  and  insulting  letter  from  my  brother,  again  demanding  that 
the  allowance  should  be  paid  direct  and  threatening  all  sorts  of  pains  and 
penalties  if  I  refused.  This  letter  happened  to  be  in  my  pocket;  I  had  not 
answered  it,  and  I  had  not  mentioned  it  to  my  sister,  nor  made  any 
reference  to  our  brother.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  I  had  only  been  in  the  house 
a  few  minutes.  I  realized  that  here  was  an  opportunity  of  testing  Miss 
Wingfield's  powers.  I  took  the  letter  out  of  my  pocket;  it  was  in  an 
envelope.  I  folded  it  with  the  address  and  writing  inside;  I  then  placed 
the  whole  in  another  envelope  which  I  sealed.  I  wrote  nothing,  there  was 
no  writing  on  the  outside  of  the  outer  envelope  and  I  handed  the  envelope 
so  sealed  to  my  sister,  desiring  her  to  give  it  to  Miss  Wingfield  and  to  ask 
her:  'Where  is  the  writer  of  the  letter  contained  in  that  envelope?'  It  will 
be  noticed  that  I  made  no  mention  of  sex  and  I  am  absolutely  certain  that 
my  sister  had  no  knowledge  as  to  who  was  the  writer  of  the  enclosed 
letter.  After  considerable  delay,  a  message  came  through  in  automatic 
writing,  'The  writer  of  the  letter  is  dead.'  This  message  was  passed  on  to 
me  by  my  sister,  and  naturally  caused  considerable  surprise.  In  order  to 
make  a  further  test  I  asked  another  question:  'When  and  where  did  the 
writer  die?'  Again  the  answer  came  back,  stating  that  he  had  died  yester- 
day in  South  Africa.  Again  I  had  mentioned  no  sex  and  given  no  indi- 
cation of  the  place  of  origin  of  the  letter,  and  the  answer,  I  remember, 
seemed  to  me  so  ridiculous,  because  there  was  a  letter  from  South  Africa 
which  I  had  just  received.  For  a  moment  by  that  curious  lapse  of  memory 
which  sometimes  affects  us,  I  did  not  realize  that  the  letter,  although 
received  by  me  on  March  9  or  10,  had  in  fact  been  written  some  three 
weeks  before.  I  frankly  admit  that  I  was  puzzled,  for  the  letter  about 


which  1  was  asking  was  undoubtedly  from  South  Africa,  where  my 
brother,  about  whom  I  was  inquiring,  was — for  all  I  knew  to  the  con- 
trary— then  alive.  My  sister  asked  me  if  I  wished  to  put  any  more  ques- 
tions. I  simply  said,  'No,'  and  I  never  told  her  anything  about  the  facts 
of  that  letter  till  some  weeks  later.  In  the  evening  I  returned  to  London 
and  on  Monday  morning  I  dictated  a  letter  to  my  confidential  clerk 
addressed  to  my  brother,  a  letter  which  in  fact  was  not  sent.  The  following 
Saturday,  March  17,  I  received  a  letter  of  small  importance  from  Arch- 
deacon Gaul;  it  is  dated  March  5,  and  the  envelope  bears  the  postmark  of 
Kimberley,  March  5,  1894,  and  the  London  postmark  of  March  27,  on 
which  day  I  received  it.  This  letter,  which  I  have  in  my  hands  at  this 
moment,  gives  me  an  account  of  monies  that  have  been  expended  for  my 
brother,  but  complains  very  much  of  his  conduct  and  practically  requests 
that  definite  arrangements  should  be  made  as  to  remitting  regularly 
through  the  Standard  Bank  of  South  Africa. 

"So  incredulous  was  I  of  the  message  that  I  had  received  that,  though 
I  remember  having  a  qualm  on  the  subject,  I  actually  wrote  a  long  letter 
to  the  Archdeacon  on  March  29,  1894,  in  which  I  put  the  position  plainly 
before  him  and  promised  to  do  as  he  asked.  The  draft  of  that  letter  in 
my  clerk's  handwriting  I  have  now  found.  On  April  2,  1894,  I  received 
another  letter  from  Archdeacon  Gaul,  dated  Kimberley,  March  8,  1894, 
which  begins:  'Dear  Sir:  I  little  thought  when  I  wrote  last  week  that  I 
should  have  this  week  the  melancholy  duty  laid  on  me  of  informing  you 
of  the  death  of  your  brother,  which  occurred  yesterday,'  and  he  goes  on 
to  say  that  my  brother  had  been  found  lying  dead  on  the  early  morning 
of  that  day  and  was  going  to  be  buried  that  afternoon.  I  need  hardly  say 
that  this  communication  staggered  me,  and  after  considering  every  pos- 
sible explanation  of  the  communication,  and  making  every  allowance 
for  imagination,  I  was  convinced  that  the  message  I  had  received  on 
March  10  had  come  through  some  agency  outside  this  material  world. 

"Telepathy,  clairvoyance,  and  thought-reading  are  absolutely  eliminated. 
I  was  ignorant  of  the  fact,  when  I  asked  the  question  on  March  10,  that 
my  brother  was  dead.  My  sister  did  not  know  that  I  was  asking  any 
question  about  my  brother,  or  even  about  a  letter  written  by  my  brother, 
and  certainly  she  did  not  know  that  he  was  dead.  Miss  Wingfield  had 
never  seen  my  brother ;  I  doubt  if  she  ever  knew  of  his  existence,  and  she 


certainly  had  no  knowledge  whatever  that  he  was  in  South  Africa  at  the 
time,  so  the  fact  remains  that  on  Saturday,  March  10,  1894,  I  was  told 
that  my  brother  had  died  in  South  Africa  yesterday.  I  quite  admit  that  this 
is  not  strictly  accurate,  for,  in  point  of  fact  he  had  died  on  the  early  morn- 
ing of  March  8;  but  that  in  my  opinion  does  not  weaken  the  conclusion 
I  have  formed,  and  it  is  quite  possible  that  the  word  my  sister  read  as 
'yesterday'  may  have  been  'Thursday,'  which  was  the  day  of  the  death. 
If  I  am  right  in  saying  that  this  phenomenon  cannot  be  explained  by  any 
natural  process,  then  I  consider  I  am  justified  in  continuing  to  believe,  as 
I  do  believe,  that  it  was  a  supernatural  communication. 

"Some  day  the  true  explanation  of  these  phenomena  will  be  demon- 
strated, and  if  it  is  not  on  the  lines  that  I  have  indicated,  and  there  is 
some  other  means  of  accounting  for  it  which  does  not  involve  survival 
after  death,  I  am  convinced  that  we  shall  learn  something  even  more 
marvelous,  more  improbable,  and  certainly  less  acceptable  to  those  who, 
like  myself,  find  comfort  in  our  belief." 

CASE  NO.  52 

The  Pearl  Tie-Pin  Case1 

This  case  was  obtained  through  the  mediumship  of  Mrs.  Travers-Smith. 

Miss  C,  the  sitter,  had  a  cousin,  an  officer  in  the  British  Army,  who  had 
been  killed  in  a  battle  in  France  one  month  previous  to  a  sitting  held  with 
Mrs.  Travers-Smith.  Miss  C.  was  aware  of  her  cousin's  death.  His  name 
was  unexpectedly  spelled  out  on  the  ouija-board  and  her  name  given  back 
in  reply  to  her  question,  "Do  you  know  who  I  am?"  Then  the  following 
message  was  given: 

"Tell  mother  to  give  my  pearl  tie-pin  to  the  girl  I  intended  to  marry. 
I  think  she  should  have  it." 

The  lady's  full  Christian  and  surname  came  through,  the  latter  very 
uncommon  and  quite  unknown  to  either  Mrs.  Travers-Smith  or  Miss  C. 
An  address  in  London  was  given  which  proved  to  be  incorrect,  as  a 
letter  sent  there  was  returned.  The  ladies  thought  that  as  the  address  was 
either  wrongly  taken  down  or  fictitious,  no  more  would  be  heard  of  the 
matter,  but  six  months  later  it  was  discovered  that  the  officer  had  been 

1  Travers-Smith,  Helen,  Voices  from  the  Void  (London:  Wm.  Rider  &  Co.). 



engaged,  shortly  before  going  to  France,  and  to  the  very  lady  whose 
name  had  been  spelled  out  on  the  ouija-board.  Neither  his  family  in 
Ireland  nor  his  cousin,  Miss  C,  were  aware  of  this  fact,  and  they  had 
never  seen  her  or  even  heard  of  her  name  until  after  his  death,  when  the 
War  Office  forwarded  his  effects.  Among  them  they  discovered  a  pearl 
tie-pin,  and  in  his  will  the  lady's  name  was  mentioned  as  his  next  of 
kin,  both  Christian  and  surname  being  precisely  as  obtained  at  the 

The  two  ladies  signed  a  document  to  the  effect  that  the  message  was 
recorded  at  the  time  of  the  sitting  and  not  from  memory  after  the 
message  had  been  verified.  This  statement  was  forwarded  to  Sir  William 
F.  Barrett. 

case  no.  53 
The  Glastonbury  Case1 

This  case  is  one  in  which  the  medium  could  not  have  known  the  facts, 
as  they  were  not  known  to  anyone  in  the  world. 

In  1907,  F.  Bligh  Bond  and  his  friend,  Captain  J.  Allen  Bartlett,  devoted 
considerable  time  to  the  study  of  the  ruins  in  the  diocese  of  Bath  and 
Wells,  and  their  history,  as  the  former  was  hoping  to  obtain  the  position 
of  Honorary  Architect  for  that  district. 

They  read  up  all  information  to  be  found  concerning  the  ruined  Glaston- 
bury Abbey  from  the  works  of  medieval  writers  to  those  of  the  nineteenth 

Captain  Bartlett  possessed  the  gift  of  automatic  writing  and,  by  his 
hand,  Johannes  (1497-1534),  a  monk  of  Glastonbury,  purported  to  pro- 
vide them  with  much  information  not  to  be  found  in  any  of  the  authori- 
ties previously  consulted,  that  led  to  the  discovery  of  the  Edgar  Chapel — 
which  had  been  completely  lost,  previous  excavation  having  failed  to 
reveal  its  existence. 

At  a  sitting  held  in  January,  1908,  before  the  excavations  of  Bligh  Bond 
and  Bartlett  commenced,  a  detailed  description  of  the  Chapel  was  given 
in  medieval  English  and  Latin.  The  Chapel  was  situated  at  the  east  end 
of  the  Abbey.  A  door  existed  five  paces  behind  the  reredos.  The  Chapel 
extended  thirty  yards  to  the  east;  the  ending  of  the  Chapel  had  walls  at  an 
angle.  The  first  part,  built  by  Abbot  Bere,  was  seventy  or  seventy-two 

1  Bond,  F.  Bligh,  The  Gate  of  Remembrance  (Oxford:  Basil  Blackwell). 


feet  long,  and  there  was  an  eastward  extension  made  later  by  Whyting,  the 
last  Abbot  having  these  particular  walls.  This  part  had  poor  and  thin 
foundations,  the  ceiling  was  of  crimson  and  gold;  and  the  chamber, 
seventy  feet  in  length,  had  four  bays,  etc. 

Excavations  did  not  commence  till  June,  1908,  a  month  after  the  ful- 
fillment of  Johannes'  prediction  that  F.  B.  B.  should  receive  his  appoint- 
ment as  Director  of  Excavations  "when  the  cuckoo  cometh  to  the  woods 
of  Mere":  and  all  these  statements  were,  one  after  another,  found  to 
be  correct,  and  no  books  or  documents  were  in  existence  that  could  have 
given  such  information  as  would  have  led  to  the  discovery  of  the  Edgar 
Chapel,  which  had  been  the  despair  of  antiquaries  for  half  a  century. 

The  Hon.  Everard  Feilding,  who  was  Secretary  of  the  S.  P.  R.  at  that 
period,  followed  the  case  with  keen  interest  and  he  wrote  to  Bligh  Bond 
that  "there  is  no  question  but  that  the  writing  about  the  Edgar  Chapel  pre- 
ceded the  discovery  of  it  by  many  months.  I  was  present,  if  you  remember, 
at  what  I  believe  was  the  beginning  of  the  recrudescence  of  Bartlett's 
automatism,  and  that  was  before  you  were  appointed  to  the  work.  I 
remember  your  telling  me  when  you  were  appointed  how  interesting 
it  was,  as  you  were  then  able  to  test  some  of  the  statements  made.  No, 
there  is  no  doubt  whatever  in  my  mind  on  that  point.  .  .  ." 

The  discovery  was  credited  to  the  emergence  of  latent  knowledge  de- 
rived from  the  study  of  the  documents,  and  the  Trustees  of  the  National 
Church  took  no  action;  but  in  1922,  when  further  revelations  came 
through  another  medium,  unfamiliar  with  the  Abbey  history,1  that  re- 
vealed the  Norman  wall  of  Herlewin,  Bligh  Bond  was  relieved  of  his 
appointment  as  Director  of  Excavations.  All  work  was  suspended  for  six 
years;  many  landmarks  were  removed,  including  those  of  the  angular 
extension  of  the  Edgar  Chapel.  Stones  were  taken  away,  trenches  filled, 
while  other  records  were  allowed  to  perish  through  exposure.  The  moral 
of  the  case  should  not  require  much  emphasizing  to  the  discerning  reader. 

To  complete  the  case,  F.  B.  B.  has  added  the  following,  which  may 
be  verified  in  detail  by  any  member  of  the  Council  of  the  Somerset  Ar- 
chaeological Society  who  is  willing  to  testify: 

"At  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Somerset  Archaeological  Society  in 
July,  1939,  the  Council  was  moved  by  the  then  Chairman,  who  was  also 

1  Bond,  F.  Bligh,  The  Company  of  Avdlon  (Oxford:  Basil  Blackwell). 


Director  of  Excavations  in  succession  to  Bligh  Bond,  to  procure  the  vote 
of  members  to  a  resolution  approving  the  destruction  of  the  evidence  on 
the  site,  and  thus  justifying  the  action  of  the  Trustees,  on  the  alleged 
ground  that  Bond  had  made  an  imaginary  record  to  validate  his  own 

"Of  this,  Bond  had  had  no  notice  and  he  had  not  been  asked  to  state 
his  case.  But  being  warned  in  time  he  attended  the  meeting  and  was 
able  to  satisfy  his  critics  and  forestall  the  hostile  resolution.  No  account 
of  these  proceedings  was  printed  in  the  1939-40  volume:  only  the  text 
of  a  resolution  submitted  by  himself,  calling  upon  the  Office  of  Works,  as 
the  paramount  authority  over  the  ruins,  to  make  full  inquiry  into  the 
whole  matter  and,  if  possible,  have  the  evidence  reinstated." 

case  no.  54 
The  Patience  Worth  Case1 

This  case  puzzled  not  only  psychical  researchers  but  scientists  and 
psychologists  also,  and  those  who  opposed  the  survival  theory  were  given, 
in  this  instance,  a  difficult  case  to  explain  away  when  Patience  Worth — 
purporting  to  be  a  peasant  girl  who  had  lived  her  early  life  in  Dorsetshire, 
England,  and  killed  by  Indians  in  America,  when  she  emigrated  there  in 
the  seventeenth  century — controlled  Mrs.  John  H.  Curran,  a  medium  of 
St.  Louis,  Missouri.  This  woman's  education  had  been  limited:  her  read- 
ing never  exceeded  that  of  the  average  American  woman  of  her  class,  and 
she  had  travelled  little. 

She  first  performed  on  the  ouija-board,  but  later  took  to  communicating 
and  dictating,  in  direct  speech,  a  number  of  books  of  outstanding  literary 
merit,  with  extreme  rapidity,  over  a  wide  range  of  subjects.  The  following 
works  are  to  her  credit:  The  Sorry  Tale,  Hope  True-Blood,  Light  from 
Beyond,  The  Pot  upon  the  Wheel,  and  Tel\a,  the  latter  a  70,000-word 
poem  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  language  of  three  centuries  ago,  dictated  for  the 
purpose  of  proving  Patience  Worth  to  be  a  personality  independent  of 
the  medium,  as  in  it  she  did  not  use  any  words  that  had  come  into  use 
since  her  day — a  feat  she  considered  beyond  the  powers  of  anyone  now 
living  in  the  world. 

1  Prince,  Dr.  Walter  F.,  The  Case  of  Patience  Worth.  Yost,  Casper  S.,  Patience 
(forth — A  Psychic  Mystery. 


Dr.  W.  F.  Prince,  considering  it  to  be  a  masterpiece,  wrote:  "The  char- 
acters in  Tel\a  live,  we  see  and  know  them;  one  of  them  is  not  the  replica 
of  another.  .  .  .  On  the  contrary,  the  characters  of  Maeterlinck — and  I 
may  refer  to  him  because  he  has  a  great  reputation  as  a  great  writer — are 
usually  pale  wraiths  and  we  all  admit  Maeterlinck  is  a  great  artist  .  .  . 
but  it  will  be  discovered  that  Patience  Worth  as  judged  by  Telkjz  is  a 

Professor  Schiller  of  Oxford  observed  regarding  the  antiquated  lan- 
guage of  Tel\a:  "It  is  certainly  impressive  to  be  told  that  one  of  her  tales, 
Tel\a,  extending  to  70,000  words,  exhibits  a  vocabulary  'as  to  ninety  per 
cent  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  origin,'  and  contains  no  word  of  later  entry  into 
the  language  of  1600  except  'amuck'  (which  is  first  recorded  in  the  second 
half  of  the  seventeenth  century),  and  no  word  wrongly  formed  among 
those  which  are  on  record.  When  we  are  told  further  that  the  'Authorized 
Version'  has  only  seventy-seven  per  cent  of  Anglo-Saxon,  and  that  it  is 
necessary  to  go  back  to  Layamon  (1205)  to  equal  Patience  Worth's  per- 
centage, we  realize  that  we  are  face  to  face  with  what  may  be  fairly  called 
a  philological  miracle."1 

And  this  amazing  idyllic  poem  of  70,000  v/ords  (270  pages)  in  blank 
verse,  judged  by  competent  critics  to  be  superior  to  analogous  works  by 
Maeterlinck,  was  dictated  in  the  brief  time  of  thirty-five  hours! 

Once,  when  the  early  chapters  of  a  novel  far  advanced  were  mislaid, 
Patience  Worth  dictated  them  again,  and  when  the  missing  documents 
were  found,  it  was  seen  that  the  second  dictation  was  an  exact  replica  of 
the  first. 

The  critics  attacked  the  case  with  three  hypotheses:  secondary  sub- 
conscious personality,  subliminal  consciousness,  and  cosmic  consciousness. 
Professor  Schiller  reviewed  the  three  hypotheses,  particularly  the  latter, 
concluding:  "If  Patience  Worth  be  a  selection  from  the  Absolute,  so  is 
everyone  else,  and  therefore,  so  far  as  this  argument  goes,  she  is  as  good  a 
'spirit'  as  any!"2 

The  conclusion  of  Dr.  W.  F.  Prince  was:  "Either  our  concept  of  what 
we  call  the  subconscious  mind  must  be  radically  altered  so  as  to  include 
potencies  of  which  we  hitherto  have  had  no  knowledge,  or  else  some  cause 

1  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  XXXVT,  574. 

2  Ibid.,  XXXVI,  57-59. 


operating  through,  but  not  originating  in,  the  subconsciousness  of  Mrs. 
Curran  must  be  acknowledged." 

Professor  Allison,  of  Manitoba  University,  who  personally  studied  the 
case,  thought  she  "must  be  regarded  as  the  outstanding  phenomenon  of 
the  age,"  and  Dr.  Usher,  Professor  of  History  in  Washington  University, 
considered  "The  Sorry  Tale,  a  work  of  350,000  words,  the  greatest  story 
penned  of  the  life  and  times  since  the  Gospels  were  published." 

The  claim  of  Patience  Worth  to  be  a  personality  who  once  lived  on 
this  earth  does  not  depend  entirely  upon  her  works — great  though  their 
value  is — but  upon  the  fact  that  some  of  her  statements  concerning  her 
home  and  her  environment  have  been  verified. 

case  no.  55 
The  Buttons  Case1 
This  case  was  written  by  Mrs.  Margaret  Deland  for  the  Clark  Univer- 
sity Symposium  which  was  held  at  Clark  University,  Worcester,  Mass., 
in  November  and  December,  1926: 

"In  her  paper  for  the  Symposium,  Mrs.  Deland  makes  use  of  the 
ingenious  argument  of  a  scientific  sieve  through  which,  by  means  of  the 
familiar  tags  'clairvoyance,'  'intuition,'  'coincidence,'  'telepathy,'  etc.,  she 
essays  to  push  various  incidents  of  ouija-board  spellings,  automatic  writ- 
ings, visions,  and  so  on,  in  the  contention  that  if  any  refuse,  even  after 
'some  pushing  and  straining,'  to  pass  through  the  meshes  of  this  sieve  it  is 
a  logical  deduction  that  this  residuum  argues  for  the  theory  of  survival. 
We  will  let  her  tell  this  'button'  incident  in  her  own  words" : 

"I  know  a  story,"  she  says.  ".  .  .  It  is  concerned  with  a  baby's  rompers. 
About  a  year  and  a  half  ago  a  friend — whom  I  will  call  Molly — and  I 
were  sitting  with  Mrs.  Piper  in  Boston,  and  Molly's  sister,  Lucy,  who  had 
died,  'purported'  (as  the  saying  is)  to  write  with  the  entranced  Mrs.  Piper's 
hand.  She  said  that  the  day  before  she  had  seen  her  mother  in  another 
town,  doing  so  and  so.  The  statement  was  correct;  but  as  Molly  happened 
to  know  exactly  what  her  mother  had  been  doing  at  the  time  she,  of 
course,  credited  the  information  to  mind-reading  on  the  part  of  Mrs. 
Piper.  Then  another  personality  began  to  write  but  paused  to  say: 

1  Piper,  Alta  L.,  The  Life  and  Work  of  Mrs.  Piper  (London:  Kegan  Paul,  Trench, 
Trubner  &  Co.,  Ltd.),  190-92. 


"  'Lucy  has  gone  again  to  find  Mother  and  see  what  she  is  doing.' 

"I,  rather  surprised,  said,  'What  now!'  There  was  no  reply;  the  other 
communicator  just  went  on  writing  about  his  own  affairs,  then  after  some 
twenty  minutes  paused  to  say  abruptly: 

"'Here's  Lucy!' 

"I  said,  as  nearly  as  I  can  remember,  'Well,  Lucy,  did  you  see  your 
mother?  What  was  she  doing?'  Mrs.  Piper's  hand  wrote: 

"  'Mother  just  looked  at  morning  news  (here  followed  a  drawing  of 
newspaper)  and  laid  it  on  a  little  table.  Picked  up  what  looked  like  a 
box  of  buttons  (here  the  hand  drew  seven  little  circles  suggesting  buttons) 
and  shook  them.  Looked  into  it.  Picked  up  two  or  three  and  sat  down  in 
a  chair  to  put  them  in  another  place.' 

"Later  this  was  reported  to  Lucy's  mother,  who  said  that  at  the  time 
this  was  being  written  in  Boston,  she  may  have  been  reading  a  paper; 
she  generally  did  about  that  hour,  but  she  couldn't  be  certain.  But  she 
was  certain  that  she  had  taken  up  a  little  tray  of  buttons,  perhaps  a  dozen, 
shaken  it,  because  (she  remembered)  some  ravellings  were  clinging  to  the 
buttons,  then  picked  out  two,  and  sat  down  to  sew  them  on  to  her  little 
granddaughter's  rompers.  To  me,  these  buttons  for  a  baby's  bloomers  lie 
as  residuum  in  the  sieve,  when  golden  crowns  or  harps  would  have  slipped 
through!  No  eye  of  flesh  saw  that  simple  domestic  scene.  Mrs.  Piper  in 
Boston  knew  nothing  of  Lucy's  mother,  nor  of  her  occupation;  nor  did 
Lucy's  sister  Molly  have  any  idea  what  was  going  on  in  Cambridge  at 
eleven  o'clock  that  April  morning.  Yet  here  is  a  statement  coincidental 
with  an  event:  'She  picked  up  a  box  of  buttons  and  shook  them.'  " 

CASE  NO.  56 

The  X  Case1 

After  the  death  of  Professor  James  H.  Hyslop  on  June  17,  1920,  Miss 
Gertrude  O.  Tubby,  his  secretary,  believing  that  after  the  post-mortem 
Hyslop  would  still  be  interested  in  psychical  research,  decided  to  inaugu- 
rate a  scheme  of  cross-correspondence  in  which  his  cooperation  was 

Hyslop,  five  hours  after  his  death,  seized  his  first  opportunity  of  reveal- 

1  Tubby,  Gertrude  O.,  James  H.  Hyslop,  X,  His  Book  (The  New  York  Publishing 


ing  himself  when  Miss  Tubby,  making  an  ostensible  casual,  friendly  call 
on  Mrs.  G.  C.  Saunders,  of  New  York,  was  given  pertinent  and  highly 
evidential  information,  the  medium  being  unaware  of  Hyslop's  death. 

Thereafter,  through  various  mediums  in  the  United  States,  Hyslop 
always  indicated  his  presence  with  the  sign  X;  and  Miss  Tubby,  decid- 
ing to  cast  her  net  over  a  wider  area,  planned  a  trip  to  England  and 
France  for  the  purpose  of  allowing  Hyslop  to  prove  himself  through 
mediums  to  whom  Miss  Tubby  was  a  total  stranger.  To  be  on  the  safe 
side,  it  was  agreed  between  them  that  no  communication  on  foreign  soil 
would  be  considered  genuine — even  though  it  contained  apparent  evidence 
— unless  the  sign  X  was  also  given.  Miss  Tubby,  a  true  disciple  of  Hyslop, 
shrouded  herself  in  anonymity:  only  three  persons  in  England  and  none 
in  France  were  aware  of  her  impending  visit,  and  all  the  psychical  re- 
searchers in  New  York  were  pledged  to  strict  silence. 

Miss  Tubby,  arriving  in  London,  made  an  appointment  with 'Mrs. 
Hester  Travers-Smith  over  the  telephone,  stating  that  she  had  been  recom- 
mended by  a  friend  in  the  United  States  to  have  a  sitting  with  her.  No 
name  was  given  and  she  was  sure  her  anonymity  was  well  protected. 

The  sitting  took  place  on  Tuesday,  July  8,  1924.  Miss  Tubby  offered  the 
medium  some  small  articles  (in  a  cardboard  box  wrapped  in  oil-silk)  that 
had  belonged  to  Hyslop.  The  first  name  spelled  out  was  one  that  Miss 
Tubby  did  not  expect,  "Ernest  Ainslee."  Though  he  had  communicated 
through  this  medium  before,  the  significant  feature  of  his  name  was  that 
he  was  a  friend  of  the  lady,  Laura,  who  was  Miss  Tubby's  hostess  in 
London,  whose  name  was  specially  mentioned  and  whose  presence  was 
also  desired.  "Ernest"  was  unacquainted  with  Miss  Tubby  and  a  request 
for  her  Christian  name  brought  out  at  first  the  incorrect  answer,  "Marion," 
but  when  informed  of  his  error  he  replied,  "Not  Laura's  Gert!"  Miss 
Tubby  stated  that  this  expression  spoke  volumes.  "I  was  'Gert'  to  Laura 
and  to  no  one  else.  She  had  given  me  the  somewhat  absurd  nickname  from 
our  early  acquaintance,  before  I  knew  of  it  myself.  But  'Ernest  Ainslee' 
had  passed  from  this  life  a  perfect  stranger  to  me.  Hence  for  him  to 
address  me  as  'Gert'  would  have  been  entirely  inappropriate,  but  to  refer 
to  me  as  Laura's  Gert'  is  highly  evidential.  Mrs.  Travers-Smith  had  never 
been  informed  of  any  intimacy  between  Laura  and  me,  and  would  not 
normally  hit  upon  this,  even  had  she  known  who  I  was." 


Miss  Tubby's  mission  was  not  to  contact  strangers,  evidential  though 
their  communications  were,  so  she  sat  tight  and  waited.  Then  quite  dra- 
matically the  apparent  owner  of  the  packet  appeared  on  the  scene  asking 
some  questions.  Miss  Tubby  retaliated  by  asking  for  a  name;  it  came, 
very  slowly,  a  letter  at  a  time — "hyslop."  Then  after  the  sitter  had  shown 
her  appreciation  by  shouting,  "Hooray!  That  is  good,"  the  full  name, 
"james  h.  hyslop,"  followed.  Next  came  a  piece  of  information  that 
Miss  Tubby  considered  very  evidential,  but  the  sign  had  not  been  given. 
Just  as  the  sitting  was  concluding,  and  Miss  Tubby  had  almost  given  up 
hope,  it  came — "X." 

Later,  Miss  Tubby  proceeded  with  her  investigations  of  different 
mediums  in  England  and  France,  and  assessing  her  work  at  the  end  of 
the  tour  found  that  in  dealing  with  twenty-seven  mediums  she  obtained 
ninety-six  items  of  cross-references. 

case  no.  57 
The  T helm  a  Case1 
In  the  summer  of  1924,  while  Mrs.  Lydia  W.  Allison  was  engaged  in 
a  series  of  sittings  with  Mrs.  Leonard,  a  chance  remark  by  a  friend,  Mrs. 
de  Crespigny,  turned  her  attention  to  another  medium,  Mrs.  Hester 
Travers-Smith,  of  whom  she  often  heard  but  had  never  experimented 
with.  Mrs.  de  Crespigny  arranged  a  sitting  "without  mentioning  her 
,name — merely  asking  'for  a  friend' — and  I  knew  nothing  concerning 
Mrs.  Allison's  life  in  America  nor  of  her  friends."  Mrs.  Allison  at  her 
three  sittings  obtained  splendid  evidence,  as  the  following  extracts  show. 
The  first  sitting  was  held  on  June  27. 

l.  w.  a.  (producing  a  tobacco  pouch  belonging  to  her  husband) :  Can 
you  tell  me  to  whom  this  pouch  belongs? 

ouija:  Edward. 

L.  w.  a.:  Correct.  Can  you  give  me  the  name  by  which  you  were  always 

ouija:  Ned. 

L.  w.  a.  :  Tell  me  who  was  married  the  other  day  ?  (No  response.) 

L.  w.  a.  :  Can  you  tell  me  who  gave  you  the  pouch  ? 

1  Allison,  Lydia  W.,  Leonard  and  Soule  Experiments  in  Psychical  Research  (Boston), 


oui ja  :  Anita. 

l.  w.  a.  (excitedly) :  This  is  most  astonishing.  Where  did  she  give  it  to 

There  were  several  unsuccessful  attempts  to  give  the  name,  so  a  dif- 
ferent method  was  adopted.  Mrs.  Travers-Smith,  placing  a  pencil  in  Mrs. 
Allison's  hand,  covered  it  with  her  own. 

pencil  (writing  on  the  paper)  :  Ned  Londan  [sic].  (Mrs.  Allison  states: 
"I  am  perfectly  certain  that  I  retarded  the  action  of  the  pencil,  which  I 
held  very  limply,  fearing  to  give  it  assistance.  The  psychic's  hand  guided 
my  own,  in  fact,  pushed  it  ahead.") 

l.  w.  a.  :  Can  you  give  me  your  surname  ? 

pencil:  All (Scrawl,  imperfecdy  written,  but  recognizable.) 

l.  w.  a.:  Can  you  give  me  your  middle  name? 

pencil:  Wood. 

l.  w.  a.:  Good. 

pencil:  Edward! 

L.  w.  a.  :  Will  you  try  the  last  name  again  ?  (A  number  of  attempts  were 
made  that  roughly  resembled  the  name  so  this  request  was  abandoned.) 

pencil:  Lydia.  (Correct  name  of  sitter.) 

pencil:  Wood.  (Correct  middle  name  of  purported  communicator.) 

Medium  and  sitter  then  rested  and  had  tea;  the  latter  taking  special 
care  not  to  divulge  information  concerning  herself;  then  the  ouija-board 
was  resumed,  Mrs.  Allison  lightly  putting  her  fingers  on  the  back  of  the 
medium's  hand. 

l.  w.  a.  :  Ned,  is  it  really  you  ? 

oui  ja  :  I  should  say  it  is. 

l.  w.  a.:  Well  then  ...  try  and  give  me  your  sister's  name? 

ouija:  Anna.  (Correct.) 

l.  w.  a.:  Good!  and  your  other  sister's  name? 

ouija:  Mary. 

l.  w.  a.:  Splendid.  Now  can  you  give  me  your  surname? 

ouija  (slowly)  :  Allesn — Allisn — Allison. 

At  the  next  sitting  on  July  3,  Mrs.  Allison  asked  the  medium  if  she 
would  work  the  board  without  her  hand.  Mrs.  Travers-Smith  said  she 


would  try,  and  during  the  entire  sitting  Mrs.  Allison  \ept  her  hands  on 
her  own  lap. 

ouija:  Edward  Allison  is  here. 

l.  w.  a.:  .  .  ,  Do  you  remember  Gretchen?  (Note  by  Mrs.  Allison: 
"My  manner  was  rather  defiant.  I  felt  that  if  the  names  given  in  this  and 
the  preceding  sitting  came  from  the  source  they  purported  to  come  from, 
I  ought  to  get  a  correct  answer  to  any  question,  provided  the  question 
recalled  an  important  association  to  the  purported  communicator.") 

ouija:  Yes. 

l.  w.  a.:  Well,  then,  give  me  her  name? 

ouija:  Elsa  .  .  .  Elsie.  (Correct.  Baptismal  name  Elsa  but  regularly 
called  Elsie  by  her  family  and  friends,  including  the  purported  communi- 
cator. She  was  one  of  the  closest  friends  of  both  the  communicator  and 
the  sitter.  Two  other  sisters  might  have  been  mentioned  who  were  only 
casual  friends.) 

l.  w.  a.  :  Do  you  remember  Jack  ?  Jack  and  Marian  ? 

ouija  :  Yes. 

l.  w.  a.:  What  was  their  last  name? 

ouija:  Mackay. 

l.  w.  a.  :  That's  right. 

ouija  (spontaneously) :  Macky. 

l.  w.  a.:  Yes,  you  omitted  a  letter  this  time. 

ouija:  That's  the  way  it's  pronounced.  (Correct.) 

l.  w.  a.:  Do  you  remember  my  mother?  . . .  Give  me  her  first  name? 

ouija:  Paula. 

l.  w.  a.:  That  is  excellent  .  .  .  but  give  me  her  nickname. 

ouija:  Mudder. 

l.  w.  a.:  Splendid.  But  the  other  one,  you  know. 

ouija:  Polly. 

The  conditions  at  the  third  sitting  on  July  9  were  exactly  similar  to 
those  at  the  second  sitting. 

l.  w.  a.:  I  shall  ask  for  one  name  only  today,  then  we'll  go  on  to  some- 
thing else.  Give  me  your  sister's  name  again? 
ouija:  Anna. 


l.  w.  a.:  Right,  the  other  sister  now?  .  .  .  You  were  particularly  fond 
of  her. 

ouija  :  Mary. 

l.  w.  a.:  That's  right.  Now  give  me  the  name  of  the  young  girl  (very 
emphatically),  your  sister's  daughter. 

ouija:  Thm  (very  rapidly). 

l.  w.  a.  (interrupting) :  Wait  a  moment.  Begin  over. 

ouija:  Thelma!  (Thelma  would  have  been  the  correct  answer  to  the 
question  as  to  recent  marriage.  See  first  sitting.) 

Dr.  Walter  F.  Prince,  in  reviewing  these  sittings,  said : 

"There  is  a  singular  fitness  to  the  spiritistic  theory  in  the  failure  of 
Edward  to  give  the  name  of  the  person  lately  married,  though  it  was 
later  given  when  the  name  of  his  sister's  daughter  was  demanded.  For 
he  would  remember  the  name  of  his  sister's  daughter,  but  could  not  be 
expected  to  remember  what  had  happened  since  his  departure,  unless 
on  the  unreasonable  assumption  that  spirits  must  know  all  that  takes 
place  on  earth.  But  Mrs.  Allison  had  the  name  'Thelma'  as  definitely  in 
mind  when  she  asked  who  was  married  as  when  she  asked  who  was  the 
sister's  daughter.  Why  should  telepathy  between  the  living  observe  the 
consistencies  appropriate  only  to  a  spirit  consciousness?" 

case  no.  58 
The  Dribbell  Case1 

On  March  8,  1933,  Mr.  Harry  Price,  the  famous  psychical  investigator 
and  Honorary  Secretary  of  the  University  of  London  Council  for  Psy- 
chical Investigation,  received  a  report  of  a  private  sitting  with  Mrs.  Hester 
Travers-Smith,  which  he  describes  as  being  very  successful  and  convinc- 
ing. Strictly  anonymous,  Mrs.  Grace  Dribbell,  an  English  lady  married 
to  a  Dutchman,  was  one  of  the  sitters;  and  she  was  very  careful  that  no 
information  was  imparted  to  the  medium  by  her.  Mrs.  Dribbell  asked 
to  contact  some  of  her  deceased  "in-laws,"  though  she  was  ignorant  of 
the  Dutch  language. 

The  first  name  she  received  was  "Leman"  (her  husband's  brother), 

1  Price,  Harry,  Fifty  Years  of  Psychical  Research  (London:  Longmans,  Green  &  Co., 
Ltd.),  160-61. 


then  came  "Lies"  (i.e.,  Louisa,  the  pet  name  of  his  wife),  "Lili"  (their 
daughter),  "Jan  Stookis"  (Lili's  sweetheart)  and  "Anna"  (the  mother 
of  Jan). 

Next  came  the  words  "Liesje,"  "Jacob"  "moeder,"  and  "cancer,"  which 
were  represented  as  emanating  from  "Leman,"  who  had  died  of  heart 
disease  at  Bussum,  Holland,  in  the  year  1929. 

When  Mrs.  Dribbell  asked  "Leman":  "What  pet  name  did  you  call 
me?"  the  reply  came,  "Peggy  mijn  Kind,"  roughly  "Peg  o'  my  Heart" 
in  Dutch.  Still  unsatisfied,  Mrs.  Dribbell  wanted  another  message  from 
"Leman"  in  his  native  tongue.  "He"  supplied  it:  "1\  heb  je  lief"  (I  love 
you),  followed  by  "Lex"  (Mrs.  Dribbell's  husband),  "Jack"  (her  son), 
"Sophie,"  "Marie,"  and  "Lida,"  all  related  to  Mr.  Dribbell,  whose  mother 
was  a  victim  of  cancer.  As  every  name  and  every  statement  made  at  this 
sitting  was  correct,  Mrs.  Dribbell,  a  very  matter-of-fact  person,  formed  the 
opinion  that  she — in  some  fashion  or  other — was  contacting  certain  de- 
ceased persons. 

Chapter  6 


The  true  nature  of  trance  is  unknown,  and  not  all  those  on  platform  or 
in  seance-room  may  be  considered  in  this  condition  merely  because  they 
close  their  eyes,  groan,  vigorously  shake  their  head,  and  speak  in  a  lighter 
or  heavier  voice.  Neither  is  the  stamping  of  the  foot  the  hall-mark  of 
trance;  it  must  be  taken  on  trust,  and  the  medium's  abilities  judged  by 
the  supernormal  content  of  her  utterances. 

Genuine  trance  is  a  sleep  of  some  kind  in  which  the  medium's  normal 
mind  is  put  out  of  action,  but  whether  by  the  action  of  the  deceased  or 
by  a  process  of  self-hypnosis  is  a  matter  on  which  the  experts  are  not 

Dr.  Richard  Hodgson  and  Professor  William  James  tested  the  trance 
reactions  of  Mrs.  Piper,  the  American  medium :  a  lighted  match  was  held 
to  her  arm,  salt  placed  in  her  mouth,  while  she  was  made  to  undergo  a 
strong  inhalation  of  ammonia.  She  passed  all  these  physical  tests,  yet 
Hodgson  and  James  only  accepted  her  genuineness — provisionally.  It  was 
by  the  supernormal,  evidential  character  of  her  communications  that  Mrs. 
Piper  vindicated  herself  and  later  convinced  Hodgson  of  survival. 

F.  W.  H.  Myers  described  the  three  successive  stages  of  trance  as  fol- 
lows: In  the  initial  stage  control  is  obtained  by  the  medium's  own  sub- 
conscious mind;  the  second  stage  is  when  a  discarnate — usually  a  regular 
control — makes  telepathic  contact  with  his  own  spiritual  world;  and  the 
last  stage  is  when  the  entire  organism,  brain  and  body,  is  taken  over  by 
an  invading  entity — usually  a  relative. 

Mediums  are  assumed  to  have  no  recollection  of  what  transpires  when 
they  are  in  trance,  and  to  all  intents  and  purposes  there  is  a  totally  different 
personality  while  in  that  state. 

case  no.  59 

The  Gree\  Case1 

This  is  the  case  of  a  medium  in  trance  speaking  a  language  of  which, 

1  Annates  des  Sciences  Psycbiques  (1905),  XV,  317. 



in  her  normal  condition,  she  was  entirely  ignorant.  The  medium  was 
Laura  Edmunds,  the  daughter  of  Judge  Edmunds,  president  of  the  Senate 
and  judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  New  York,  a  man  of  high  intelligence 
and  unimpeachable  rectitude. 

He  entered  psychical  research  for  one  reason:  to  prove  that  it  was 
worthless  and  those  who  were  interested  in  it  were  fools.  His  surprise  may 
be  imagined  when  his  daughter  Laura  developed  mediumistic  powers. 

She  was  a  fervent  Catholic  and  very  pious,  speaking  only  a  few  phrases 
of  French  in  addition  to  her  mother  tongue. 

Once,  Mr.  Evangelides,  a  Greek,  paid  the  Edmunds  a  visit  and  at  a 
sitting  held  later,  Laura,  in  trance,  was  controlled  by  a  friend  of  Evan- 
gelides', a  Mr.  Botzaris,  who  had  died  in  Greece.  This  communicator, 
according  to  Judge  Edmunds,  speaking  in  modern  Greek  to  Evangelides, 
informed  him  that  the  sitter's  son — whom  he  still  supposed  well  and  alive 
in  Greece,  had  recently  died.  Evangelides  was  moved  to  tears  by  this 
announcement  and  would  scarcely  believe  it,  yet  the  statement  was  later 
found  to  be  only  too  true.  Judge  Edmunds  concluded  his  report: 

"To  deny  the  fact  is  impossible,  it  was  too  well  known;  I  could  as  well 
deny  the  light  of  the  sun;  nor  could  I  think  it  an  illusion,  for  it  is  in  no 
way  different  from  any  other  reality.  It  took  place  before  ten  educated 
and  intelligent  persons.  We  had  never  seen  Mr.  Evangelides  before;  he 
was  introduced  by  a  friend  that  same  evening.  How  could  Laura  tell  him 
of  his  son?  How  could  she  understand  and  speak  Greek,  which  she  had 
never  previously  heard?" 

case  no.  60 
The  Uncle  Jerry  Case1 

When  Mrs.  Piper  came  to  England  from  the  United  States  in  the  year 
1889,  Sir  Oliver  Lodge  held  a  series  of  twenty-two  sittings  with  her.  This 
information  may  surprise  a  certain  section  of  the  public  who  believe  that 
Lodge  became  interested  in  psychical  research  only  after  his  son  Raymond 
was  killed  in  the  1914-18  war.  Mrs.  Piper  had  been  rigorously  tested  in 
the  United  States  by  Professor  William  James  and  Dr.  Richard  Hodgson 
and  been  considered  genuine,  but  it  was  thought  advisable  to  send 
her  to  England,  where  she  would  be  in  absolutely  new  surroundings; 

1  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  VI. 


there  every  sitting  would  be  held  in  test  conditions.  Lodge  saw  to  that: 
the  servants  in  his  house  were  new  at  the  time  of  her  visit,  her  letters 
were  inspected  by  him,  and  Mrs.  Lodge  (as  she  was  then)  hid  all  the 
photo  albums  and  family  Bibles  out  of  sight. 

The  sittings  that  ensued  produced  such  good  results  that  Lodge  pro- 
visionally accepted  the  survival  theory  as  the  explanation  of  her  phenom- 
ena. Friends  and  strangers  (strictly  anonymous)  were  brought  to  her 
sittings  and  the  evidence  obtained  was  analyzed  by  Lodge.  Some  of  this 
evidence  that  Lodge  received  has  been  summarized  in  a  convenient  form 
for  the  reader ;  it  did  not  come  in  sequence  as  presented  here,  but  in  small 
quantities  during  several  sittings. 

Mrs.  Lodge's  Father 

phinuit1  :  "Alex — Alexander,  that's  his  name.  He  had  something  wrong 
with  his  heart.  He  tried  to  speak  to  Mary,  his  wife,  stretched  out  his  hand 
to  her,  couldn't  reach  her,  fell  and  passed  away.  You  (Mrs.  Lodge)  were 
just  a  little  thing  then. 

"He  had  a  pain  in  his  right  leg,  below  the  knee.  He  wore  a  uniform 
dress,  an  officer,  but  not  military.  He  took  long  voyages  over  the  water. 
He  used  to  be  on  board  ship,  fell  through  a  hole  in  the  boat,  that's  how 
he  hurt  his  leg.  His  name  was  Alexander  Marshall." 

Comment  by  Sir  Oliver  Lodge 

"My  wife's  father's  name  was  Alexander,  intimately  called  Alex.  His 
health  had  been  broken  by  tropical  travel  and  he  was  a  captain  in  the 
merchant  service.  Shordy  after  marriage  he  went  on  what  was  to  be  his 
last  voyage  and  returned  three  months  before  his  wife  was  confined. 
Thirteen  days  after  the  confinement,  which  had  been  very  severe  and  the 
strain  of  which  had  made  him  faint,  he  entered  his  wife's  room  half- 
dressed,  holding  a  handkerchief  over  his  mouth,  which  was  full  of  blood. 
He  stretched  out  his  hand  to  her,  removed  the  handkerchief  and  tried 
to  speak,  but  only  gasped  and  fell  on  the  floor.  Very  soon  he  was  dead. 
My  wife  was  only  a  fortnight  old  at  this  time. 

"He  had  broken  his  leg  once  by  falling  down  the  hold  of  his  ship,  and 
in  certain  states  of  weather  it  used  to  pain  him.  It  was  his  right  leg,  just 
below  the  knee.  His  full  name  was  Alexander  Marshall,  as  stated." 

1  Mrs.  Piper's  control  is  speaking. 


Relatives  of  Sir  Oliver  Lodge 
phinuit:  "You  (O.  L.)  had  an  Aunt  Anne  on  your  mother's  side.  That's 
her  ring  you  have,  her  last  present  to  you  for  your  wife.  Your  mother 
passed  away  before  Aunt  Anne.  There  is  also  an  Uncle  Robert  on  your 
father's  side." 

"The  statement  regarding  my  Aunt  Anne  is  correct  and  the  ring  inci- 
dent is  precisely  accurate.  My  mother  died  before  her  sister  Annie.  My 
father  had  a  brother  Robert." 

Other  Relatives  of  Mrs.  Lodge 
phinuit:  "A  Mrs.  White  connected  with  your  father.  You  (Mrs.  L.) 
had  two  fathers,  Alex  was  one,  I've  named  him  already;  the  other  was 
William,  a  very  depressed  man  in  life.  He  had  trouble  here  (indicating 
the  lower  part  of  the  stomach  and  bladder)." 

"Mrs.  White  was  my  wife's  aunt.  It  is  true  that  Mrs.  Lodge  had  a  step- 
father (she  had  given  that  information  away),  but  his  name,  given  con- 
vincingly, was  not.  He  was  subject  to  fits  of  depression  and  had  a  stone 
in  his  bladder,  for  which  he  was  operated  on  just  before  he  died." 

Uncle  Jerry1 

"It  happens  that  an  uncle  of  mine  in  London,  now  quite  an  old  man 
and  one  of  a  surviving  three  out  of  a  very  large  family,  had  a  twin  brother 
who  died  some  twenty  or  more  years  ago.  I  interested  him  generally  in 
the  subject  and  wrote  to  ask  if  he  would  lend  me  some  relic  of  this  brother. 
By  morning  post  on  a  certain  day  I  received  a  curious  old  gold  watch, 
which  his  brother  had  worn  and  been  fond  of;  and  that  same  morning, 
no  one  in  the  house  having  seen  it  or  knowing  anything  about  it,  I 
handed  it  to  Mrs.  Piper  when  in  a  state  of  trance. 

"I  was  told  almost  immediately  that  it  had  belonged  to  one  of  my  uncles 
— one  that  had  been  mentioned  before  as  having  died  from  the  effects  of 
a  fall,  one  that  had  been  very  fond  of  Uncle  Robert,  the  name  of  the  sur- 
vivor— that  the  watch  was  now  in  possession  of  this  same  Uncle  Robert, 
with  whom  he  was  anxious  to  communicate.  After  some  difficulty  and 

l  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  VI,  458. 


many  wrong  attempts  Phinuit  caught  the  name,  'Jerry,'  short  for  Jere- 
miah, and  said  emphatically,  as  if  a  third  person  was  speaking:  'This 
is  my  watch  and  Robert  is  my  brother  and  I  am  here,  Uncle  Jerry,  my 
watch.'  All  this  at  the  first  sitting  on  the  very  morning  the  watch  had 
arrived  by  post,  no  one  but  myself  and  a  shorthand  clerk  who  happened 
to  have  been  introduced  for  the  first  time  at  this  sitting  by  me,  and  whose 
antecedents  are  well  known  to  me,  being  present. 

"Having  thus  ostensibly  got  into  communication  through  some  means  or 
other  with  what  purported  to  be  a  deceased  relative,  whom  I  had  indeed 
known  slighdy  in  his  latter  years  of  blindness,  but  of  whose  early  life  I 
knew  nothing,  I  pointed  out  to  him  that  to  make  Uncle  Robert  aware 
of  his  presence  it  would  be  well  to  relate  trivial  incidents  of  his  boyhood, 
all  of  which  I  would  faithfully  report. 

"He  quite  caught  the  idea  and  proceeded  during  several  successive  sit- 
tings ostensibly  to  instruct  Phinuit  to  mention  a  number  of  little  things 
such  as  would  enable  his  brother  to  recognize  him. 

"References  to  his  blindness,  illness,  and  main  facts  of  his  life  were 
comparatively  useless  from  my  point  of  view;  for  these  details  of  boyhood 
two-thirds  of  a  century  ago  were  utterly  and  entirely  out  of  my  ken.  My 
father  was  one  of  the  younger  members  of  the  family  and  only  knew 
these  brothers  as  men. 

"  'Uncle  Jerry'  recalled  episodes  such  as  swimming  the  creek  when  they 
were  boys  together,  and  running  some  risk  of  getting  drowned;  killing 
a  cat  in  Smith's  field;  the  possession  of  a  small  rifle,  and  of  a  very  peculiar 
skin,  like  a  snake-skin,  which  he  thought  was  now  in  possession  of  Uncle 

"All  these  facts  have  been  more  or  less  completely  verified.  But  the 
interesting  thing  is  that  his  twin  brother,  from  whom  I  got  the  watch, 
and  with  whom  I  was  thus  in  a  sort  of  communication,  could  not  remem- 
ber them  all.  He  recollected  something  about  swimming  the  creek,  though 
he  himself  had  merely  looked  on.  He  had  a  distinct  recollection  of  having 
had  the  snake-skin,  and  of  the  box  in  which  it  was  kept,  though  he  does 
not  know  where  it  is  now.  But  he  altogether  denied  killing  the  cat,  and 
could  not  recall  Smith's  field. 

"His  memory,  however,  is  decidedly  failing  him,  and  he  was  good 
enough  to  write  to  another  brother,  Frank,  living  in  Cornwall,  an  old 


sea  captain,  and  ask  him  if  he  had  any  better  remembrance  of  certain 
facts — of  course,  not  giving  any  inexplicable  reason  for  asking.  The  result 
of  this  inquiry  was  triumphantly  to  vindicate  the  existence  of  Smith's 
field  as  a  place  near  their  home,  where  they  used  to  play,  in  Barking, 
Essex;  while  of  the  swimming  of  the  creek,  near  a  mill-race,  full  details 
were  given,  Frank  and  Jerry  being  the  heroes  of  that  foolhardy  episode. 

"Later,  Lodge  brought  Professor  G.  H.  Rendall  to  two  sittings,  intro- 
ducing him  as  'Roberts.' " 

phinuit:  "You  (G.  H.  R.)  had  an  old  friend,  a  lady,  Agnes,  passed  out 
with  cough.  Grey  eyes,  brown  hair.  Her  mother  alive.  Her  sister  not  well 
of  late,  she  married  after  Agnes  died.  They  took  Agnes  a  trip  for  her 
health,  but  it  did  not  do  any  good.  She  gradually  died,  hemorrhage.  She 
sends  her  love  to  Lu,  and  to  your  brother  Arthur,  she  knew  him  best. 
Here's  a  spirit,  Charlie  Randall,  R-a-n-d-a-1-1." 

Professor  G.  H.  Rendall' s  Comment 
"The  foregoing  statements  are  quite  correct.  A  good  description  of  her 
death,  features  as  stated.  Agnes  died  at  Cannes  of  consumption.  She  had 
a  friend  called  Louie,  who  was  very  fond  of  her,  and  she  knew  my  brother 
Arthur  best.  My  name  was  never  mentioned  in  Mrs.  Piper's  presence  and 
I  knew  a  Charlie  Rendall.  Any  getting  up  of  the  Agnes  incident  seems 
impossible.  She  was  a  relative  by  marriage  who  died  twenty-one  years 
back,  whose  existence,  to  the  best  of  my  belief,  was  unknown  to  anyone 
in  Liverpool  (where  the  sitting  was  held).  I  also  received  the  names  of 
my  four  brothers — Charlie,  Fred,  Arthur  and  Arnold — correctly,  and 
statement  of  mother's  death,  eldest  brother  and  (vaguely)  an  infant 
sister.  Regarding  my  two  sittings,  I  am  quite  convinced  of  the  genuine- 
ness of  the  phenomena;  there  was  no  opening  for  concerted  fraud.  I  have 
no  theory:  confused  communications  with  persons  dead  ...  is  not  out 
of  accord  with  facts  received,  but  nothing  occurred  to  me  that  this  was 
the  only  admissible  explanation." 

CASE  NO.  61 

The  Clar\e  Case1 
On  December  29,  1889,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  T.  Clarke  held  one  sitting  with 
Mrs.  Piper,  and  the  following  is  an  extract: 
1  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  VI,  578. 


phinuit:  How  is  M ?  (Trying  to  get  at  the  German  pronunciation 

of  the  name.)  Somebody  belonging  to  you  is  called  M (says  name 

correctly  this  time).  I  want  to  talk  to  you  about  young  Uncle  C . 

There  is  someone  with  him — E .  He  is  your  cousin. 

mrs.  clarke  :  Is  he  in  the  body  ? 

phinuit:  No. 

mrs.  clarke:  How  did  he  die? 

phinuit:  There  was  something  the  matter  with  his  heart  and  with  his 
head.  He  says  it  was  an  accident.  He  wants  you  to  tell  his  sister.  There's 

M and  E .  They  are  sisters  of  E and  there  is  their  mother. 

She  suffers  here  (pointing  to  abdomen).  Now,  how  do  you  think  I 
know  this? 

mrs.  clarke:  I  don't  know. 

phinuit:  E told  me  his  mother  had  been  very  unhappy  about  his 

death.  He  begs  you,  for  God's  sake,  to  tell  them  it  was  an  accident — that 
it  was  his  head — and  that  he  was  hurt  there  (making  motion  of  stabbing 
heart),  that  he  inherited  it  from  his  father.  His  father  was  out  of  his 
mind^-crazy.  Here's  M ,  she  is  your  aunt. 

mrs.  clarke:  What  does  she  say  about  her  husband? 

phinuit:  She  says  that  he  has  changed  his  life  since.  She  does  not  like 
it  that  he  married  again. 

mrs.  clarke  :  Does  she  love  the  one  whom  he  married  ? 

phinuit:  Oh,  she  loves  her  dearly,  but  she  does  not  like  him  to  have 
married  so  soon.  He  married  her  sister.  Two  brothers  married  two  sisters. 
Her  husband  has  children  now.  There  are  two  boys. 

Mrs.  Clarke's  explanation  is  as  follows: 

"The  Uncle  C incident  is  a  striking  account  of  my  uncle's  family  in 

Germany.  The  names  and  facts  are  all  correct.  The  father  was  disturbed 
in  mind  for  the  last  three  years  of  his  life,  in  consequence  of  a  fall  from 
a  horse.  The  son  committed  suicide  in  a  fit  of  melancholia  by  stabbing 

his  heart  as  described.  The  Aunt  M incident:  Accurate  description 

of  the  family  of  another  uncle.  His  wife  died  childless,  and  he  soon  after 
married  her  sister,  by  whom  he  had  children.  His  brother  had  previously 
married  a  third  sister.  Some  of  the  facts  she  gave  me  were  unknown  to 
anyone  out  of  Germany — even  my  husband.  The  more  important  events— 


my  uncle's  and  aunt's  death,  and  my  cousin's  suicide,  which  happened 
twenty-eight,  fifteen,  and  twelve  years  ago — were  known  only  to  two 
persons  in  England  besides  my  husband.  It  is  absolutely  impossible  that 
Mrs.  Piper  got  at  the  facts  through  information  derived  from  these 

case  no.  62 
The  Derham  Case1 

Dr.  Richard  Hodgson  of  the  S.P.R.  investigated  Mrs.  Piper,  the  famous 
American  medium,  for  a  period  of  twelve  years,  and  he  published  some 
of  his  results  in  the  Proceedings2,  of  that  society.  A  few  extracts  from  some 
sittings  now  follow — not  by  any  means  the  best,  as  these  have  been  already 
stated  elsewhere.  Dr.  Hodgson  was  in  complete  charge  of  Mrs.  Piper's 
sittings;  no  one  could  sit  with  her  unless  by  his  sanction  and  he  intro- 
duced all  new  sitters  as  "Smith,"  usually  accompanying  them  as  note-taker. 

Mr.  T.  P.  Derham  was  Dr.  Hodgson's  brother-in-law — having  married 
his  younger  sister — and  lived  in  Melbourne,  Australia.  No  name  was 
given  when  the  appointment  was  made  by  Dr.  Hodgson,  who  took  the 
notes  himself  during  the  sitting.  Mr.  Derham  had  two  sittings  and 
summed  them  up  as  follows :  "The  history  of  my  family,  living  and  dead, 
was  given  straight  out — without  any  guessing,  and  without  the  slightest 
assistance  from  either  Dr.  Hodgson  or  myself.  I  think  I  did  not  speak  at 
all  and  Dr.  Hodgson  only  spoke  to  bring  her  to  the  point.  ...  I  am 
naturally  skeptical  and,  by  training,  incredulous." 

case  no.  63 
The  G.  P.  Case3 

What  is  the  most  evidential  case  on  record  of  a  deceased  person  return- 
ing to  prove  his  identity?  That  is  a  question  often  asked,  and  it  is  gen- 
erally agreed  by  those  best  qualified  to  judge  such  matters  that  a  plain 
American  citizen,  George  Pelham  (pseudonym),  worthily  earned  that 
honor.  If  this  is  so,  theh  future  generations  should  owe  him  a  debt  of 
profound  gratitude;  for  in  proving  himself,  he  labored  in  extreme  diffi- 
culties, for  he  was  trying  to  prove  this  fact  through  the  organism  of 
another  person — of  the  opposite  sex. 

He  was  killed  by  a  fall  from  his  horse  in  New  York  in  February,  1892, 

i  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  VIII,  68. 
2  Ibid.,  VIII,  XIII. 
*Ibid.,  XIII,  328-30. 


and  four  weeks  later  appeared  at  sittings  that  Dr.  Hodgson  was  holding 
with  Mrs.  Piper.  This  was  not  a  chance  occurrence,  as  Dr.  Hodgson  had 
known  him  and  they  had  often  discussed  the  possibility  of  survival — of 
which  Pelham  was  skeptical;  but  one  evening  after  an  argument,  Pelham 
declared  that  if  he  should  die  before  Hodgson  and  find  himself  still  sur- 
viving, he  would  "make  things  lively"  in  the  effort  to  reveal  the  fact.  For 
several  years  he  communicated  and  later  Hodgson  gave  a  general  sum- 
mary of  the  whole  series  of  his  manifestations: 

"On  the  first  appearance  of  the  communicating  G.  P.  to  Mr.  Hart  in 
March,  1892,  he  gave  not  only  his  own  name  and  that  of  the  sitter1  but 
also  the  names  of  several  of  their  most  intimate  common  friends,  and 
referred  specially  to  the  most  important  private  matters  connected  with 
them.  At  the  same  sitting  reference  was  made  to  other  incidents  unknown 
to  the  sitters,  such  as  the  account  of  Mrs.  Pelham  taking  the  studs  from 
the  body  of  G.  P.  and  giving  them  to  Mr.  Pelham  to  be  sent  to  Mr.  Hart, 
and  the  reproduction  of  a  notable  remembrance  of  a  communication 
which  G.  P.  living  had  with  Katharine,  the  daughter  of  his  most  intimate 
friends,  the  Howards.  These  were  primary  examples  of  two  kinds  of 
knowledge  concerning  matters  unknown  to  the  sitters,  of  which  various 
other  instances  were  afterwards  given:  knowledge  of  events  connected 
with  G.  P.  which  had  occurred  since  his  death,  and  knowledge  of  special 
memories  pertaining  to  the  G.  P.  personality  before  death. 

"A  week  later,  at  a  sitting  of  Mr.  Vance,  he  made  an  appropriate 
inquiry  after  the  sitter's  son,  and  in  reply  to  inquiries  rightly  specified 
that  the  sitter's  son  had  been  at  college  with  him,  and  further  gave 
a  correct  description  of  the  sitter's  summer  home  as  the  place  of  a  special 
visit.  This  again  was  paralleled  by  many  later  instances  where  appropriate 
inquiries  were  made  and  remembrances  recalled  concerning  the  other 
personal  friends  of  G.  P.  Nearly  two  weeks  later  came  his  most  intimate 
friends,  the  Howards,  and  to  these,  using  the  voice  directly,  he  showed 
such  a  fullness  of  private  remembrance  and  a  specific  knowledge  and 
characteristic  intellectual  and  emotional  quality  pertaining  to  G.  P.  that, 
though  they  had  previously  taken  no  interest  in  any  branch  of  psychical 
research,  they  were  unable  to  resist  the  conviction  that  they  were  actually 
conversing  with  their  old  friend  G.  P.  And  this  conviction  was  strength- 
ened by  their  later  experiences. 

1  Mr.  Hart  had  been  introduced  anonymously. 


"Not  least  important,  at  that  time,  was  his  anxiety  about  the  disposal 
of  a  certain  book  and  about  certain  specified  letters  which  concern  matters 
too  private  for  publication.  He  was  particularly  desirous  of  convincing 
his  father,  who  lived  in  Washington,  that  it  was  indeed  G.  P.  who  was 
communicating,  and  he  soon  afterwards  stated  that  his  father  had  taken 
his  photograph  to  be  copied,  as  was  the  case,  though  Mr.  Pelham  had 
not  informed  his  wife  of  this  fact.  Later  on,  he  reproduced  a  series  of 
incidents,  unknown  to  the  sitters,  in  which  Mrs.  Howard  had  been 
engaged  in  her  own  home.  Later  still}  at  a  sitting  with  his  father  and 
mother  in  New  York,  a  further  intimate  knowledge  was  shown  of  private 
family  circumstances;  and  at  the  following  sitting,  at  which  his  father  and 
mother  were  not  present,  he  gave  the  details  of  certain  private  actions 
which  they  had  done  in  the  interim.  At  their  sitting,  and  at  various  sit- 
tings of  the  Howards,  appropriate  comments  were  made  concerning 
articles  presented  which  had  belonged  to  G.  P.  living,  or  had  been 
familiar  to  him;  he  inquired  after  the  other  personal  articles  which  were 
not  presented  at  the  sittings,  and  showed  intimate  and  detailed  recollec- 
tions of  incidents  in  connection  with  them.  In  points  connected  with  the 
recognition  of  articles  with  their  related  associations  of  a  personal  sort, 
the  G.  P.  communicating,  so  far  as  I  know,  has  never  failed. 

"Nor  has  he  failed  in  the  recognition  of  personal  friends.  I  may  say 
generally  that  out  of  a  large  number  of  sitters  who  went  as  strangers  to 
Mrs.  Piper,  the  communicating  G.  P.  has  picked  out  the  friends  of  G.  P. 
living,  precisely  as  the  G.  P.  living  might  have  been  expected  to  do. 
(Thirty  cases  of  recognition  out  of  at  least  one  hundred  and  fifty  who 
have  had  sittings  with  Mrs.  Piper  with  the  first  appearance  of  G.  P.  and 
no  case  of  false  recognition.)  He  has  exhibited  memories  in  connection 
with  these  and  other  friends  which  are  such  as  would  naturally  be  associ- 
ated as  part  of  the  G.  P.  personality,  which  certainly  do  not  suggest  in 
themselves  that  they  originate  otherwise,  and  which  are  accompanied  by 
the  emotional  relations  which  were  connected  with  such  friends  in  the 
mind  of  G.  P.  living. 

"At  one  of  his  early  communications  G.  P.  expressly  undertook  the 
task  of  rendering  all  the  assistance  in  his  power  towards  establishing  the 
continued  existence  of  himself  and  other  communicators,  in  pursuance  of 
a  promise  of  which  he  himself  reminded  me,  made  some  two  years  or 


more  before  his  death,  that  if  he  died  before  me  and  found  himself  'still 
existing,'  he  would  devote  himself  to  prove  the  fact;  and  in  the  persistence 
of  his  endeavor  to  overcome  the  difficulties  in  communicating,  as  far  as 
possible,  in  his  constant  readiness  to  act  as  amanuensis  at  the  sittings,  in 
the  effect  which  he  has  produced  by  his  counsel — to  myself  as  investigator, 
and  to  numerous  other  sitters  and  communicators — he  has,  in  so  far  as  I 
can  form  a  judgment  in  a  problem  so  complex  and  still  presenting  so 
much  obscurity,  displayed  the  keenness  and  pertinacity  which  were  emi- 
nently characteristic  of  G.  P.  living. 

"Finally,  the  manifestations  of  this  G.  P.  communicating  have  not  been 
of  a  fitful  or  spasmodic  nature;  they  have  exhibited  the  marks  of  a  con- 
tinuous living  and  persistent  personality,  manifesting  itself  through  a 
course  of  years,  and  showing  the  same  characteristics  of  an  independent 
intelligence  whether  friends  of  G.  P.  were  present  at  the  sittings  or  not. 
I  learned  of  various  cases  where,  in  my  absence,  active  assistance  was 
rendered  by  G.  P.  to  sitters  who  had  never  previously  heard  of  him,  and 
from  time  to  time  he  would  make  brief,  pertinent  references  to  matters 
with  which  the  G.  P.  living  was  acquainted,  though  I  was  not,  and  some- 
times in  ways  which  indicated  that  he  could  to  some  extent  see  what  was 
happening  in  our  world  to  persons  in  whose  welfare  G.  P.  living  would 
have  been  specially  interested." 

case  no.  64 
The  Edmunds  Case1 
The  following  account  is  an  abridgment  of  the  notes  taken  at  three 
sittings  with  Mrs.  Piper  by  Miss  Lucy  Edmunds,  Dr.  Hodgson's  secretary : 

"Mrs.  Piper  knew  my  name;  that  I  was  English;  had  seen  me  at  the 
office  of  the  S.P.R.  During  the  conversation  we  had  before  the  first  sitting, 
I  had  made  a  passing  allusion  to  a  nephew;  beyond  these  facts  I  think  she 
knew  nothing  of  me.  (The  nephew  was  not  alluded  to  during  the  sitting.) 

"Phinuit  stated  that  I  had  a  father  in  spirit  and  mother  in  body,  describ- 
ing some  characteristics  of  each  .  .  .  then  Joseph.  (Father  and  Mother 
each  had  a  brother  named  Joseph,  both  deceased.)  'There's  four  brothers, 
two  passed  out  little  things — with  their  father — that's  all  there  was  of  you 
passed  out.  (True.)  There's  a  little  one,  came  after  father  passed  out. 

i  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  VIII,  135-38. 


(True.)  Alice— another  little  girl.  (Not  Alice,  forgetting  for  the  moment 
that  Lillie's  name  is  Alice  Lilian,  and  that  my  brother  calls  her  Alice  and 
writes  to  her  as  such.)  Yes,  Alice,  you  call  her  Lil,  but  she's  Alice!'  Phinuit 
made  a  dash  at  my  watch.  'Your  father  gave  it  to  your  aunt  and  she  gave 
it  to  you.  (True.) 

"'There's  a  little  girl  here  for  you,  rather  pretty.  Light  hair  and  dark 
eyes — bright.  You  had  something  to  do  with  teaching  her.  You  heard 
from  her  when  she  was  ill.  She  says  she  had  a  cousin  Gideon  in  Australia, 
Maria,  Maria,  sends  her  love  to  Emma.  Emma  is  not  well — not  happy.' 

"All  this  is  true.  Maria  is  the  little  girl's  name;  Emma  is  the  mother's 
name,  and  Gideon  the  name  of  the  nephew,  whose  whereabouts  are  not 
at  present  known. 

"'There  are  two  children  just  alike  in  spirit.  They  are  twins.'  (True.)" 

case  no.  65 
The  Savage  Case1 

"During  the  winter  of  1885-86  I  had  my  first  sitting  with  Mrs.  Piper. 
Immediately  on  becoming  entranced,  her  control,  Phinuit,  said  there  were 
many  friends  present.  Among  them  was  an  old  man  whom  he  described, 
but  only  in  a  general  way.  Then  he  said,  'He  is  your  father  and  he  calls 
you  Judson.'  Attention  was  also  called  to  the  fact  that  he  had  a  peculiar 
bare  spot  on  his  head,  and  Mrs.  Piper  put  her  hand  on  the  corresponding 
place  on  my  own  head. 

"Now  for  the  facts  that  give  these  two  apparently  simple  points  what- 
ever significance  they  possess.  My  father  had  died  during  the  preceding 
summer,  aged  ninety  years  and  six  months.  He  had  never  lived  in  Boston, 
and  Mrs.  Piper,  I  am  quite  sure,  had  never  seen  film  nor  been  in  any  way 
interested  in  him.  He  wasn't  at  all  bald  but  when  quite  young  had  been 
burned,  so  that  there  was  a  bare  spot  on  the  right  side  of  the  top  of  his 
head,  perhaps  an  inch  wide  and  three  inches  long,  running  from  the 
forehead  back  towards  the  crown.  This  he  covered  by  combing  his  hair 
over  it.  This  was  the  spot  that  Mrs.  Piper  indicated. 

"Now  as  to  the  name  by  which  he  addressed  me:  I  was  given  the  middle 
name,  Judson,  at  the  request  of  a  half-sister,  my  father's  daughter,  who 
died  soon  after  I  was  born.  Out  of  tenderness  for  her  memory  (as  I 
always  supposed)  Father  always  used,  when  I  was  a  boy,  to  call  me 

l  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  VIII,  100. 


Judson,  though  all  the  rest  of  the  family  called  me  by  my  first  name, 
Minot.  In  his  later  life  Father  also  got  to  calling  me  by  my  first  name. 
No  one,  therefore,  had  called  me  by  my  second  name  for  many  years. 
I  was  therefore  naturally  struck  and  surprised  by  suddenly  hearing 
one  who  claimed  to  be  my  father  giving  me  once  more  my  old  boyhood 
name.  I  was  not  consciously  thinking  of  these  things,  and  I  am  convinced 
that  Mrs.  Piper  couldn't  have  known  anything  about  them. 

"During  this  same  sitting  Mrs.  Piper's  control  also  said,  'Here  is  some- 
one who  says  his  name  is  John.  He  was  your  half-brother.'  Then  pressing 
her  hand  on  the  base  of  her  brain,  she  moaned,  as  she  swayed  to  and  fro. 
Then  she  continued,  'He  says  it  was  so  hard  to  die  away  off  there  all 
alone.  How  he  did  want  to  see  Mother.'  She  went  on  to  explain  that  he 
died  from  a  fall,  striking  the  back  of  his  head.  Her  whole  account  of 
this  was  realistic  in  the  extreme.  My  half-brother  John,  the  son  of  my 
mother: — for  both  Father  and  Mother  had  been  twice  married — died  sev- 
eral years  previous  to  this  sitting.  While  building  a  mill  in  Michigan 
he  fell,  striking  the  back  of  his  head  on  a  piece  of  timber.  He  was  far 
from  all  friends,  and  was  in  most  tender  love  of  his  mother.  I  was  not 
thinking  of  him  until  told  that  he  was  present. 

"Many  other  things  occurred  during  the  sitting,  but  I  only  mention 
these  because,  though  simple,  they  are  so  clear-cut  and  striking,  and 
because  I  see  no  way  by  which  Mrs.  Piper  could  ever  have  known  them. 
I  have  had  other  sittings  with  Mrs.  Piper.  Most  of  the  things  told,  how- 
ever, were  too  personal  for  publication.  Nearly  all  are  inexplicable  on  any 
theory  that  does  not  go  at  least  as  far  as  telepathy. 

"M.  J.  Savage." 

CASE  NO.  66 

The  Shaler  Case1 
The  following  is  an  extract  from  notes  of  a  sitting  that  Professor  N.  S. 
Shaler,  the  well-known  geologist  of  Harvard,  had  with  Mrs.  Piper : 

"My  wife  handed  Mrs.  Piper  an  engraved  seal,  which  she  knew,  though 
I  did  not,  had  belonged  to  her  brother — a  gentleman  from  Richmond, 
Virginia,  who  died  about  a  year  ago.  At  once,  Mrs.  Piper  began  to  make 
statements  clearly  relating  to  the  deceased,  and  in  the  course  of  the  fol- 
lowing hour  she  showed  a  somewhat  intimate  acquaintance  with  his 

1  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  XIII,  540. 


affairs,  those  of  his  immediate  family,  and  those  of  the  family  in  Hartford, 
Conn.,  with  whom  the  Richmond  family  had  been  in  close  social  rela- 
tions. ...  I  think  I  did  not  put  strongly  enough  the  peculiar  kind  of 
knowledge  which  the  medium  seems  to  have  concerning  my  wife's 
brother's  affairs.  Certain  of  the  facts,  as,  for  instance,  those  relating  to  the 
failure  to  find  his  will  after  his  sudden  death,  were  very  neatly  and 
dramatically  rendered.  They  had  the  real  life  quality.  So,  too,  the  name  of 
the  man  who  was  to  have  married  my  wife's  brother's  daughter,  and  who 
died  a  month  before  the  time  fixed  for  the  wedding,  was  correctly  given, 
both  as  regards  surname  and  Christian  name,  though  the  Christian  name 
was  not  remembered  by  my  wife  or  me." 

case  no.  67 
The  Ring  Case1 
Professor  Herbert  Nichols,  of  Harvard  University,  had  a  sitting  ar- 
ranged for  him  by  Dr.  Hodgson,  and  after  the  sitting  he  wrote  to  his 
friend,  Professor  William  James,   who   forwarded  this   extract   to   Dr. 
Hodgson : 

"Just  before  coming  away  I  had  a  wonderful  sitting  with  Mrs.  Piper. 
As  you  know,  I  have  been  a  Laodicean  toward  her  heretofore;  but  that 
she  is  no  fraud,  and  that  she  is  the  greatest  marvel  I  have  ever  met  I  am 
now  convinced.  I  think  my  interview  more  wonderful  than  any  I  have 
ever  heard  reported  before.  I  went  under  an  assumed  name  through  ap- 
pointment made  with  Hodgson  by  letter — even  he  did  not  know  who  I 
was,  probably  does  not  now.  Most  of  the  interview,  and  by  far  the  most 
important  part,  was  of  such  a  nature  that  I  can't  write  about  it,  but 
should  like  to  tell  you  somewhat  of  it  sometime. 

"I  asked  her  scarcely  a  question,  but  she  ran  on  for  three-quarters  of 
an  hour,  telling  me  names,  places,  events  in  a  most  startling  manner.  Then 
she  suddenly  stopped  talking  and  began  writing — this  was  far  less  satis- 
factory and  about  an  entirely  different  set  of  matters — mostly  about 
Mamma  (who  recently  fell  and  was  killed)  and  messages  to  her  grand- 

"One  thing  here,  however,  will  interest  you.  Mamma  and  I  one  Christ- 
mas exchanged  rings.  Each  had  engraved  in  their  gift  the  first  word  of 

1  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  XIII,  535. 


their  favorite  proverb.  The  ring  given  me  I  lost  many  years  ago.  When 
Mamma  died  a  year  ago,  the  ring  I  had  given  her  was,  at  her  request, 
taken  from  her  finger,  and  sent  to  me.  Now  I  asked  Mrs.  Piper,  'What 
was  written  in  Mamma's  ring?'  and  as  I  asked  the  question  I  held  the 
ring  in  my  hand  and  had  in  mind  only  that  ring,  but  I  had  hardly  got 
the  words  from  my  mouth  till  she  slapped  down  on  paper  the  word  on  the 
other  ring — the  one  Mamma  had  given  me  and  which  had  been  lost 
years  ago  while  travelling.  As  the  word  was  a  peculiar  one,  doubtfully 
ever  written  in  any  ring  before,  and  as  she  wrote  it  in  such  a  flash  it  was 
surely  curious.  .  .  . 


CASE  NO.  68 

The  "Too  Private"  Cases 
Those  who  have  read  and  studied  the  reports  of  sittings  contained  in 
the  Proceedings  of  the  S.P.R.  will  have  noticed  how  often  some  investi- 
gators have  withheld  details  of  various  cases  on  the  plea  that  they  were 
"too  private"  for  publication.  Dr.  Hodgson  in  his  two  reports  on  the  Piper 
phenomena  often  commented  on  this,  regretting  that  so  many  evidential 
cases  were  held  back  for  this  reason,  otherwise  the  evidence  for  survival 
in  his  reports  would  have  been  greatly  strengthened.  He  wrote: 

"Of  the  written  reports  of  first  sittings  there  are  many  which  I  am  prac- 
tically unable  to  use  as  evidence,  owing  to  the  reluctance  of  the  sitters  to 
allow  the  private  matters  concerned  to  be  published  in  any  form  and  a 
large  amount  of  the  best  evidence  derivable  from  first  sittings  is  unavail- 
able for  publication."1 

The  critic  may  state,  "How  can  we  be  certain  that  cases  of  this  nature 
are  evidential?  We  have  only  the  sitters'  word  for  it  and  are  we  not  being 
asked  to  take  too  much  for  granted?"  Surely  it  is  not  illogical  to  presume 
that  the  privacy  of  these  cases  makes  for  first-class  evidence.  If  the  com- 
munications had  been  nonsensical  or  erroneous,  sitters  would  not  have 
hesitated  to  proclaim  this  fact  to  the  world;  there  was  no  motive  in  con- 
cealing it  as  there  would  have  been  when  it  was  "too  private,"  and  con- 
sequently, veridical  and  evidential.  Perhaps  these  sitters  were  a  trifle  selfish 

l  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  XIII,  288. 


in  withholding  material  that  would  have  benefited  humanity — yet  it  is 
quite  natural  and  we  cannot  condemn,  although  we  may  well  wish  they 
had  been  more  altruistic.  We  must  accept  human  nature  as  we  find  it 
and  make  the  best  of  it.  Everyone  is  not  idealistic  enough  to  reveal  family 
secrets  simply  for  the  sake  of  proving  survival  to  their  neighbors. 

Three  or  four  examples  now  follow  so  that  the  reader  will  be  able  to 
form  his  own  opinion  on  this  matter. 

The  first  is  of  a  Mr.  Howard1  who  was  investigating  the  "G.  P."  case. 
Howard  had  already  obtained  some  good  evidence,  yet  he  was  still  waver- 
ing; he  wanted  some  facts  that  would  absolutely  clinch  the  question  of 
G.  P.'s  identity  and  at  a  sitting  he  said  to  G.  P.,  "Tell  me  something  in 
your  past  that  you  and  I  alone  know.  You  have  failed  with  certain  ques- 
tions; give  me  an  answer  in  your  own  terms."  G.  P.  commenced  to  write 
and  Dr.  Hodgson  described  the  scene  thus: 

"The  transcription  of  the  words  written  by  'G.  P.'  conveys,  of  course, 
no  proper  impression  of  the  actual  circumstances;  the  inert  mass  of  the 
upper  part  of  Mrs.  Piper's  body  turned  away  from  the  right  arm,  and 
sagging  down,  as  it  were,  limp  and  lifeless  over  Mr.  Howard's  shoulder, 
but  the  right  arm,  and  especially  hand,  mobile,  intelligent,  deprecatory, 
then  impatient  and  fierce  in  the  persistence  of  the  writing  which  followed, 
contains  too  much  of  the  personal  element  in  'G.  P.'s'  life  to  be  reproduced 
here.  Several  statements  were  read  by  me,  and  assented  to  by  Mr.  Howard 
and  then  written  'private'  and  the  hand  gently  pushed  me  away. 

"I  retired  to  the  other  side  of  the  room  and  Mr.  Howard  took  my  place 
close  to  the  hand  where  he  could  read  the  writing.  He  did  not,  of  course, 
read  it  alone,  and  it  was  too  private  for  my  perusal.  The  hand,  as  it 
reached  the  end  of  each  sheet,  tore  it  off  from  the  block  book  and  thrust 
it  wildly  at  Mr.  Howard,  and  then  continued  writing.  The  circumstances 
narrated,  Mr.  Howard  informed  me,  contained  precisely  the  kind  of  test 
for  which  he  had  asked,  and  he  said  he  was  'perfectly  satisfied,  perfectly.' " 

Some  time  later  Dr.  and  Mrs.  A.  B.  Thaw2  held  a  series  of  thirteen 
sittings  with  Mrs.  Piper  and  twelve  were  published  by  Hodgson.  One 
was  "omitted  altogether,  at  the  request  of  the  sitters,  as  being  too  intimately 
personal,  and  containing  much  very  private  matter  concerning  the  de- 
ceased." As  the  twelve  were  full  of  private  and  personal  matters  this  sup- 

1  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  XIII,  321. 
*  Ibid.,  XIII,  351. 


pressed  sitting  must  have  contained  some  very  extraordinary  private  evi- 
dence and  one  may  well  wonder  of  what  it  consisted. 

Seventy-six  sittings  were  held  when  Mrs.  Piper  was  in  England  from 
November,  1889,  to  February,  1890,  for  the  purpose  of  being  tested  among 
complete  strangers;  and  although  many  sitters  permitted  full  accounts  of 
their  sittings  to  be  published,  F.  W.  H.  Myers,1  who  had  two  sittings 
on  January  24  and  25,  1890,  summed  up  as  follows: 

"In  these  sittings  some  private  facts  as  to  deceased  friends  were  given 
as  to  which  it  is  practically  impossible  that  Mrs.  Piper  could  have  acquired 
any  information." 

Regarding  another  medium,  Mrs.  Willett,  Lord  Balfour2  wrote: 

"It  would  be  impossible  to  do  justice  to  the  argument  in  favor  of  spirit 
communication  on  the  basis  of  the  Willett  phenomena  without  violating 
confidences  which  I  am  bound  to  respect.  The  reader  will  probably  wonder 
why,  since  the  communications  through  the  Willett  trance  are  of  such 
a  clear  and  coherent  kind,  as  evidence  is  quoted  from  it  which  tends 
to  prove  directly  the  identity  of  the  communicators.  The  answer  is  that 
such  evidence  exists  but  cannot  be  divulged.  The  bulk  of  Mrs.  Willett's 
automatic  output  is  too  private  for  publication;  the  material  withheld 
from  publication  is  of  a  very  strong  and  convincing  kind.  It  is  indeed  very 
greatly  to  be  deplored  that  such  supremely  important  evidence  must  be 
withheld  from  publication  in  the  interests  of  privacy." 

case  no.  69 

The  Signore  X Case 

This  account  of  a  seance  held  on  April  5,  1904,  was  first  published  in 
Luce  e  Ombra  (Rome,  1920)  by  Professor  Ernest  Bozzano,  who  was 
present  when  the  occurrence  described  took  place.  The  publication  of  this 
important  piece  of  evidence  was  withheld  for  many  years,  and  was  only 
made  possible  by  the  death  of  the  chief  protagonist: 

"Seance  held  on  April  5, 1904.  The  following  were  present:  Dr.  Giuseppe 

Venzano,  Ernesto  Bozzano,  Cavaliere  Carlo  Peretti,  Signore  X ,  Sig- 

nora  Guidetta  Peretti  and  the  medium,  L.  P.  The  seance  commenced  at 
ten  o'clock  in  the  evening. 

1  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  VI,  645. 

2  Ibid.,  XXV. 


"From  the  beginning,  we  noticed  that  the  medium  was  troubled  for 
some  unknown  reason.  The  'spirit  guide,'  Luigi,  the  medium's  father, 
did  not  manifest  himself  and  L.  P.  gazed  with  terror  towards  the  left  cor- 
ner of  the  room.  Shortly  afterwards  he  freed  himself  from  his  'spirit- 
controls,'  rose  to  his  feet,  and  began  a  singularly  realistic  and  impressive 
struggle  against  some  invisible  enemy.  Soon  he  uttered  cries  of  terror,  drew 
back,  threw  himself  to  the  floor,  gazed  towards  the  corner  as  though  terri- 
fied, then  fled  to  the  other  corner  of  the  room,  shouting:  'Back!  Go  away. 
No,  I  don't  want  to.  Help  me!  Save  me!'  Not  knowing  what  to  do,  the  wit- 
nesses of  this  scene  concentrated  their  thoughts  with  intensity  upon  Luigi, 
the  spirit  guide,  and  called  upon  him  to  aid.  The  expedient  proved  effec- 
tive, for  litde  by  little  the  medium  grew  calmer,  gazed  with  less  anxiety 
towards  the  corner  of  the  apartment;  then  his  eyes  took  the  expression  of 
someone  who  looks  at  a  distant  spectacle,  then  a  spectacle  still  more 
distant.  At  last  he  gave  vent  to  a  sigh  of  relief,  and  murmured,  'He's  gone! 
What  a  bestial  face!' 

"Soon  afterward,  the  spirit  guide  Luigi  manifested  himself.  Expressing 
himself  through  the  medium,  he  told  us  that  in  the  room  there  was  a 
spirit  of  the  basest  nature,  against  which  it  was  impossible  for  him  to 
struggle;  that  the  intruder  bore  an  implacable  hatred  for  one  of  the 
persons  of  the  group.  Then  the  medium  exclaimed  in  a  frightened  voice, 
'There  he  is  again!  I  can't  defend  you  any  longer.  Stop  the .' 

"It  is  certain  that  Luigi  wished  to  say,  'Stop  the  seance,'  but  it  was 
already  too  late.  The  evil  spirit  had  taken  possession  of  our  medium.  He 
shouted;  his  eyes  shot  glances  of  fury.  His  hands,  lifted  as  though  to 
seize  something,  moved  like  the  claws  of  a  wild  beast,  eager  to  clutch 

his  prey.  And  the  prey  was  Signore  X ,  at  whom  the  medium's  furious 

looks  were  cast.  A  rattling  and  a  sort  of  a  concentrated  roaring  issued 
from  our  medium's  foam-covered  lips,  and  suddenly  these  words  burst 
from  him :  'I've  found  you  again  at  last,  you  coward !  /  was  a  Royal  Marine. 
Don't  you  remember  the  quarrel  in  Oporto?  You  filled  me  there.  But 
today  I'll  have  my  revenge  and  strangle  you.' 

"These  distracted  words  were  uttered  as  the  hands  of  the  medium, 
L.  P.,  seized  the  victim's  throat,  and  tightened  on  it  like  steel  pincers.  It 

was  a  fearful  sight.  The  whole  of  Signore  X 's  tongue  hung  from  his 

wide-open  mouth;  his  eyes  bulged.  We  had  gone  to  the  unfortunate  man's 
assistance.  Uniting  our  efforts  with  all  the  energy  which  this  desperate 



situation  lent  us,  we  succeeded,  after  a  terrible  hand-to-hand  struggle,  in 
freeing  him  from  the  desperate  grip.  At  once  we  pulled  him  away,  and 
thrust  him  outside,  locking  the  door.  We  barred  the  medium's  access  to 
the  door;  exasperated,  he  tried  to  break  through  this  barrier  and  run  after 
his  enemy.  He  roared  like  a  tiger.  It  took  all  four  of  us  to  hold  him  down. 
At  last  he  suffered  a  total  collapse  and  sank  down  upon  the  floor. 

"On  the  following  day  we  prepared  to  clear  up  this  affair — to  seek  in- 
formation which  might  enable  us  to  confirm  what  'the  Oporto  spirit' 
had  said.  We  were,  in  fact,  already  quite  certain  of  the  truth  of  the 

accusation,  for  it  was  noteworthy  that  Signore  X had  not  protested 

in  the  least  when  the  serious  charge  of  homicide  had  been  hurled  at  him. 

"The  words  uttered  by  the  furious  spirit  served  me  as  a  means  of  arriv- 
ing at  the  truth.  He  had  said,  'I  was  a  Royal  Marine.'  And  I  knew 

vaguely  that  Signore  X had  himself,  in  his  youth,  been  an  officer  of 

Marines,  that  he  had  witnessed  the  battle  of  Lissa,  and  after  resigning 
his  commission  had  devoted  himself  to  commercial  enterprises.  With 
these  facts  as  a  basis,  I  proceeded  to  ask  a  retired  vice-admiral  for  other 
details;  he,  too,  had  fought  at  Lissa.  As  for  Dr.  Venzano,  he  questioned 

a  relative  of  Signore  X ,  with  whom  the  latter  had  broken  off  all 

relations  years  before.  Between  us  we  gathered  separate  bits  of  informa- 
tion which  tallied  amazingly,  and  which,  brought  together,  led  us  to 
these  conclusions: 

"Signore  X had,  indeed,  served  with  the  Royal  Marines.  One  day, 

being  upon  a  battleship  on  a  training  cruise,  he  had  landed  for  some 
hours  at  Oporto,  Portugal.  During  his  stay,  while  he  was  walking  in 
the  city,  he  heard  a  noise  of  drunken,  furious  voices  coming  from  an  inn. 
He  perceived  that  the  language  was  Italian,  and,  realizing  that  it  was  a 
quarrel  between  men  of  his  vessel,  he  went  into  the  room,  recognized  his 
men,  and  commanded  them  to  return  to  their  ship.  One  of  the  drinkers, 
more  intoxicated  than  the  others,  answered  him  back,  and  even  went  so  far 
as  to  threaten  his  superior  officer.  Angered  by  his  attitude,  the  officer 
drew  his  sword  and  plunged  it  into  the  insolent  fellow's  breast;  the  latter 
died  soon  afterward.  As  a  result  of  this  adventure,  the  officer  was  court- 
martialed,  sentenced  to  six  months'  imprisonment  and,  on  the  expiration 
of  his  term,  asked  to  resign  his  commission. 

"Those  are  the  facts;  it  follows  from  them  that  the  disturbing  spirit 
had  not  lied.  He  had  exactly  stated  his  rank  as  a  Royal  Italian  Marine. 


He  had  remembered  that  Signore  X had  killed  him.  He  had,  more- 
over— and  this  was  a  particularly  remarkable  statement — indicated  the 
place  where  he  had  died,  the  setting  for  the  drama,  Oporto. 

"A  painstaking  inquiry  confirmed  the  authenticity  of  all  this.  By  what 
hypothesis  could  one  explain  occurrences  so  strikingly  in  agreement — 
those  which  were  revealed  to  us  at  the  seance  of  April  5,  1904,  and  those 
which  had  taken  place  in  Portugal  many  years  before?" 

case  no.  70 
The  South  African  Case1 

H.  Dennis  Bradley,  in  this  case,  relates  how  a  Scandinavian  gentleman 
who  had  lived  many  years  in  South  Africa,  called  upon  him,  asking  if 
he  could  supply  the  name  of  a  reliable  medium.  Bradley,  who  had  previ- 
ously obtained  exceptionally  good  evidence  from  a  Mrs.  Scales,  naturally 
recommended  her  to  his  visitor,  who,  though  not  a  spiritualist,  had  read 
Towards  the  Stars  and  The  Wisdom  of  the  Gods.  He  was  an  intelligent 
man  and  wished  to  experiment,  as  certain  and  important  events  had 
recently  happened  in  his  life,  of  which  occurrences  he  did  not  inform 
Bradley  at  this  time.  The  visitor  said  quite  frankly  that  he  was  very 
skeptical  so  far  as  the  subject  was  concerned,  and  to  safeguard  his 
anonymity  Bradley  took  good  care  that  Mrs.  Scales  did  not  learn  his  name 
through  him. 

The  visitor  returned  after  the  sitting  and  informed  Bradley  of  the 
circumstances  of  his  case.  He  was  anxious  to  meet  a  medium  as  his  wife 
had  been  mysteriously  murdered  in  South  Africa  and  the  murderer  had 
not  been  discovered. 

The  communications  that  purported  to  come  from  his  wife  were 
astonishing.  The  medium  minutely  described  his  house  and  farm  in 
South  Africa  and  the  exact  position  and  outlook  of  the  room  in  which  his 
wife  was  murdered.  The  exact  position  in  which  his  wife's  body  was  found 
was  also  described  and  the  statement  was  made  that  she  had  been  shot 
by  a  black  man  employed  on  a  neighboring  farm. 

The  sitter  agreed  that  all  the  details  described  were  quite  correct,  except 
that  the  guilt  of  the  native,  though  a  logical  surmise,  could  never  be 

1  Bradley,  H.  Dennis,  And  After  (London:  T.  "Werner  Laurie,  Ltd.),  63. 

Chapter  7 


The  theory  of  cross-correspondence  is  that  a  word  or  words  given  through 
one  medium  is  stated  later  through  another,  or  that  an  idea  partly  con- 
veyed in  one  case  is  completed  and  extended  through  a  second  or  third. 

The  theory — to  eliminate  from  mediumistic  communication  the  hypoth- 
esis of  telepathy  between  the  living — has  been  credited  to  the  deceased 
personality  of  F.  W.  H.  Myers,  as  it  was  noticed  after  his  death  in  1901 
that  in  scripts  of  various  sensitives,  fragmentary  utterances  were  found  sup- 
plementing each  other  which,  when  collected  and  put  together,  gave  a 
coherent  idea  in  each  instance. 

Miss  Alice  Johnson,  research  officer  of  the  S.P.R.,  was  the  first  to  observe 
this  connection.  Many  cases  are  to  be  found  in  the  Proceedings  of  the 
S.P.R.,  requiring  the  ingenuity  of  those  who  attempted  to  solve  them — 
men  of  classical  and  scientific  education. 

It  was  the  S.P.R.  that  first  inaugurated  the  cross-correspondences,  and 
except  for  some  sporadic  work  through  the  mediums  Valiantine  and  Mrs. 
Crandon,  and  a  few  French  sensitives,  little  has  been  done  in  this  respect 
by  any  other  individuals  or  organizations. 

case  no.  71 
The  Hope,  Star  and  Browning  Case1 
Eight  individuals  took  part  in  this  experiment  if  we  allow  that  the 
deceased  F.  W.  H.  Myers  and  Dr.  Richard  Hodgson  still  functioned  on 
"the  other  side";  Mrs.  Piper  in  London  and  Mrs.  Verrall  and  Miss  Verrall 
in  Cambridge  were  the  automatists,  while  Miss  Alice  Johnson,  Mrs.  Sidg- 
wick  and  Mr.  J.  G.  Piddington  were  the  sitters. 
Miss  Johnson  expressed  the  idea  in  the  Proceedings:2 

"About  a  month  after  the  cross-correspondence  just  described  had 
occurred,  viz.,  in  April,  1906,  the  theory  that  cross-correspondences  were 

1  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  XXII,  XXVII. 

2  Ibid.,  XXVII. 



expressly  designed  to  provide  evidence  for  something  transcending  telep- 
athy between  the  minds  of  the  automatists  was  first  definitely  formulated. 
...  In  the  autumn  of  the  same  year  Mr.  Piddington  and  I,  in  view  of  the 
sittings  with  Mrs.  Piper  which  were  about  to  be  held  in  London,  devised 
the  experiment  of  a  'Latin  message'  to  be  addressed  to  Myers  in  Latin. 
The  original  version  of  the  message  was  as  follows :  'We  are  aware  of  the 
scheme  of  cross-correspondences  which  you  are  transmitting  through  vari- 
ous mediums,  and  we  hope  you  will  go  on  with  them.  Try  also  to  give  to 
A  and  B  two  different  messages,  between  which  no  connection  is  dis- 
cernible. Then  as  soon  as  possible  give  to  C  a  third  message  which  will 
reveal  the  hidden  connection.'  It  appeared  to  us  that  if  the  experiment  suc- 
ceeded and  cross-correspondences  of  the  desired  type  occurred,  they  would 
afford  almost  conclusive  evidence  of  a  mind  external  to  those  of  all  the 
automatists,  and  might  afford  strong  evidence  of  the  identity  of  his  mind." 

Dr.  A.  W.  Verrall,  a  distinguished  classical  scholar,  translated  into 
Ciceronian  Latin  this  message : 

"Diversis  internuntiis  quod  invicem  inter  se  respondentia  jamdudum 
committis,  id  nee  fallit  nos  consilium,  et  vehementer  probamus.  Unum 
accesserit  gratissimum  nobis,  si,  cum  duobus  quibusdam  ea  tradideris,  inter 
quae  hullus  appareat  nexus,  postea  quam  primum  rem  per  tertium 
aliquem  ita  perficias,  ut  latens  illud  in  prioribus  explicetur." 

This  message,  though  given  now  in  one  paragraph,  was  only  given  in 
sentences  later  to  Mrs.  Piper,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  two  or  three  pages 
that  follow. 

This  Latin  message,  according  to  Mr.  J.  G.  Piddington,  may  be  rendered 
thus  literally  in  English : 

"As  to  the  fact  that  (quod)  for  some  time  past  you  have  been  entrusting 
(committis)  to  different  intermediaries  (or  messengers)  things  which  cor- 
respond mutually  between  themselves,  we  have  observed  your  design,  and 
we  cordially  approve  it.  One  thing  besides  this  most  agreeable  to  us  will 
have  happened  (i.e.,  You  will  even  add  to  our  pleasure)  if,  when  you  shall 
have  delivered  to  two  particular  persons  things  between  which  no  connec- 
tion is  apparent,  afterwards  as  soon  as  possible  through  some  third  person 
you  so  complete  the  matter  (or  business)  that  which  was  latent  in  the  first 
two  messages  may  be  revealed." 


It  is  well  to  state  at  this  stage  the  knowledge  the  three  automatists  pos- 
sessed concerning  the  experiment.  According  to  Miss  Johnson,  (a)  Mrs. 
Verrall  was  fully  acquainted  with  it,  (b)  Miss  Verrall  must  be  assumed  to 
know  something  about  it,  since  she  was  present  at  the  sitting  of  December 
19,  1906,  when  part  of  the  message  was  dictated  to  the  entranced  Mrs. 
Piper,  (c)  to  Mrs.  Piper  the  subject  was  mentioned  only  when  she  was  in 
trance,  and  the  message  was  dictated  in  Latin  to  the  trance-personalities. 

Did  the  ignorance  or  knowledge  on  the  part  of  the  three  automatists 
affect  the  value  of  the  cross-correspondence?  Miss  Johnson  thought  not: 
"The  knowledge  or  ignorance  of  the  automatists  about  the  Latin  message 
had  of  course  no  bearing  on  the  evidential  value  of  the  cross-correspond- 
ences, but  it  might  have  some  effect  on  the  wording  of  the  script." 

On  December  17,  1906,  the  experiment  commenced  in  London  by  Mr. 
J.  G.  Piddington  giving  to  Myers  p.1  the  first  nine  words  of  the  Latin 
message,  pronouncing  each  word  syllable  by  syllable  and  spelling  it  letter 
by  letter,  which  plan  he  maintained  till  the  Latin  message  was  concluded. 
Furthermore,  at  this  sitting,  Mr.  Piddington  emphasized  to  Rector  (Mrs. 
Piper's  control,  acting  on  behalf  of  Myers) :  "I  attach  great  importance  to 
the  message  and  its  being  correctly  transmitted.  One  object  in  sending  this 
message  in  Latin  is  to  see  whether  Myers  can  understand  it;  to  show  that 
he  must  send  an  intelligent  reply  to  it,  not  merely  such  a  reply  as  'I  under- 
stand,' or  'Yes'  or  'No,'  but  a  reply  which  will  show  that  he  has  grasped 
the  purport  of  it." 

The  clock  struck  twelve  as  Mr.  Piddington  reached  the  word  committis, 
and  at  that  exact  moment  Mrs.  Verrall  in  Cambridge  began  to  write: 

"Revolving  axes 

Revolving  spheres  the  mystic  music  make. 
Revolving  spheres  the  harmony  began 
Harmonious  sound  scarce  audible  to  man 
Then  from  every  several  unit  of  the  whole 
Joined  the  majestic  music  of  the  Soul 

No!  No! 
Majestic  music 

No — you  don't  see  what  I  want — begin  again. 
Revolving  spheres  the  harmony  began — 

1  Meaning  F.  W.  H.  Myers  purporting  to  be  communicating  through  Mrs.  Piper; 
Myers  v,  through  Mrs.  Verrall. 


A  diapason  manifest  to  man — 
Each  single  unit  played  its  several  part 
Discoursing  symphony  with  godsent  art, 
Till  the  majestic  music  of  the  whole 
Throbbed  in  pulsation — and  the  throbbing  Soul 
Saw  through  the  sound  the  burning  of  the  flame 
Felt  the  lost  Presence — to  the  Presence  came." 

In  Mr.  Piddington's  opinion  the  lines : 

"Each  single  unit  played  its  several  part 
Discoursing  symphony  with  godsent  art, 
Till  the  majestic  music  of  the  whole 
Throbbed  in  pulsation — and  the  throbbing  Soul 
Saw  through  the  sound  the  burning  of  the  flame" 

pointed  to  the  poem  Abt  Vogler,  the  basis  of  this  cross-correspondence,  and 
he  placed  special  emphasis  on  the  phrase : 

"and  the  throbbing  Soul 
Saw  through  the  sound  the  burning  of  the  flame" 

as  bearing  a  strong  connection  with  the  line: 

"That  out  of  three  sounds  he  frame,  not  a  fourth  sound  but  a  star" 

in  Browning's  poem  Abt  Vogler. 

Later,  it  will  be  observed  how  the  idea  of  the  star  became  a  very  impor- 
tant factor  in  this  cross-correspondence. 

On  December  19,  with  Miss  Verrall  present,  Mr.  Piddington  gave  more 
words  of  the  Latin  message,  on  December  24  thirteen  more,  then  on 
December  31  he  carried  on  to  the  word  rem  in  the  second  sentence.  At  this 
meeting  Rector  said,  "We  have  in  part  understood  and  conveyed  your 
message  to  your  friend  Myers  and  he  is  delighted  to  receive  it  so  far  as  he 
has  been  able  to  receive  it."  At  the  next  sitting  on  January  2,  1907,  Rector 
wrote:  "Hodgson  is  helping  Myers  with  his  translation" — a  very  interest- 
ing remark,  as  subsequent  developments  show.  Later  at  this  sitting  Myers 
p.  said  that  the  message  impressed  him  and  he  offered  to  translate  it  into 
English,  but  Mr.  Piddington  replied  that  he  did  not  wish  that;  all  he 
wanted  from  Myers  p.  was  an  answer  indicating  that  he  understood  its 


purport.  Myers  p.  replied,  "I  quite  understand  and  I  will  certainly  do  so." 
Then  Mr.  Piddington  gave  him  the  rest  of  the  Latin  message. 

On  January  16,  Mr.  Piddington  suggested  to  Myers  p.  that  it  would  be 
a  good  idea  when  giving  a  cross-correspondence  if  he  would  sign  it  with  a 
symbol,  such  as  a  triangle  within  a  circle,  to  show  a  connection  where  such 
was  intended  between  the  scripts.  Myers  p.  thought  this  was  a  reasonable 
suggestion  and  replied  that  he  would  be  glad  to  try  this. 

On  January  23,  Myers  p.  said,  "I  should  like  to  go  over  the  first  and 
second  sentences  of  our  Latin  message  ...  I  believe  I  can  send  you  a  mes- 
sage which  will  please  you  if  I  can  understand  it  clearly,"  and  that  night 
Mrs.  Verrall  wrote: 

"Justice  holds  the  scales. 

That  gives  the  words  but  an  anagram  would  be  better. 

Tell  him  that — rats,  star,  tars,  and  so  on.  Try  this. 

It  has  been  tried  before  RTATS  re-arrange  these  five  letters  or  again 





and  so  on. 

Skeat  takes  Kate's  Keats  stake  steak 

But  the  letters  you  should  give  tonight  are  not  so  many — only  three — ast." 

Myers  p.  did  not  refer  to  the  Latin  message,  but  on  January  28  and 
February  3  Mrs.  Verrall  and  Miss  Verrall  wrote  respectively,  and  it  is 
emphasized  that  Miss  Verrall  knew  nothing  of  her  mother's  script : 

Mrs.  Verrall — January  28 

"Aster  (a  star) 

Repas  (a  sign  or  wonder) 

The  world's  wonder 

And  all  a  wonder  and  a  wild  desire — 

The  very  wings  of  her. 


vutottTEQog  eq(o<;  (winged  love) 

Then  there  is  Blake 

And  mocked  my  loss  of  liberty. 


But  it  is  all  the  same  thing — the  winged  desire  £9005  jtoSeivoc;  (passion) 
the  hope  that  leaves  the  earth  for  the  sky — Abt  Vogler  for  earth  too  hard 
that  found  itself  or  lost  itself — in  the  sky. 
That  is  what  I  want. 
On  the  earth  the  broken  sounds 
In  the  sky  the  perfect  arc 
The  C  Major  of  this  life. 
But  your  recollection  is  at  fault 

ADB  is  the  part  that  unseen  completes  the  arc." 

Miss  Verrall — February  3 

"A  green  jerkin  and  hose  and  doublet  where  the  song  birds  pipe  their 

tune  in  the  early  morning,  therapeuti\os  e\  exoti\on  (a  healer  from 


a  monogram 

The  crescent  moon 
remember  that     V\  and  the  star 


like  a  thunder  riven  oak  the  grim  remains 
Stand  on  the  level  desolation  of  the  plains 


A  record  for  all  ages  of  the  span 

which  nature  gives  to  the  weak  labor  of  a  man. 


On  February  11  Mr.  Piddington  was  informed  by  Myers  p.  that  "Hope," 
"Star,"  and  "Browning"  had  been  referred  to  in  a  script  of  Mrs.  Verrall's. 

On  February  15  Miss  Verrall  was  told  by  her  mother  that  a  cross- 
correspondence  had  been  made  and  was  given  the  words  "Planet,"  "Mars," 
"Virtue,"  and  "Keats,"  instead  of  "Hope,"  "Star,"  and  "Browning,"  to 
prevent  her  script  from  being  influenced. 

On  February  17  Miss  Verrall  wrote: 

"androsace  (?)  Carthusian  candelabrum 

many  together 

that  was  a  sign  she  will  understand  when  she  sees  it. 

diapason  5ia  xaccov  quOuoc,  (rhythm  through  all) 

no  arts  avail 

the  heavenly  harmony  ob?  e<pr)  oidorcou  (sic) 

(as  Plato  says) 
the  mystic  three  (?) 
and  a  star  above  it  all 
rats  everywhere  in  Hamelin  town, 
now  do  you  understand  ?  Henry." 

On  February  27  Myers  p.  informed  Mr.  Piddington  that  "Hope,"  "Star," 
and  "Browning"  were  his  reply  to  the  Latin  message,  and  on  March  6,  13, 
and  20  said  that  Mrs.  Verrall  had  been  given  a  circle  and  triangle,  in 
addition  to  the  words  "Hope,"  "Star,"  and  "Browning." 

On  April  8,  when  Mrs.  Sedgwick  was  the  sitter,  the  following  con- 
versation ensued: 


myers  p.  (after  referring  to  the  Latin  message  and  poem) :  Inside  a 

mrs.  s.:  Oh!  a  circle.  Yes,  I  remember. 

myers  p.:  As  it  suggested  it  to  my  mind  ...  I  then  drew  or  tried  to 
draw  a  star. 

mrs.  s. :  I  see,  you  drew  a  star. 

myers  p. :  And  I  did  so,  so  you  would  understand  that  I  understood  the 

mrs.  s.:  Yes. 

myers  p.:  And  I  did  this. 

mrs.  s.:  Yes,  there  was  a  star  drawn. 

myers  p.:  I  drew  it  so  you  would  understand  that  I  did  it,  also  a 

mrs.  s.:  Do  you  remember  the  name  of  the  poem? 

myers  p. :  That  is  what  I  am  trying  to  get  through  here.  ...  I  was  very 
much  afraid  my  message  would  not  be  understood,  therefore  I  drew  a  star 
to  make  sure. 

mrs.  s. :  I  see. 

myers  p.:  That  I  did  understand  and  I  will  try  to  give  you  the  name 
again.  ...  I  am  most  anxious  to  make  Rector  understand  the  name  of  the 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  foregoing  that  Myers  p.  declared  that  he  had 
drawn  a  star  and  a  crescent  through  another  automatist.  Myers  p.  stated 
that  he  had  Browning's  poem  Abt  Vogler  in  mind,  when  Mrs.  Sidgwick 
returned  on  April  24.  He  also  said  that  he  had  given  the  words  "Hope," 
"Star,"  and  "Browning"  as  the  answer,  then  he  continued : 

"Now,  dear  Mrs.  Sidgwick,  in  future  have  no  doubt  or  fear  of  so-called 
death,  as  there  is  none,  as  there  is  certainly  intelligent  life  beyond  it." 

mrs.  s. :  Yes,  it's  a  great  comfort. 

Myers  p.:  Yes,  and  I  have  helped  to  proclaim  it  for  you  all. 

mrs.  s. :  You  have  indeed. 



Towards  the  end  of  this  sitting  Myers  p.  explained  that  it  was  "the 
uncertainty  of  Abt  and  the  faith  which  he  held"  that  reminded  him  of 
his  own  experience  and  made  him  quote  the  poem. 

When  Mrs.  Sidgwick  asked  him  why  he  chose  Abt  Vogler  as  his  reply 
to  the  Latin  message,  he  said : 

"I  chose  that  because  of  the  appropriate  conditions  mentioned  in  it 
which  appealed  to  my  own  life.  Understand?" 

mrs.  s.:  I  see. 

myers  p.:  And  nothing  I  could  think  of  so  completely  answered  it  to 
my  mind  as  those  special  words. 

On  May  7,  again  to  Mrs.  Sidgwick,  he  said: 

"Now  one  word  more,  Mrs.  S.,  my  reply  was  about  the  poem,  and  long 
ago  I  gave  the  word  'music'  which  came  to  me  as  appropriate  to  my 
answer  and  understanding  of  the  message." 

mrs.  s.:  Yes.  Quite  right. 

myers  p.:  You  must  patch  things  together  as  best  you  can.  Remember 
we  do  not  give  odd  or  singular  words  without  a  deep  or  hidden 

On  May  7,  Myers  p.  emphasized  the  quotation  from  Abt  Vogler: 
"If  instead  of  a  fourth  came  a  star  (here  an  incomplete  drawing  of  a 
star  was  made)  ...  In  my  Passion  to  reach  you  clearly  I  have  made 
Rector  try  to  draw  a  star  for  me  so  there  can  be  no  mistake" 

mrs.  s. :  No,  there  can  be  no  mistake. 
myers  p.:  Now  are  you  satisfied? 
mrs.  s.:  Yes,  quite. 

At  this  point  let  us  leave  Myers  communicating  through  Mrs.  Piper 
and  see  the  effect  he  had  on  the  scripts  of  Mrs.  Verrall  and  Miss  Verrall. 
The  starting-point  is  the  script  of  Mrs.  Verrall  which  commenced  as  Mr. 
Piddington  had  just  given  Rector  the  first  nine  words  of  the  Latin 
message.  "Music"  or  "Harmony"  is  the  predominant  theme  of  this  script — 
"music"  is  stated  four  different  times,  which  becomes  interesting  when 
we  consider  that  Myers  p.  stated  that  "long  ago"  he  had  given  the  word 
"music."  The  critic  may  well  ask,  "Why  should  we  credit  to  Myers  this 


script  of  Mrs.  Verrall's  which  is  unsigned?"  Mr.  Piddington  replies  thus: 
"In  spite  of  the  absence  of  signature  I  have  no  hesitation  in  attributing 
the  script  of  December  17  to  Myers  v.,  for  not  only  is  it  in  the  same 
style  as  many  of  the  signed  communications  of  this  personality,  but  as 
Mrs.  Verrall  herself  pointed  out  .  .  .  some  of  its  phraseology  is  cer- 
tainly borrowed  from  a  verse-translation  of  F.  W.  H.  Myers."  Myers' 
translation  of  two  Greek  oracles,  published  in  Essays  Classical,  pp.  97-100, 
is  the  work  referred  to,  and  the  particular  quotation  is : 

"O  God  ineffable,  eternal  Sire, 
Throned  on  the  whirling  spheres,  the  astral  fire, 
Hid  in  whose  heart  the  whole  creation  lies, — 
The  whole  world's  wonder  mirrored  in  thine  eyes, 

Thee  the  first  Number  and  harmonious  whole 
Form  in  all  forms,  and  of  all  souls  the  Soul. 

Once  by  God's  grace  was  from  thine  eyes  unfurled 
This  veil  that  screens  the  immense  and  whirling  world, 
Once,  while  the  spheres  around  thee  in  music  ran, 
Was  very  Beauty  manifest  to  man.  .  .  ." 

In  the  phraseology  of  this  script  Mr.  Piddington  also  noticed  evidences 
of  this  quotation  from  Dryden's  Hymn  for  St.  Cecilia's  Day: 

"From  Harmony,  from  heavenly  Harmony 
This  universal  frame  began. 
From  harmony  to  harmony, 
Through  all  the  compass  of  the  notes  it  ran, 
The  diapason  closing  full  in  man. 

As  from  the  power  of  sacred  lays 
The  spheres  began  to  move." 

Mrs.  Verrall's  script  of  December  17  was  not  the  only  one  to  express  the 
ideas  of  Dryden's  poems,  for  Miss  Verrall's  script  of  February  17  con- 
tained the  words  "heavenly  harmony"  and  "diapason" — actual  quotations 
from  it.  Mr.  Piddington  pointed  out  that  the  occurrence  in  both  scripts 


of  the  word  "diapason,"  in  addition  to  the  fact  that  the  "Harmony"  of 
Mrs.  Verrall's  script  clearly  indicates  a  heavenly  harmony,  bringing  these 
two  scripts  into  contact  with  each  other.  Not  only  did  Miss  Verrall's 
script  of  February  17  link  up  with  Mrs.  Verrall's  of  December  17,  but 
it  connected  with  her  one  of  February  3  as  the  following  items  show:  In 
both  scripts  the  word  "star"  and  a  drawing  of  this  symbol  appears,  and 
the  script  of  February  3  contains  the  first  hint  to  Browning's  Pied  Piper 
of  Hamelin,  in  the  words  "pie"  and  "a  healer  from  the  aliens."  The 
February  17  script  has  a  marked  reference  to  this  poem  in  the  words 
"rats  everywhere  in  Hamelin  town,"  and  further  these  two  scripts  of 
Miss  Verrall  have  points  in  common  with  that  of  Mrs.  Verrall  of  Jan- 
uary 28.  As  Mrs.  Verrall  was  forwarding  the  latter  script  to  Mr.  Pid- 
dington  she  wrote  on  the  back  of  the  envelope  a  note  suggesting  that  the 
words  in  it,  i.e.,  "wings,"  "winged,"  and  "Vogler"  (Vogel)  might  be 
an  attempt  at  the  word  "birds."  Now,  Miss  Verrall's  script  of  February  3 
contained — like  that  of  Mrs.  Verrall's  of  January  28 — the  word  "star"  and 
the  allusion  to  Browning  already  observed,  while  in  her  February  17 
script  the  drawing  of  a  star  preceding  the  words  "that  was  a  sign  she 
(Mrs.  Verrall)  will  understand  when  she  sees  it"  and  "a  star  above  it 
all"  is  clearly  related  to  the  "aster"  (star  sign)  of  the  January  28  script. 

The  reader  will  have  noticed  that  Browning  and  his  poem  Abt  Vogler 
permeate  the  scripts  of  February  3  and  17  and  the  word  "hope"  appeared 
in  this  script  in  the  line  before  that  in  which  Abt  Vogler  is  mentioned 
in  this  fashion.  In  the  script  the  phrase  "the  hope  that  leaves  the  earth  for 
the  sky"  is  an  apparent  error  of  the  phrase  in  the  poem  which  reads, 
"The  passion  that  left  the  ground  to  lose  itself  in  the  sky."  Mrs.  Verrall 
knew  this  and  wrote  in  a  letter  to  Mr.  Piddington  on  February  15,  "I 
knew  perfectly  well  when  I  read  the  script  that  it  should  have  been 
'passion'  which  left  the  ground  for  the  sky — and  I  was  annoyed  at  this 

Mr.  Piddington  at  first  thought  the  scripts  were  meaningless  and  it 
was  Myers  p.  that  enlightened  him  at  the  February  11  sitting  by  saying 
that  he  had  given  the  words  "Hope,"  "Star,"  and  "Browning"  to  Mrs. 
Verrall,  whereupon  Mr.  Piddington  re-read  the  scripts  and  observed 
that  they  did  contain  allusions  to  these  words.  He  then  read  Abt  Vogler 
for  the  first  time  and  was  immediately  impressed  by  the  extraordinary 


aptness  of  the  answer  to  the  second  sentence  of  the  Latin  message  which 
could  be  taken  from  one  of  the  only  passages  in  the  poem  in  which  the 
word  "star"  occurs: 

"But  here  is  the  finger  of  God,  a  flash  of  the  will  that  can, 
Existent  behind  all  laws,  that  made  them  and,  lo,  they  are! 
And  I  know  not  if,  save  in  this,  such  gift  be  allowed  to  man, 
That  out  of  three  sounds  he  frame,  not  a  fourth  sound,  but  a  star. 
Consider  it  well;  each  tone  of  our  scale  itself  is  nought; 
It  is  everywhere  in  the  world — loud,  soft,  and  all  is  said : 
Give  it  to  me  to  use!  I  mix  it  with  two  in  my  thought: 
And  there!  Ye  have  heard  and  seen:  consider  and  bow  the  head!" 

Mr.  Piddington  summed  up  the  appropriateness  of  this  stanza  by 
saying:  "Were  one  to  search  English  literature  for  a  quotation  pertinent 
to  the  experiment  suggested  in  the  Latin  message,  it  would  be  difficult 
to  find  one  more  felicitous  than  these  lines  from  stanza  vii  of  Abt  Vogler" 
He  explained  his  reason  for  thinking  it  was  this  stanza  which  Myers  p. 
had  in  mind.  He  first  noticed  that  the  word  "star"  was  emphasized  both 
in  Mrs.  Verrall's  and  Miss  Verrall's  script,  and  then  after  reading  Abt 
Vogler  he  was  specially  struck  with  the  aptness  of  "aster  repas,"  the  open- 
ing words  of  the  second  script,  to  the  star  in  the  poem  which  was  framed 
out  of  "three  sounds"  and  was  "both  a  sign  and  a  wonder."  The  "broken 
sounds"  of  the  script  also  seemed  suggestive  of  this  particular  stanza. 
Later,  Mr.  Piddington  found  his  reasoning  reinforced  by  this  definition 
of  repas  given  in  Liddell  and  Scott's  Gree\  English  Dictionary:  "Any 
appearance  or  event  in  which  men  believed  they  could  see  the  finger  of 
God,"  and  this  definition  occurred  in  the  actual  phrase  of  stanza  vii — 
"But  here  is  the  finger  of  God." 

Also,  the  phrase  "Justice  holds  the  scales"  resembled  "each  tone  of  our 
scale,"  which  belief  was  strengthened  when  Myers  p.  in  a  sitting  on 
May  7  succeeded  in  giving  the  word  "scale"  and  so  completed  the  quota- 
tion, "In  my  passion  to  scale  the  sky."  This  play  on  the  three  different 
meanings  of  the  word  scales  has  a  definite  meaning,  quite  in  keeping 
with  the  nature  of  this  experiment  in  which  anagrams  played  an  im- 
portant part. 

The  words  6ia  jtaacov  qvOjxo?  in  Miss  Verrall's  script  of  February  17 


also  suggested  the  lines,  "each  tone  of  our  scale  in  itself  is  nought,  It  is 
everywhere  in  the  world,"  while  the  phrase  "the  mystic  three"  before 
the  words  "the  heavenly  harmony"  recalled  to  his  mind  "the  three 
sounds"  of  stanza  vii. 

The  similarity  of  the  anagrams  and  the  emphasis  placed  on  "star" 
in  the  scripts  of  January  23  and  February  17  shows  that  a  connection 
was  established  between  these  two  scripts.  When  Mr.  Piddington  read 
the  February  17  script  which  contained  the  words  "rats,  star,  arts,  etc.," 
he  felt  that  he  had  seen  these  anagrams  before  and  he  could  not  rid 
himself  of  this  impression  as  he  seemed  to  remember  having  seen  them 
in  Dr.  Hodgson's  handwriting  among  papers  in  Boston,  Mass.  He  wrote 
to  Dr.  Hodgson's  executors  in  the  United  States  asking  them  to  look 
through  his  papers  for  one  containing  the  words  "rats,  star,  arts,  etc.," 
and  in  August,  1907,  he  received  from  Mr.  Henry  James  a  sheet  of 
paper  on  which  in  Dr.  Hodgson's  own  handwriting  were  the  following 
anagrams : 

(Coal)  Tars 












He  rest 



Rest  he 


Are  st 


St  are 

Here  st 

A  rest 


Rest  a 

"I  confess,"  said  Mr.  Piddington,  "that  when  this  paper  came  into 
my  hands  I  felt  as  I  suppose  people  do  who  have  seen  a  ghost  for,  though 
not  surprised  to  see  the  'rats,  arts,  star'  anagrams,  I  was  positively  startled 
when  I  saw  the  anagram,  'rates,  tears,  aster,'  etc.,  of  which  I  had  no  recol- 
lection whatever."  Mr.  Piddington  also  found  correspondence  which 
showed  that  F.  W.  H.  Myers  and  Dr.  Hodgson  had  been  exchanging  ana- 
grams for  about  six  years,  and  on  a  postcard  dated  1896,  F.  W.  H.  Myers 
had  written,  "As  many  and  grammatic  anagrams  as  you  like. — F.  W. 
H.  M."  This  coincidence  is  very  suggestive  when  it  is  remembered  that 
Dr.  Hodgson  was  stated  to  be  assisting  F.  W.  H.  Myers  and  anagrams 


came  naturally  to  both,  while  Mrs.  Verrall  was  not  interested  in  them. 

Mr.  Piddington  drew  attention  to  another  point.  Dr.  Hodgson  when 
living  and  Mrs.  Verrall  and  Miss  Verrall  in  script  had  made  anagrams 
of  the  word  "star,"  yet  all  had  omitted  a  very  obvious  one — "Tsar"! 
Further,  Dr.  Hodgson  and  Mrs.  Verrall  also  composed  a  five  letter  ana- 
gram on  "Aster."  The  reader  will  remember  that  in  the  Myers  p.  sitting 
of  January  2,  Rector  had  declared  that  Hodgson  was  helping  Myers  with 
his  translation. 

The  anagrams  produced  by  Miss  Verrall  were  not  a  mere  jumble  of 
words,  but  each  had  a  distinct  bearing  on  the  cross-correspondence. 
"Star"  is  obviously  one  of  the  three  words  emphasized  by  Myers  p.; 
"rats"  has  a  distinct  reference  to  Browning;  and  "arts"  in  the  phrase, 
"No  arts  avail,"  when  taken  with  the  phrases,  "the  heavenly  harmony," 
"the  mystic  three,"  and  "a  star  above  it  all,"  all  point,  as  Miss  Alice  John- 
son says,  to  the  following  lines  from  Abt  Vogler: 

"It   (i.e.  both  painting  and  poetry)   is  all  triumphant  art,  but  art  in 

obedience  to  laws  .  .  . 
But  here  (i.e.  in  music)  is  the  finger  of  God,  a  flash  of  the  will  that  can. 
That  out  of  the  three  sounds  he  frame,  not  the  fourth  sound  but  a  star." 

The  "Hope,"  "Star,"  and  "Browning"  case  fulfills  the  requirements 
of  the  Latin  message.  A  complex  set  of  references  were  alluded  to  and 
implied  in  the  scripts  of  Mrs.  Verrall  and  Miss  Verrall,  which,  taken  by 
themselves,  were  meaningless,  and  it  was  only  when,  through  Mrs. 
Piper,  the  words  were  given  outright  that  the  whole  problem  was  solved. 

On  cross-correspondences  Mr.  Piddington  wrote: 

"On  the  problem  of  the  real  identity  of  this  directing  mind  .  .  .  the 
only  opinion  I  can  hold  with  confidence  is  this:  that  if  it  was  not  the 
mind  of  Frederic  Myers,  it  was  one  which  deliberately  and  artistically 
imitated  his  mental  characteristics." 

case  no.  72 
The  Ear  of  Dionysius  Case1 
Strictly  speaking,  this  is  not  a  cross-correspondence,  but  it  has  been 
included  here  because  the  complexity  of  its  nature  attains   the  same 
i  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  XXIX,  197-243. 


purpose,  and  furthermore,  the  knowledge  displayed  by  one  of  the  com- 
municators was  not  in  the  minds  of  the  investigators,  but  ultimately 
found  in  a  very  obscure  book,  known  to  be  the  property  of  and  used 
by  that  communicator. 

Some  people — men  of  classical  and  scientific  training,  and  well  qualified 
to  judge  such  matters — consider  this  the  most  convincing  evidence  to  be 
found  in  one  single  case. 

On  August  26,  1910,  Mrs.  A.  W.  Verrall  held  a  sitting  with  Mrs. 
Willett,  an  automatist  of  good  position,  whose  bona  -fides  and  integrity 
were  well  known  to  the  S.P.R.  At  this  sitting  the  following  words  were 
recorded  by  Mrs.  Verrall:  "Dionysius  Ear  the  lobe."  The  word  "Diony- 
sius"  was  given  the  Italian  pronunciation.  Mrs.  Verrall  noted  the  phrase 
but  could  not  attach  any  significance  to  it. 

The  "Ear  of  Dionysius"  is  a  kind  of  grotto  in  the  quarries  at  Syracuse 
on  the  island  of  Sicily,  in  which  quarries  Dionysius  the  Tyrant  kept  his 
prisoners  of  war.  On  account  of  its  shape,  and  as  it  had  the  properties  of  a 
whispering  gallery,  it  became  known  as  the  "Ear  of  Dionysius"  because 
he  was  reputed  to  have  hidden  himself  in  it  in  order  to  overhear  the 
conversation  of  the  prisoners.  Although  Mrs.  Willett  had  been  in  Italy 
and  spoke  Italian,  she  had  never  visited  Sicily,  though  she  may  have 
heard  of  the  grotto,  one  of  the  attractions  of  Syracuse. 

About  two  years  after  the  sitting,  Mrs.  Verrall's  husband,  Dr.  A.  W. 
Verrall,  died. 

On  January  10,  1914,  though  Sir  Oliver  Lodge  was  the  sitter  with 
Mrs.  Willett,  reference  was  made  directly  to  Mrs.  Verrall  as  the  follow- 
ing extract  shows: 

Do  you  remember  you  did  not  \now  and  I  complained  of  your  classical 
ignorance.  IGNORANCE.  It  concerned  a  place  where, slaves  were  \ept — 
and  Audition  belongs,  also  Acoustics.  Thin\  of  the  whispering  Gaily 

To  toil,  a  slave,  the  Tyrant — and  it  was  called  Orrechio — that's  ear. 

One  ear,  a  one-eared  place  .  .  .  a  one-eared  person.  You  did  not  \now 
(or  remember)  about  it  when  it  came  up  in  conversation,  and  I  said  Well 
what  is  the  use  of  a  classical  education. 

Where  were  the  fields  of  Enna? 


(Drawing  of  an  ear.) 

an  ear  ly  (sic)  pipe  could  be  heard. 

To  sail  for  Syracuse. 

Who  beat  the  loud-sounding  wave,  who  smote  the  moving  furrows 

The  heel  of  the  boot. 

Dy  Dy  and  then  you  thinly  of  Diana  Dimorphism. 

To  fly  to  find  Euripides. 

Not  the  Pauline  Philemon. 

This  sort  of  thing  is  more  difficult  to  do  than  it  loo\s. 

After  her  sitting  in  1910,  Mrs.  Verrall  had  asked  her  husband  what 
was  meant  by  the  words  "Ear  of  Dionysius,"  who,  after  expressing  sur- 
prise at  her  ignorance,  duly  enlightened  her.  Lord  Balfour,  one  of  the 
investigators  in  this  case,  knew  of  the  foregoing  conversation  between 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Verrall  and  had  a  faint  recollection  of  relating  it  to  Mrs. 
Willett,  who  failed  to  remember  it. 

The  allusions  in  the  script  are  explained  as  follows : 

Orrechio  is  the  Italian  word  for  ear;  Enna  is  a  Sicilian  town.  It  was 
on  the  fields  of  Enna  that  the  rape  of  Proserpine  occurred.  An  "ear-ly" 
pipe  is  apparently  a  pun  on  the  word  ear.  The  route  followed  by  the 
Athenian  fleet  in  the  war  against  Syracuse  is  indicated  by  the  sentences: 
"To  sail  for  Syracuse,"  "Who  beat  the  sounding  wave,  etc.,"  and  "The 
heel  of  the  boot."  "To  fly  to  find  Euripides"  refers  to  Browning's  poem 
Aristophanes'  Apology,  in  which  Balaustion  tells  Philemon  that  she 
had  sent  the  original  tablets  of  Euripides'  play,  Hercules  Furens,  which 
he  had  given  to  her  as  a  parting  gift,  to  Dionysius,  Tyrant  of  Syracuse. 
This  poem  had  not  been  read  by  Mrs.  Willett,  but  she  had  seen  references 
to  it  in  the  reports  of  an  earlier  cross-correspondence,  "Euripides,"  pub- 
lished in  the  Proceedings. 

The  next  sitting  was  held  on  February  28,  1914,  and  this  time  Lord 
Balfour  was  the  sitter.  The  following  extracts  pertaining  to  the  case  were 
in  the  script,  and  to  assist  the  reader  the  sources  of  the  quotations  are 
given  in  parentheses: 

Some  confusion  may  appear  in  the  matter  transmitted,  but  there  is  now 
being  started  an  experiment,  not  a  new  experiment  but  a  new  subject,  and 
not  exactly  that  but  a  new  line  which  joins  with  a  subject  already  got 


a  little  anatomy  if  you  please. 

Add  one  to  one. 

One  Ear  X  (sic)  one  eye. 

(Then  the  drawing  of  an  ear  and  an  eye  in  a  circle.) 

The  one  eyed  kingdom. 

no,  in  the  K.  of  the  Blind  the  i  eyed  man  is  King. 

It  is  about  a  i  eyed  man  ("man"  was  crossed  out  in  the  original). 

i  eyed. 

The  entrance  to  the  cave  Arethusa. 

Arethusa  is  only  to  indicate  it  does  not  belong  to  the  i  eyed. 

A  Fountain  on  the  Hill  Side. 

(Then  a  drawing  of  a  volcano  or  smoking  mountain.) 

What  about  Baulastion  (sic). 

(Then  a  drawing  of  a  boot.) 

(Laughs.)  Supposed  to  be  a  Wellington  Boot. 

12  little  nigger  boys  thin\ing  not  of  Styx. 

Some  were  eaten  up  and  then  there  were  Six.  Six. 

(At  this  point  Mrs.  Willett  ceased  to  write  and  began  dictating  to  the 

Someone  said — Oh,  I'll  try,  I'll  try.  Oh,  someone's  showing  me  a  pic- 
ture and  talking  at  the  same  time. 

Someone  said  to  me,  Homer  .  .  . 

Nor  sights  nor  sounds  diurnal. 

Here  where  all  winds  are  quiet. 

(Swinburne,  The  Garden  of  Proserpine.) 

.  .  .  It's  about  a  cave  and  a  group  of  men.  Somebody  then — a  trident, 
rather  li\e  a  toasting  for\,  I  thin\. 

Poseidon.  Poseidon. 

Who  said  it  was.  It  may  be  that  the  gulfs  will  wash  us  down — find  the 
great  Achilles  that  we  /(new  (Tennyson's  Ulysses). 

He's  got  a  flaming  torch  in  his  hand.  And  then  someone  said  to  met 
Can't  you  thin\  of  Noah  and  the  grapes? 

Optics — Oh!  that,  you  know  (putting  a  finger  to  her  eye). 

.  .  .  Somebody  said  to  me,  Don't  forget  about  Henry  Sidgwic\  that 
he  pleased  not  himself.  Do  you  \now  that  he  used  to  wor\  when  he  hated 
wording.  I  mean  sometimes  he  had  to  grind  along  without  enjoying  what 


he  was  doing.  That's  what  I'm  trying  to  do  now.  Do  you  \now  that  man 
with  the  glittering  eyes  I  once  saw?  He  hit  me  with  one  word  now. 

(Note  by  Lord  Balfour:  Here  Mrs.  Willett  traced  a  word  with  one 
finger  along  the  margin  of  the  paper.  I  failed  to  make  it  out  and  handed 
the  pencil  to  her,  whereupon  she  wrote.) 


(Dictation  resumed.)  And  Poetry,  the  language  of  the  Gods,  Somebody 
\illed  a  President  once  and  called  out — something  in  Latin,  and  I  only 
heard  one  word  of  it.  Tironius,  Tiranus,  Tiranius — something  about  sic. 
(Note  by  Lord  Balfour:  "Sic  semper  tyrannis" — uttered  by  Booth  when 
he  murdered  Lincoln.  .  .  .) 

What  is  a  tyrant? 

Lots  of  wars — a  siege  I  hear  the  sound  of  chipping.  It's  on  stone. 

Fin  and  something  gleba.  Find — Oh,  it's  got  to  do  with  the  serf.  It's 
about  a  man  who  said  it  was  better — Oh!  a  shade  among  the  shades. 
Better  to  be  a  slave  among  the  living,  he  said. 

Oh,  the  toil — Woe  to  the  vanquished. 

That  one  eye  has  got  something  to  do  with  the  one  ear.  That's  what 
they  wanted  me  to  say.  There's  such  a  mass  of  things,  you  see,  rushing 
through  my  mind  that  I  can't  catch  anything. 

(A  pause  and  then  sobbing.)  He  was  turned  into  a  fountain  that  sort 
of  Stephen  man,  he  was  turned  into  a  fountain.  WHY?  That's  the  point. 

Oh,  dear  me!  Now  I  seem  to  be  wal\ing  about  a  school  and  I  met  a 
dar\  boy,  and — it's  the  name  of  a  Field  Marshal  I'm  trying  to  get,  a 
German  name.  And  then  something  says,  All  this  is  only  memories  re- 
vived: it's  got  nothing  to  do  with  the  purely  literary.  There  are  two  people 
in  that  literary  thing,  chiefly  concerned  in  it.  They're  very  close  friends — 
they've  thought  it  all  out  together. 

Somebody  said  something  about  Father  Cam  walking  down  arm  in 
arm — with  the  Canongate?  What  does  that  mean? 

Enough  for  this  time.  There  is  sense  in  that  which  has  been  got  through 
though  some  disentanglement  is  needed.  A  literary  association  of  ideas 
pointing  to  the  influence  of  two  discarnate  minds. 

Many  of  the  subjects  of  the  scripts  were  again  raised  and  need  not  be 
repeated,  but  may  be  briefly  stated: 


The  Ear  of  Dionysius. 

The  stone  quarries  in  which  the  vanquished  Athenians  worked. 

Enna  (indirectly  suggested  by  a  quotation  from  The  Garden  of  Proser- 
pine) . 

Syracuse  (Wars — a  Siege  and  Arethusa). 

The  heel  of  Italy  (Wellington  boot). 

The  adventures  of  Balaustion. 

Furthermore,  it  was  stated  that  an  experiment  was  being  engineered  by 
two  discarnate  friends — Professor  Henry  Butcher  and  Dr.  A.  W.  Verrall, 
and  Mrs.  Verrall  was  to  be  kept  strictly  in  ignorance  of  it.  The  phrase, 
"Father  Cam  walking  arm  in  arm  with  the  Canongate"  signified  the 
friendship  between  the  two  men.  Dr.  A.  W.  Verrall  was  the  Cambridge 
man  while  Professor  Butcher  was  a  Professor  of  Greek  in  Edinburgh. 
(The  Canongate  is  a  well-known  street  in  Scotland's  capital.) 

Two  new  subjects  were  introduced  into  this  Balfour  script — the  stories 
of  Polyphemus  and  Ulysses  from  Homer,  and  Acis  and  Galatea  from 
Ovid.  The  first  story  relates  how  Ulysses  with  twelve  men,  seeking  shelter 
in  the  country  of  the  Cyclopes,  were  captured  by  Polyphemus,  the  one- 
eyed  son  of  the  sea-god  Poseidon,  who  began  to  devour  them  two  at  a 
time.  Ulysses  and  the  survivors  made  Polyphemus  drunk;  then,  burning 
out  his  eye  with  a  flaming  stick,  made  their  escape  by  concealing  them- 
selves under  the  bellies  of  sheep. 

According  to  tradition,  the  cave  is  situated  in  Sicily,  though  Homer 
makes  no  mention  of  it  in  his  writings. 

In  the  other  story,  the  one-eyed  cyclops  also  plays  the  part  of  the  vil- 
lain. Acis  and  Galatea  are  lovers,  and  Polyphemus,  mad  with  rage  and 
jealousy  at  the  former,  hurls  a  mighty  rock  at  his  rival  and  crushes  him 
to  death.  Galatea  changes  her  lover  into  a  stream  that  issues  from  a  foun- 
tain out  of  the  stone  that  killed  him.  A  clue  to  this  story  is  the  fact 
that  Stephen,  the  apostle,  met  his  death  in  the  same  manner  as  Acis. 

The  case  was  continued  on  March  2,  1914,  when  Lord  Balfour  again 
was  the  sitter. 

Aristotelian  to  the  Hegelian  friend  greeting.  (The  Aristotelian  is  Pro- 
fessor Butcher,  who  had  written  a  book  on  Aristotle.)  Also  the  Rationalist 
to  the  Hegelian  friend  greeting.  (Dr.  Verrall  had  written  a  book,  Euripi- 
des the  Rationalist,  and  Lord  Balfour  was  the  Hegelian.) 


These  twain  be  about  a  particular  tas\  and  now  proceed  with  it. 

(Then  a  zither  was  drawn.) 

A  zither  that  belongs  the  sound  also  stones,  the  tool  of  prisoners  and 
captives  beneath  the  Tyranfs  rod. 

The  Stag  not  stag,  do  go  on. 

Stagyr  write  rite. 

(Mrs.  Willett  ceased  writing  and  commenced  to  dictate.) 

Somebody  said  to  me  Mousi\e. 

Do  you  \now,  it's  an  odd  thing,  I  can  see  Edmund  (i.e.,  Edmund 
Gurney)  ...  ^ 

What  does  Ars  Poetica  mean. 

Edmund  said  to  me  Juvenal  also  wrote  satires — and  then  he  laughed 
and  said,  Good  shot. 

The  pen  is  mightier  than  the  sword.  Oh,  it's  so  confusing — stones  be- 
long, and  so  does  the  pen.  Oh! 

Somebody  said,  Try  her  with  the  David  story.  She  might  get  it  that 
way.  The  man  he  sent  to  battle  hoping  he'd  get  killed,  because  he  wanted 
him  out  of  the  way. 

A  green-eyed  monster. 

Now  all  of  a  sudden  I  had  it.  Jealousy,  that  first  infirmity  of  petty 

What  does  the  Sicilian  Artemis  mean? 

Such  an  odd  old  human  story  of  long  ago. 

He  that  hath  an  ear  to  hear,  let  him  hear. 

What  is  an  ear  made  for? 

Oh,  this  old  bothersome  old  rubbish  is  so  tiresome. 

(Mrs.  Willett  commenced  writing  again  and  first  drew  an  ear  and  a 

Find  the  center  (Here  she  added  an  eye  in  the  circle). 

Gurney  says  she  has  done  enough,  but  there  is  more,  much  more  later. 
Until  the  effort  is  completed  the  portions  as  they  come  are  not  to  be  seen 
by  any  other  AUTOMATIST.  E.  G. 

The  question,  "Why  was  Acis  changed  into  a  fountain?"  is  answered 
by  the  passages,  "Try  her  with  the  David  story,"  "A  green-eyed  monster," 
and  "Jealousy,"  etc.  Zither,  Mousike,  Stagyr,  and  Ars  Poetica  are  refer- 


ences  to  Aristotle,  the  Stagyrite,  and  incidentally  to  Professor  Butcher, 
who  wrote  a  treatise  on  Aristotle's  Poetics.  There  is  also  a  further  associa- 
tion from  the  subject  of  poetics  to  satire,  one  of  the  classical  forms  of 
poetry,  and  Juvenal  was  one  of  the  classical  satirists. 

At  this  point  the  following  list  of  topics  has  been  presented: 

The  Ear  of  Dionysius. 

The  stone  quarries  of  Syracuse. 

The  story  of  Polyphemus  and  Ulysses. 

The  story  of  Acis  and  Galatea. 



Something  to  be  found  in  Aristotle's  Poetics. 


The  investigators  so  far  had  not  been  able  to  find  the  connecting  link. 
On  August  2,  1915,  when  Mrs.  Verrall  had  another  sitting,  the  script 
contained  the  following  items: 


The  aural  instruction  was  I  thin\  understood,  aural  pertaining  to  the 

and  now  he  as\s:  HAS  the  satire  satire  been  identified. 

Surely  you  have  had  my  messages  concerning  it  (it)  belongs  to  the  Ear 
and  comes  in. 

It  has  a  thread.  Did  they  not  tell  you  of  references  to  a  cave? 

The  mild  eyed  melancholy  Lotus  Eaters  came. 

That  belongs  to  the  passage  immediately  before  the  one  I  am  now  try- 
ing to  spea\  of.  Men  in  a  cave,  herds. 

listen,  don't  tal\.  (Mrs.  Verrall  had  repeated  two  words,  half  aloud.) 

herds  and  a  great  load  of  firewood  and  the  EYE. 

olive  wood  staff. 

(Then  a  drawing  something  like  an  arrow  head.) 

the  man  clung  to  the  fleece  of  a  Ram  and  so  passed  out,  surely  that  is 

Well,  conjoin  that  with  Cythera  and  the  Ear-man.  .  .  .  Aristotle  then 
Poetics.  The  incident  was  chosen  as  being  evidential  of  identity  and  it 
arose  out  of  the  ear  train  of  thought. 

There  is  a  Satire. 


Write  Cyclopean  Masonry,  why  do  you  say  masonry,  I  said  Cyclopean. 

Philox.  He  labored  in  the  stone  quarries  and  drew  upon  the  earlier 
writer  for  material  for  his  Satire.  Jealousy. 

The  story  is  quite  clear  to  me  and  I  thin\  it  should  be  identified. 

A  musical  instrument  comes  in  something  li\e  a  mandolin  thrumming, 
that  is  the  sense  of  the  word. 

He  wrote  in  those  stone  quarries  belonging  to  the  Tyrant. 

Is  any  of  this  clear? 

(Drawing  of  an  Ear.) 

You  have  to  put  Homer  with  another  and  the  Ear  theme  is  in  it  too. 
The  pen  dipped  in  vitriol  that  is  what  resulted  and  S.  H.1  \nows  th& 
passage  in  Aristotle  which  also  comes  in.  There's  a  fine  tangle  for  your 
unravelling  and  he  of  the  impatient  will.  Let  her  wait,  try  again, 


He  says  when  you  have  identified  the  classical  allusions  he  would  li\e 
to  be  told. 

It  will  be  observed  now  that  though  old  subjects  have  been  mentioned, 
a  little  fresh  matter  was  added,  and  that  extra  matter  solved  the  problem. 
The  clues  were  "Cythera,"  "Cyclopean,"  "Philox,"  "He  labored  in  the 
stone  quarries  and  drew  upon  the  earlier  writer  for  material  for  his 
Satire,"  and  "Jealousy." 

Though  little  is  known  of  Philoxenus  of  Cythera  today,  he  was  known 
to  be  a  poet  of  some  repute  in  his  age  and  only  to  specialists  in  classical 
literature  are  his  writings  known,  as  few  of  his  lines  have  been  preserved. 

"Philoxenus  was  a  writer  of  dithyrambs,  a  species  of  irregular  lyric 
poetry  which  combined  music  with  verse,  the  musical  instrument  most 
generally  employed  being  the  zither,  a  kind  of  lyre.  He  was  a  native  of 
Cythera  and  at  the  height  of  his  reputation  spent  some  time  in  Sicily  at 
the  court  of  Dionysius,  the  Tyrant  of  Syracuse.  He  ultimately  quarrelled 
with  his  patron  and  was  sent  to  prison  in  one  of  the  stone  quarries."1 

Cyclops  or  Galatea  was  his  most  famous  poem — a  burlesque  on  the  love 
of  Cyclops  for  the  nymph,  and  in  it  Philoxenus  represents  himself  as 
Odysseus,  the  Tyrant  as  Polyphemus,  and  as  Dionysius  was  partially 

1  Professor  S.  H.  Butcher  was  known  to  his  friends  by  his  first  two  initials. 

2  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  XXIX,  232. 


or  wholly  blind  in  one  eye  the  poem  may  be  well  described  as  a  satire. 

Lord  Balfour  searched  through  various  English  authorities  and  books 
of  reference  in  order  to  discover  if  there  was  any  single  modern  source 
from  which  the  story  told  in  the  scripts  could  be  derived  and  was  able  to 
find  only  two  that  fulfilled  that  condition — Lempriere's  Classical  Diction- 
ary and  Dr.  Herbert  W.  Smyth's  Gree\  Melic  Poets;  certainly  Mrs.  Wil- 
lett  did  not  know  they  existed.  The  latter  book  was  intended  only  for 
scholars  and  was  not  likely  to  attract  the  attention  of  the  general  public. 
Dr.  A.  W.  Verrall  was  presented  with  a  special  copy  of  Gree\  Melic  Poets 
by  the  publishers  and  used  it  as  a  textbook  in  connection  with  his  lectures! 

The  leading  topics  presented  in  the  scripts  and  combined  into  one  nar- 
rative are  to  be  found  only  in  Philoxenus'  poem,  Cyclops  or  Galatea.  Every 
item  is  accounted  for:  the  setting,  the  stone  quarries,  and  the  "Ear  of 
Dionysius."  Ulysses,  Polyphemus,  and  Galatea  are  the  characters.  The 
motive  is  jealousy;  the  zither  and  music  describe  the  form  of  the  poem — 
the  dithyramb — and  satire  was  the  character  of  the  poem. 

The  final  script  obtained  by  Lord  Balfour  on  August  19,  1915,  made  it 
clear  that  the  correct  solution  had  been  found. 

Lord  Balfour:  First  of  all,  Gurney,  I  want  to  tell  you  that  all  the 
classical  allusions  recently  given  to  Mrs.  Verrall  are  now  completely 

Good — at  last! 

Lord  Balfour:  We  think  the  whole  combination  extremely  ingenious 
and  successful. 

And  A.  W.-ish. 

Lord  Balfour:  What  is  after  "A.  W."? 

A.  W.-ish. 

Lord  Balfour:  Yes. 

Also  S.  H.-ish. 

A.  W.  and  S.  H.  are,  of  course,  Dr.  A.  W.  Verrall  and  Professor  S.  H. 

The  six  members  of  the  investigating  group:  Sir  Oliver  Lodge,  Mr. 
}.  G.  Piddington,  Mrs.  Sidgwick,  Miss  Alice  Johnson,  Mrs.  Verrall  and 
Lord  Balfour,  did  not  know  anything  about  Philoxenus  of  Cythera  until 
the  hint  "Philo"  in  the  script  set  Mrs.  Verrall  on  the  right  track.  It 


seems  evident  that  this  complex  literary  puzzle  could  have  been  designed 
only  by  ripe  and  classical  scholars,  and  Dr.  A.  W.  Verrall  and  Professor 
S.  H.  Butcher  were  entitled  to  that  distinction.  It  should  be  noted 
throughout  the  scripts  that  the  communicators  claiming  to  be  Dr.  A.  W. 
Verrall  and  Professor  S.  H.  Butcher  distinctly  stated  that  a  complex  prob- 
lem had  been  deliberately  set,  and  allusions  and  quotations  given  to  assist 
in  the  solution  for  one  purpose  only,  viz.,  the  proving  of  their  identity. 

Chapter  8 


This  curious  phenomenon,  known  as  "book-tests,"  designed  to  eliminate 
telepathy  from  the  living  as  an  alternative  explanation  to  the  survival 
theory,  is,  in  a  certain  sense,  an  offshoot  or  extension  of  the  cross-corre- 
spondence idea. 

The  method  consists  of  a  communication  specifying  the  number  of 
a  page  in  a  book,  indicated  only  by  its  numbered  place  on  a  given  shelf 
in  a  bookcase  whose  location  in  indicated,  in  a  house  which  the  medium 
has  not  entered.  The  idea  is  that  a  paragraph  shall  be  found  on  that 
page  by  the  sitter,  who  follows  the  instruction  and  identifies  the  book, 
which  paragraph  shall  sufficiently  convey  an  intended  message,  or  shall 
show  a  similarity  in  thought  to  what  has  otherwise  been  said,  or  shall 
be  appropriate  to  the  actual  or  past  connection  of  communicator  and 
intended  recipient. 

Probably  the  first  book-test  was  unconsciously  invented  by  Sir  William 
Crookes,  when  a  lady  was  writing  with  a  planchette  and  Crookes  asked 
the  controlling  intelligence  if  he  could  see  the  contents  of  the  room.  On 
receiving  an  affirmative  answer  Crookes  placed  his  finger  on  a  copy  of 
The  Times,  and  asked  that  the  communicator  indicate  the  word  that  his 
finger  covered.  The  planchette  wrote  the  word  "However,"  which  was 
correct,  and  the  scientist  had  not  glanced  at  the  paper  as  he  wished  to 
rule  out  the  theory  of  "unconscious  cerebration,"  a  phrase  equivalent  to 
our  modern  telepathy. 

The  newspaper  tests  of  the  Rev.  C.  Brayton  Thomas,  which  he  con- 
ducted with  Mrs.  Osborne  Leonard,  are  similar  in  idea  to  book-tests. 
The  communicating  intelligences  gave  names  one  day  that  were  printed 
in  certain  columns  and  pages  of  the  next  day's  Times,  and  the  results 
obtained  were  very  striking,  as  neither  the  compositor  nor  the  editor  of 
that  paper  could  tell  at  the  hour  when  Mr.  Thomas  was  sitting  what 
particular  item  would  appear  in  next  day's  issue.  Newspaper  tests  have 
not  been  included  in  this  book,  but  readers  desiring  to  know  something 



of  them  will  find  accounts  in  Mr.  Thomas'  book,  Some  Recent  Evidence 
for  Survival. 

case  no.  73 
The  Beetles  Case1 

In  1921,  Lady  Pamela  Glenconner  published  The  Earthen  Vessel,  con- 
taining twenty-seven  examples  of  book-tests,  from  which  this  case  is 
quoted.  Lady  Glenconner  considered  that  this  example  was  the  finest  in 
her  collection,  providing  abundant  proof  of  the  identity  of  the  communi- 
cator, her  son,  Edward  Wyndham  Tennant,  known  in  his  family  as 
"Bim,"  who  had  fallen  in  the  battle  of  the  Somme  in  1916,  while  serving 
with  the  Grenadier  Guards. 

Previous  to  1914,  his  father,  Lord  Glenconner,  was  interested  in  forestry 
to  such  an  extent  that  in  order  to  learn  more  of  the  subject  he  went  to 
Germany  in  1901  to  study  the  forests  grown  there  under  government  super- 
vision. Although  he  gathered  much  useful  information  from  the  Germans, 
he  did  not  entirely  agree  with  them  on  the  extreme  regularity  and  severity 
with  which  their  forests  were  laid  out;  yet  he  planned  his  own  woods  and 
plantations  more  carefully  and  intelligently  than  many  owners  of  such 
estates  in  Britain. 

"His  eye  became  trained  to  a  higher  state  of  perfection  to  growing  trees 
than  is  the  case  in  most  people,  for  often  during  walks  through  the  fragrant 
fir  woods,  when  expressions  of  admiration  or  delight  in  the  lovely  scenery 
arose,  how  often  would  the  depressing  verdict  be  uttered  by  'The  Master 
of  Trees'  that  the  young  shoots  were  being  ruined  by  the  'beetle.' " 

"You  see  all  those  quirks — those  sudden  bends  in  the  new  growths? 

Those  show  the  beetle  has  got  at  them.  You  wouldn't  see  the  damage  to 

the  young  trees  as  I  do,  and  it's  the  greatest  pest  we  have  to  deal  with  .  .  ." 

and  much  more  of  the  like  in  conversation.  So  familiar  was  the  theme 

to  the  family  that  Bim  has  been  known  to  say  to  his  mother,  sotto  voce, 

"See  if  we  get  through  this  wood  without  hearing  about  the  beetle."  If  his 

father  was  unduly  pessimistic  about  something,  Bim  would  say,  "All  the 

woods  have  got  the  beede." 

1  Glenconner,  Lady  Pamela,  The  Earthen  Vessel  (London:  John  Lane,  The  Bodley 
Head),  58-61. 



Light  words,  almost  forgotten,  hardly  worth  remembering,  yet  it  was 
Bim  himself  who  brought  them  back  to  his  mother's  mind. 

A  sitting  was  held  with  Mrs.  Osborne  Leonard  on  December  17,  1917, 
and  Feda  (Mrs.  Leonard's  control),  after  giving  other  messages,  said:  "Bim 
now  wants  to  send  a  message  to  his  father.  This  boo\  is  particularly  for  his 
father.  Underline  that,  he  says.  It  is  the  ninth  book  on  the  third  shelf, 
counting  from  the  left  to  right,  in  the  bookcase  on  the  right  of  the  door 
in  the  drawing-room  as  you  enter ;  take  the  title  and  look  at  page  37." 

The  ninth  book  on  the  shelf  indicated  was  Trees} 

On  page  36,  right  at  the  bottom  and  leading  on  to  page  37,  were  the 
words : 

"Sometimes  you  will  see  curious  marks  in  the  wood;  these  are  caused 
by  a  tunnelling  beetle,  very  injurious  to  the  trees.  .  .  ." 

Signatures  of  two  testificators  to  the  finding  and  verifying  of  this  book- 
message  : 

David  Tennant. 

Lady  Glenconner  concluded  her  report  of  this  case  with  these  words: 

"Had  a  chance  observer  been  present  when  we  traced  this  test,  'This  , 
is  no  mourning  family,'  he  would  have  said;  'these  are  happy  people.' 
"And  he  would  have  been  right!" 

case  no.  74 
The  Mother  and  Son  Case2 

There  was  always  a  very  strong  bond  of  affection  between  Bim  and 
his  younger  brother  David,  one  of  those  children  who  entered  into  games 
and  lessons  with  great  zeal  and  vigor,  and  furthermore,  he  had  the 
characteristic  of  performing  very  unexpected  actions. 

Once  Bim  told  his  mother  that  David,  when  a  boy  six  or  seven  years 
old,  playing  in  the  midst  of  a  crowd  of  noisy  children,  suddenly  left  the 
noisy  rabble  and  came  over  to  him  and  said  with  great  seriousness,  "Bim, 
you  know  Sirius  is  a  star  of  the  first  magnitude."  Then  he  returned  to 
his  play. 

1  J.  Harvey  Kelman.  Jack,  Edinburgh. 

2  Glenconner,  Lady  Pamela,  op.  cit.,  38. 


Often  Lady  Glenconner  told  stories  and  read  books  to  her  children, 
and  on  one  such  occasion  Bim  said  to  her,  "All  the  time  that  you  are 
reading  aloud  I  love  to  look  at  David  listening,  with  his  large  dark  eyes." 
Long  after  the  two  boys  had  gone  to  school  the  phrase  "Mother  and  Son" 
was  used  by  Bim  in  connection  with  David  and  his  mother. 

At  a  sitting  held  on  October  23,  1917,  Bim  sent  a  message  through  the 
mediumship  of  Mrs.  Osborne  Leonard. 

"...  A  book-message  for  his  brother  David;  David  mustn't  think  it 
is  too  patronizing,  as  if  he  were  still  a  little  boy.  It  is,  nevertheless,  espe- 
cially for  David. 

"This  is  in  the  house  in  London  and  it  is  to  be  found  in  a  room  down- 
stairs. The  page  is  number  14,  and  the  message  is  three-quarters  down 
the  page.  It  is  in  the  eighth  book  on  the  third  shelf  counting  from  right 
to  left.  You  will  find  something  round  connected  with  the  book  in 

"Close  to  it  there  is  a  book  which  tells  of  great  spaces — large,  great 
spaces.  It  is  a  book  which  tells  of  stars." 

When  Lady  Glenconner  returned  to  the  library  of  her  house  at 
34  Queen  Anne's  Gate,  London,  she  found,  counting  from  right  to  left,  on 
the  third  shelf,  that  the  eighth  book  was  Lewes'  Life  of  Goethe.1  Two 
books  from  this  was  a  volume  called  Astro  Theology,  or  the  Demonstra- 
tion of  the  Attributes  of  God,  from  a  Survey  of  the  Heavens? 

On  the  fourteenth  page  of  the  eighth  book  (Lewes'  Life  of  Goethe), 
the  following  passage  was  found : 

"One  fine  afternoon  when  the  house  was  quiet,  Master  Wolfgang,  with 
his  cup  in  his  hand  and  nothing  to  do,  finds  himself  looking  into  the  silent 
street,  and  telegraphing  to  the  young  Ochsensteins  who  dwelt  opposite. 
By  way  of  doing  something  he  begins  to  fling  the  crockery  into  the  street, 
delighted  with  the  noise  it  makes  and  stimulated  by  the  brothers  Ochsen- 
steins, who  chuckle  at  him  over  the  way.  The  indulgent  mother  returns, 
and  sees  the  mischief  with  housewifely  horror,  till  melting  with  sympathy 
she  laughs  as  heartily  as  the  child.  .  .  . 

"This  mother  employed  her  faculties  for  story-telling  to  his  and  her 

1  Smith  Elder  and  Co.,  London. 

2  W.  Derham,  London. 


own  delight.  'To  all  natural  phenomena,'  she  writes,  'I  gave  a  meaning. 
As  we  thought  of  the  paths  which  lead  from  star  to  star,  and  that  we  one 
day  should  inhabit  the  stars,  and  when  we  thought  of  the  great  spirits  we 
should  meet  there,  I  was  as  eager  for  the  hours  of  story-telling  as  the 
children  themselves.  There  I  sat  and  Wolfgang  held  me  with  his  large 
black  eyes.' " 

The  passage  concluded  with  these  words : 

"What  a  charming  glimpse  of  Mother  and  Son." 

This  book-test — wrote  Lady  Glenconner — carried  such  conviction  to  the 
members  of  Bim's  family  that  when  it  was  found  and  read  aloud  it  was 
met  with  the  laughter  of  instant  recognition. 

Only  one  last  direction  had  yet  to  be  followed,  that  which  told  of  "some- 
thing round  in  connection  with  this  book."  And  it  was  considered  dis- 
covered when,  turning  to  the  frontispiece,  it  was  seen  that  it  represented 
a  reproduction  of  a  miniature  painting  set  in  a  round  black  frame. 

To  attempt  to  describe  the  happy  glow  in  the  hearts  of  Bim's  family 
circle  when  this  book-message  was  read  would  be,  in  cold  print,  im- 
possible. There  are,  however,  moments  well  known  to  all  to  which  it  may 
be  likened:  when  a  wished-for  letter  arrives;  when  a  door  swings  open 
and  a  treasured  presence  is  before  one;  when,  in  short,  he  who  has  been 
absent  is  home  again.  Laughter  runs  from  lip  to  lip,  and  eyes  speak  con- 
tentment. Such  a  moment  was  theirs  now;  they  were  happy,  and  it  was 
Bim,  as  of  old,  who  had  cheered  them. 

"We  guarantee  that  the  facts  of  this  case  are  as  above  represented,  and 
we  were  present  at  the  finding  of  the  message. 

"(Signed)  Glenconner, 

David  Tennant." 

case  no.  75 
The  Talbot  Case1 
This  case,  strictly  speaking,  is  not  a  book-test,  although  a  book  is  the 
prominent  feature  of  it.  In  the  opinion  of  Mrs.  Henry  Sidgwick  it  is  one 
l  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  XXXI,  253. 


of  the  best  single  pieces  of  definite  evidence  we  have  that  communicators 
remember  their  earth  life,  therefore  proving  personal  identity. 

Mrs.  Hugh  Talbot's  report,  written  out  and  sent  to  Lady  Troubridge 
on  December  29, 1917,  is  as  follows : 

"Two  sittings  with  Mrs.  Leonard  were  arranged  for  me  through  Mrs. 
Beadon  last  March,  one  for  Saturday,  the  17th,  at  5  p.m.  and  the  other 
at  the  same  hour  on  Monday,  the  19th.  Mrs.  Leonard  at  this  time  knew 
neither  my  name  nor  address,  nor  had  I  ever  been  to  her  or  any  other 
medium  before,  in  my  life. 

"On  Monday,  the  first  part  of  the  time  was  taken  up  by  what  one  might 
call  a  medley  of  descriptions,  all  more  or  less  recognizable,  of  different 
people,  together  with  a  number  of  messages,  some  of  which  were  in- 
telligible and  some  not.  Then  Feda  (as  I  am  told  the  control  is  called) 
gave  a  very  correct  description  of  my  husband's  personal  appearance,  and 
from  then  on  he  seemed  to  speak  (through  her  of  course),  and  a  most 
extraordinary  conversation  followed.  Evidently  he  was  trying  by  every 
means  in  his  power  to  prove  to  me  his  identity  and  to  show  me  it  really 
was  himself,  and  as  time  went  on  I  was  forced  to  believe  this  was  indeed  so. 

"All  he  said,  or  rather  Feda  said  for  him,  was  clear  and  lucid.  Incidents 
of  the  past  known  only  to  him  and  me  were  spoken  of,  belongings  trivial 
in  themselves  but  possessing  for  him  a  particular  personal  interest  of 
which  I  was  aware,  were  minutely  and  correcdy  described,  and  I  was 
asked  if  I  still  had  them.  Also  I  was  asked  repeatedly  if  I  believed  it  was 
himself  speaking,  and  was  assured  that  death  was  not  really  death  at  all, 
that  life  continued  not  so  very  unlike  this  life,  and  that  he  did  not  feel 
changed  at  all.  Feda  kept  on  saying,  'Do  you  believe,  he  does  want  you  to 
know  it  is  really  himself.'  I  said  I  could  not  be  sure,  but  I  thought  it  must 
be  true.  All  this  was  very  interesting  to  me,  and  very  strange,  more 
strange  because  it  all  seemed  so  natural.  Suddenly  Feda  began  a  tiresome 
description  of  a  book;  she  said  it  was  leather  and  dark,  and  tried  to  show 
me  the  size.  Mrs.  Leonard  showed  a  length  of  eight  to  ten  inches  long 
with  her  hands,  and  four  or  five  wide.  She  (Feda)  said,  'It  is  not  exactly  a 
boo\,  it  is  not  printed.  Feda  wouldn't  call  it  a  book,  it  has  writing  on.'  It 
was  long  before  I  could  connect  it  with  anything  at  all,  but  at  last  I 
remembered  a  red  leather  notebook  of  my  husband's  which  I  think  he 
called  a  log  book,  and  I  asked,  'Is  it  a  log  book?'  Feda  seemed  puzzled  at 


this  and  not  to  know  what  a  log  book  was,  and  repeated  the  word  once  or 
twice,  then  said,  'Yes,  yes,  he  says  it  might  be  a  log  book.'  I  then  said,  'Is 
it  a  red  book?'  On  this  point  there  was  some  hesitation;  they  thought 
possibly  it  was,  though  he  thought  it  was  darker.  The  answer  was  un- 
decided and  Feda  began  a  wearisome  description  all  over  again,  adding 
that  I  was  to  look  on  page  12,  for  something  written  (I  am  not  sure 
of  this  word)  there,  that  it  would  be  interesting  after  this  conversation. 
Then  she  said,  'He  is  not  sure  it  is  page  12,  it  might  be  page  13,  it  is  so 
long  since,  but  he  does  want  you  to  look  and  try  to  find  it.  It  would 
interest  him  to  know  if  this  extract  is  there.'  I  was  rather  half-hearted  in 
responding  to  all  this ;  there  was  so  much  of  it,  and  it  sounded  purposeless, 
and  also  I  remembered  the  book  so  well,  having  often  looked  through  it 
wondering  if  there  was  any  good  keeping  it.  Besides  things  to  do  with 
ships  and  my  husband's  work  there  were,  I  remembered,  a  few  notes  and 
verses  in  it.  But  the  chief  reason  I  was  anxious  to  get  off  the  subject  was 
that  I  felt  sure  the  book  would  not  be  forthcoming:  either  I  had  thrown 
it  away,  or  it  had  gone  with  a  lot  of  other  things  to  a  luggage  room  in 
the  opposite  block  of  flats  where  it  would  hardly  be  possible  to  get  it. 
"However,  I  did  not  quite  like  to  say  this,  and  not  attaching  any 
importance  to  it,  replied  rather  indefinitely  that  I  would  see  if  I  could 
find  it.  But  this  did  not  satisfy  Feda.  She  started  all  over  again,  becoming 
more  and  more  insistent  and  went  on  to  say,  'He  is  not  sure  of  the  color, 
he  does  not  know.  There  are  two  books,  you  will  know  the  one  he  means 
by  a  diagram  of  languages  in  the  front.'  And  here  follows  a  string  of 
words,  in  which  order  I  forget :  'Indo-European,  Aryan,  Semitic  languages' 
and  others,  repeating  them  several  times,  and  she  said,  'There  are  lines 
but  not  straight,  going  like  this' — drawing  with  her  finger  lines  going  out 
sideways  from  one  center.  Then  again  the  words,  'A  table  of  Arabian 
languages,  Semitic  languages.'  I  have  tried  to  put  it  as  she  said  it,  but  of 
course  I  cannot  be  sure  she  put  the  names  in  that  order.  What  I  am 
quite  sure  of  is  the  actual  words  she  used  at  one  time  or  another.  She  said 
all  the  names  and  sometimes  'table,'  sometimes  'diagram,'  sometimes 
'drawing,'  and  all  insistently.  It  sounded  absolutely  rubbish  to  me.  I  had 
never  heard  of  a  diagram  of  languages  and  all  these  eastern  names  jumbled 
together  sounded  like  nothing  at  all,  and  she  kept  on  repeating  them  and 
saying  this  is  how  I  was  to  know  the  book,  and  kept  on  and  on,  'Will 


you  look  at  page  12  or  13.  If  it  is  there  it  would  interest  him  so  much 
after  this  conversation.  He  does  want  you  to,  he  wants  you  to  promise.' 
By  this  time  I  had  come  to  the  conclusion  that  what  I  have  heard  of 
happening  at  these  sittings  had  come  to  pass,  viz.,  that  the  medium  was 
tired  and  talking  nonsense;  so  I  hastened  to  pacify  her  by  promising  to 
look  for  the  book,  and  was  glad  when  the  sitting  almost  at  once  came  to 
an  end. 

"I  went  home  thinking  very  little  of  all  this  last  part;  still,  after  telling 
my  sister  and  niece  all  that  I  considered  the  interesting  things  said  in  the 
beginning,  I  did  mention  that  in  the  end  the  medium  began  talking  a  lot 
of  rubbish  about  a  book,  and  asking  me  to  look  on  page  12  or  13  to  find 
something  interesting.  I  was  to  know  the  book  by  a  diagram  of  languages. 
After  dinner  the  same  evening,  my  niece,  who  had  taken  more  notice  of 
all  this  than  either  my  sister  or  myself,  begged  me  to  look  for  the  book  at 
once.  I  wanted  to  wait  till  next  day,  saying  that  I  knew  it  was  all  nonsense. 
However,  in  the  end  I  went  to  the  bookshelf,  and,  after  some  time,  right 
at  the  top  of  the  back  shelf  I  found  one  or  two  old  notebooks  belonging 
to  my  husband,  which  I  had  never  felt  I  cared  to  open.  One,  a  shabby 
black  leather,  corresponded  in  size  to  the  description  given,  and  I  absent- 
mindedly  opened  it,  wondering  in  my  mind  whether  the  one  I  had  been 
looking  for  had  been  destroyed  or  only  sent  away.  To  my  utter  astonish- 
ment, my  eyes  fell  on  the  words,  'Table  of  Semitic  or  Syro-Arabian  lan- 
guages,' and  pulling  out  the  leaf,  which  was  a  long  piece  of  paper  folded  in, 
I  saw  on  the  other  side,  'General  table  of  the  Aryan  and  Indo-European 
languages.'  It  was  the  diagram  of  which  Feda  had  spoken.  I  was  so  taken 
aback  I  forgot  for  some  minutes  to  look  for  the  extract.  When  I  did  I 
found  it  on  page  13.  I  have  copied  it  out  exactly. 

"I  cannot  account  now  for  my  stupidity  in  not  attaching  more  impor- 
tance to  what  Feda  was  trying  to  say  about  the  book,  but  I  was  so  con- 
vinced if  any  book  was  meant,  it  was  the  red  book.  This  one  I  had  never 
opened,  and  as  I  say,  there  was  little  hope  of  getting  the  other,  nor  did  I 
feel  there  could  be  anything  in  it  my  husband  would  want  me  to  see.  Also 
it  was  only  my  second  sitting.  I  knew  nothing  of  mediums,  and  the  de- 
scriptions seemed  so  endless  and  tedious.  I  can't  see  why  now. 

"(Signed)  Lily  Talbot." 
"1  Oakwood  Court." 


Page  13  of  Notebook 

"I  discovered  by  certain  whispers  which  it  was  supposed  I  was  unable 
to  hear  and  from  certain  glances  of  curiosity  or  commiseration  which  it 
was  supposed  I  was  unable  to  see,  that  I  was  near  death.  .  .  . 

"Presently  my  mind  began  to  dwell  not  only  on  happiness  which  was 
to  come,  but  upon  happiness  that  I  was  actually  enjoying.  I  saw  long- 
forgotten  forms,  playmates,  schoolfellows,  companions  of  my  youth  and 
of  my  old  age,  who  one  and  all  smiled  upon  me.  They  did  not  smile  with 
any  compassion,  that  I  no  longer  felt  I  needed,  but  with  that  sort  of  kind- 
ness which  is  exchanged  by  people  who  are  equally  happy.  I  saw  my 
mother,  father,  and  sisters,  all  of  whom  I  had  survived.  They  did  not 
speak,  yet  they  communicated  to  me  their  unaltered  and  unalterable 
affection.  At  about  the  time  when  they  appeared,  I  made  an  effort  to 
realize  my  bodily  situation  .  .  .  that  is,  I  endeavored  to  connect  my  soul 
with  the  body  which  lay  on  the  bed  in  my  house  .  .  .  the  endeavor  failed 
...  I  was  dead.  .  .  ."1 

Mrs.  Henry  Sidgwick,  who  examined  this  book-test,  said,  "The  dia- 
gram of  languages  ...  is  complicated,  but  Feda's  description  of  it  as 
having  lines  going  out  from  a  center  is  correct;  this  branching  out  from 
points  and  from  lines  happens  repeatedly." 

Here  follow  corroborations  by  Mrs.  Talbot's  niece  and  sister: 

Miss  Bowyer  Smyth's  Account 

"On  March  19,  1917,  my  aunt,  Mrs.  Hugh  Talbot,  had  a  sitting  with 
Mrs.  Leonard.  When  she  came  home,  her  sister,  Mrs.  Fitzmaurice,  and  I 
asked  her  about  it.  Among  other  things  she  had  been  told  to  look  for  'a 
book,  but  not  exactly  a  book,  a  sort  of  notebook.'  She  would  know  the 
book  by  a  'drawing  about  languages'  in  the  beginning  of  it  and  on  page 
12  and  13  she  would  find  something  interesting. 

"My  aunt  did  not  seem  at  all  impressed  or  interested;  in  fact,  she  thought 
the  whole  thing  sounded  such  nonsense  that  she  was  quite  sure  it  was 
no  use  looking  for  the  book,  the  size  of  which  had  been  indicated  by  the 
medium  with  her  hands,  namely,  about  eight  to  ten  inches  long. 

"It  was  not  till  after  dinner  that  night  that  Mrs.  Fitzmaurice  and  I 
persuaded  her  to  look  for  the  book,  she  was  so  firmly  convinced  it  would 

1  Post  Mortem  (Blackwood  and  Sons,  1881). 


be  no  use.  She  finally  got  out  some  old  and  dusty  notebooks  of  her  late 
husband's,  and  in  one  found  first  a  table  of  languages,  and  on  page  12  or 
13,  the  sensations  of  a  man  passing  through  death.  I  remember  the  whole 
incident  quite  clearly,  as  it  seemed  to  me  so  unusual  and  interesting, 
especially  as  my  aunt  had  evidently  never  opened  or  read  these  note- 
books before;  in  fact,  it  took  her  a  considerable  time  to  find  them  and  she 
at  first  thought  she  had  not  kept  them. 

"(Signed)  Doris  Bowyer  Smith." 

Mrs.  Fitzmaurice's  Account 

"On  Monday,  March  19,  1917,  my  sister,  Mrs.  Talbot,  had  her  second 
sitting  with  Mrs.  Leonard.  She  had  already  had  one  very  interesting  one, 
so  that  my  niece,  Miss  Bowyer  Smyth,  and  myself  were  very  anxious  to 
hear  about  it.  My  sister  repeated  as  far  as  she  could  everything  the  medium 
had  said  and  mentioned  particularly  that  she  had  been  asked  to  look  for 
a  certain  book.  She  asked  the  medium  what  kind  of  book,  and  she  was 
told  that  it  was  a  book  with  a  diagram  or  table  of  languages  in  the  front. 
My  sister  said,  'Is  it  what  they  call  a  "log"  book?'  and  the  medium  im- 
mediately said,  'Yes,  yes,  a  log  book,'  and  that  she  was  to  find  page  12 
or  13.  My  sister,  in  telling  us,  spoke  as  if  this  were  nonsense,  and  I  per- 
sonally did  not  pay  much  attention  about  the  book.  I  was  so  much  more 
interested  in  certain  remarks  purporting  to  come  from  my  brother-in-law, 
for,  to  me,  who  knew  him  so  well,  they  seemed  so  exactly  like  what  I 
could  imagine  him  saying;  they  seemed  to  bear  his  personality. 

"Later  on,  at  the  end  of  the  dinner,  my  sister  went  to  a  bookcase  in 
the  dining-room  to  look  for  the  book  (I  do  not  remember  asking  her 
to  do  so,  though  my  niece  says  we  both  asked  her  to),  but  she  suddenly 
gave  an  exclamation  of  surprise  and  handed  me  across  the  table  a  leather 
notebook  open  at  page  12  and  13,  and  there  we  found  an  extract  which 
was  plainly  what  she  had  been  told  to  look  for.  It  described  the  sensations 
of  a  man  who  had  died,  or  nearly  died.  I  have  forgotten  it  exactly,  but  I 
know  it  described  a  man  whose  spirit  was  passing  away,  and  what  he 
felt  when  he  saw  the  faces  of  his  people  'round  his  bed.  And  on  turning 
to  the  front  pages  of  the  book  we  found  the  diagram  of  languages  which 
had  been  mentioned  in  his  effort  to  describe  through  the  medium  which 


book  the  extract  was  in,  for  it  appears  there  were  two  books  somewhat 

"To  us,  my  sister's  interview  seemed  intensely  interesting,  and  I  have 
written  it  down  as  far  as  I  can,  exactly  how  I  remember  it. 

"(Signed)  Mabel  Fitzmaurice." 
"December  20,  1917." 

CASE   NO.   76 

The  Beadon  Case1 
At  a  sitting  with  Mrs.  Leonard,  this  test  was  received  by  Mrs.  Beadon, 
whose  husband,  Colonel  Beadon,  purported  to  be  the  sender: 

"It  was  in  a  squarish  room,  some  books  in  the  corner,  not  quite  in  the 
corner,  but  running  by  the  wall  to  the  corner  from  the  window.  (Feda  in- 
dicated by  a  gesture  of  her  left  hand  a  shelf  across  a  corner  and  said,  'It 
is  not  that.')  Counting  from  right  to  left  the  fifth  book,  page  71.  Feda  is  not 
sure  if  it  is  17  or  71.  After  repeating  both  numbers,  Feda  says  she  is  sure 
it  is  page  71,  second  paragraph,  or  about  the  middle  of  the  page.  'On 
page  71  will  be  found  a  message  from  him  to  you.  The  message  will  not 
be  as  beautiful  as  he  would  like  to  make  it,  but  you  will  understand  he 
wants  to  make  the  test  as  good  as  he  can.  On  the  same  shelf  is  a  book 
in  a  dirtyish  brown  cover,  and  a  reddish  book  and  an  old-fashioned  book. 

1.  It  refers  to  a  past  condition. 

2.  It  has  also  an  application  to  the  present. 

3.  It  is  an  answer  to  a  thought  which  was  much  more  in  your  mind  at 
one  time  than  it  is  now  .  .  .  especially  since  you  have  known  Feda. 

4.  On  the  opposite  page  is  a  reference  to  fire. 

5.  On  the  opposite  page  is  a  reference  to  light. 

6.  On  the  opposite  side  is  a  reference  to  olden  times.  These  have  nothing 
to  do  with  the  message  but  are  just  testing  whether  you  have  the  right 

7.  On  the  same  page  or  opposite  page  or  perhaps  over  the  leaf  a  very  im- 
portant word  beginning  with  "s."  ' 

(I  asked  if  it  was  on  the  top  shelf  and  Feda  said  'Yes.'  It  turned  out 
there  was  only  one  shelf.)" 
l  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  XXXI,  260. 



"Six  of  the  seven  indications  are  found  to  be  true.  The  room  proved  to 
be  the  dining-room  of  (address  given)  my  mother's  house  where  I  was 
staying  temporarily.  Mrs.  Leonard  had  never  been  inside  the  house  at  all. 
There  was  a  bookshelf  across  the  corner  as  well  as  the  one  in  which  the 
book-test  was  to  be  found.  The  room  was  not  square:  one  end  was 
squared,  the  other  end  octagonal.  There  was  an  old  volume  of  Dryden's 
poems  and  others  as  described  on  the  same  shelf.  The  fifth  book  from 
right  to  left  was  a  volume  of  poems  by  Oliver  Wendell  Holmes  (Rout- 
ledge  pocket  library  edition).  I  had  never  read  O.  W.  Holmes'  poems. 
Pages  71  and  17  had  the  same  thought." 

Page  71,  second  paragraph,  has  the  following: 

"The  weary  pilgrim  slumbers, 
His  resting  place  unknown, 
His  hands  were  crossed,  his  lids  were  closed, 
The  dust  was  o'er  him  thrown. 
The  drifting  soil,  the  moldering  leaf, 
Along  the  sod  were  blown. 
His  mound  has  melted  into  earth, 
His  memory  lives  alone." 

(The  communicator)  was  killed  in  Mesopotamia.  He  was  buried  by 
chaplain  and  officers  the  same  night  near  where  he  fell.  The  officer  in 
charge  wrote  that  all  traces  of  the  grave  had  been  carefully  obliterated  to 
avoid  desecration  by  the  Arabs. 

On  page  17  the  appropriate  verse  is : 

"The  Indian's  shaft,  the  Briton's  ball, 

The  saber's  thirsting  edge, 
The  hot  shell  shattering  in  its  fall, 

The  bayonet's  rending  wedge. 
Here  scattered  death;  yet  seek  the  spot, 

No  trace  thine  eye  can  see, 
No  altar — and  they  need  it  not, 

Who  leave  thy  children  free." 

Mrs.  Beadon  wrote  that  between  pages  17  and  71,  she  could  not  find 


any  page  which  fulfilled  the  conditions  of  the  message  at  all.  (The  fol- 
lowing explanation  refers  to  page  71.) 

"1.  The  poem  {The  Pilgrim's  Vision)  refers  to  settlers  in  America 
(refers  to  a  past  condition). 

"2.  There  is  an  application  in  this  verse  to  the  communicator's  own  case. 
He  received  reverent  burial,  his  resting-place  unknown. 

"3.  It  was  a  question  in  my  mind  constantly  at  one  time  whether  it 
would  be  possible  to  identify  the  spot  with  the  help  of  the  officers 
present,  and  when  the  war  is  over  to  mark  it  with  a  cross.  I  have 
thought  very  little  of  that  lately  and  have  not  felt  concerned  as  I 
did  at  first  that  his  grave  was  unmarked  and  unknown." 

On  the  opposite  page  is  the  following  verse: 

"Still  shall  the  fiery  pillar's  ray 

Along  the  pathway  shine, 
To  light  the  chosen  tribe  that  sought 
This  Western  Palestine." 

The  reference  to  fire,  light,  and  the  journey  of  the  Israelites  fulfills  4, 
5,  and  6. 

There  is  a  poem  on  the  next  page  called  The  Steamboat.  This  title  headed 
the  page  in  capital  letters  and  this  page  was  all  about  steamboats:  "The 
important  word  beginning  with  V  on  the  next  page."  It  is  an  important 
word  on  the  page,  if  not  connected  with  the  message. 

Mrs.  Beadon  gave  her  personal  reasons  for  preferring  page  17: 

"1.  That  it  is  essentially  a  soldier's  message  about  a  battlefield.  Page  17 
gives  the  conditions  of  a  battlefield  and  hot  fighting. 

"2.  It  mentions  'The  Indian's  shaft,  the  Briton's  ball.'  It  was  a  feature 
of  the  war  in  Mesopotamia  that  mixed  troops  were  employed — In- 
dian and  British  brigaded  together.  My  husband  was  commanding 
Indian  troops. 

"3.  Above  all  I  was  told  the  main  message  was  about  a  question  that 
occupied  my  mind  a  great  deal  and  troubled  me  at  one  time.  The 
question  was  whether  it  would  be  possible  to  erect  a  memorial.  This 
is  answered  on  page  17:  'No  altars — and  they  need  them  not  who 
leave  thy  children  free.'  I  felt  that  this  was  what  he  wanted  to  say — 


that  their  achievement  would  be  their  best  memorial.  On  page  71 
there  is  no  reference  to  its  being  a  soldier's  message,  no  reference  to  a 
battlefield.  Nbr  is  there  any  reference  to  the  main  question — 'altars' 
or  'memorials  to  their  fame.'  I  felt  the  expression  'weary  pilgrim'  very 
inapplicable  to  the  state  of  mind  expressed  in  his  letters,  written 
up  to  the  very  day  before  he  was  killed.  So  altogether  I  feel  page  17 
gave  the  message  and  page  71  strengthened  and  supplemented  it." 

Chapter  9 

When  a  sitter  obtains  good  evidential  matter  from  a  medium,  concerning 
a  deceased  person,  some  critics  are  not  impressed ;  they  merely  shrug  their 
shoulders  and  reply,  "Telepathy."  So  to  refute  this  argument,  the  sitter 
asks  a  friend,  or  even  a  stranger,  to  hold  a  sitting  on  his  behalf,  usually 
sending  to  the  sitting  some  article  used  by  the  deceased  person. 

If  any  evidence  is  obtained  at  the  proxy-sitting,  the  critic  still  does  not 
admit  survival;  he  has  a  loophole  left  and  he  uses  it  by  answering, 
"Travelling  clairvoyance,"  that  is,  the  mind  of  the  medium  has  travelled 
so  many  miles  through  the  air,  picked  certain  information  from  a  distant 
person's  mind,  returned  again  to  the  medium  and  handed  out  the  in- 
formation to  the  proxy-sitter  as  a  bona  fide  communication  from  the  de- 

There  is  hardly  any  reply  to  this  objection  except  by  asking  the  critic 
to  prove  his  case,  which  will  usually  take  the  form  of  something  far  more 
inconceivable  than  survival — and  if  the  sitter  has  a  strong  sense  of  humor, 
he  will  enjoy  the  explanation. 

case  no.  77 
The  Bridge  Case1 

In  April,  1920,  Mrs.  White,  whose  husband  had  previously  died,  wrote 
to  Sir  Oliver  Lodge  for  help,  as  she  found  herself  utterly  bereft  and  her 
church  unable  to  do  anything  for  her.  Lodge  was  in  the  United  States 
at  that  time,  but  Miss  Nea  Walker  (N.  W.),  his  psychic  secretary,  replied 
on  his  behalf.  She  suggested  to  Mrs.  White  that  when  next  working  the 
ouija-board  (which  Mrs.  White  had  mentioned)  she  should  ask  her  hus- 
band to  try  and  communicate  with  N.  W.  Mrs.  White  agreed  to  the 

One  of  the  mediums  that  N.  W.  commenced  to  sit  with  was  her  own 
sister,  Damaris  (D.  W.),  the  possessor  of  a  fairly  strong  psychic  faculty. 

1  Walker,  Nea,  The  Bridge  (London:  Cassell  and  Co.,  Ltd.). 



D.  W.  was  deliberately  kept  in  the  dark  about  Mrs.  White  and  her  affairs, 
but  in  her  first  sitting  she  produced  some  good  descriptions:  the  appear- 
ance of  Mrs.  White's  father,  a  pain  from  which  Mrs.  White  had  suffered, 
and  a  living  brother  of  Mrs.  White.  Then  followed  information  concern- 
ing the  unusually  romantic  type  of  relationship  that  had  existed  between 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  White,  and  a  description  of  the  interior  of  the  house  in 
which  they  had  first  met.  During  this  time,  however,  Mrs.  White  was 
having  sittings  with  other  mediums  which  provided  evidence  that  dove- 
tailed into  that  which  N.  W.  was  receiving  from  D.  W.;  in  a  way,  it 
could  be  described  as  a  kind  of  cross-correspondence. 

In  May,  1921,  N.  W.  commenced  to  act  as  a  proxy-sitter  on  Mrs.  White's 
behalf  with  Mrs.  Leonard;  and  it  should  be  understood  that  though  there 
had  been  a  slight  correspondence  passing  between  N.  W.  and  Mrs.  White, 
the  latter  had  taken  pains  to  keep  her  affairs  private.  The  Leonard  sittings 
lasted  until  March  15,  1925,  and  an  extract  from  one,  that  of  September  7, 
1921,  is  quoted.1  September  5  was  the  anniversary  of  the  Whites'  wedding, 
and  unknown  to  N.  W.,  Mrs.  White  had  made  mental  requests  to  her 
husband  that  he  might  refer  to  it  in  the  September  7  sitting. 

Annotations  by  Mrs.  White  Statements  by  Feda 

Here   Gwyther    (Mr.    White)    ap-  Church,  church,  church. 

parSntly  begins  his  references  to  our 
wedding  day. 

Acock's  Green   Church  where  we  He's  trying  to  say  something  about 

were  married.  September  5  was  the      a  church  that  he  was  interested  in, 
anniversary.  when  he  was  here.  He  didn't  just  go 

there,  in  and  out,  and  forget  all  about 
it,  but  he  was  really  interested  in  it. 
i.e.,   the    wedding   anniversary    on  He  says  that  he's  been  very  inter- 

September  5.  ested   lately   in    this   church    on   the 

earth,  and  that  he  had  been  helping  it 

from  the  other  side.  He  speaks  of  a 

church,  not  just  the  church,  like   a 

religion,  but  of  a  particular  church. 

It  is  my  custom  to  send  pink  roses  And  he  says  she  will  understand, 

to  be  placed  on  my  mother's  grave      because  she  too  has  been  doing  some- 

in  Acock's  Green  Churchyard  on  this      thing  about  the  church  he's  speaking 

day.  of. 

1  Walker,  Nea,  op.  at.,  140-44. 

Annotations  by  Mrs.  White 
N.  W.  thinks  of  St.  Nicholas 
Church  (Wales).  She  knew  by  this 
time  that  we  were  married  in  Acock's 
Green  Church,  but  did  not  know  of 
the  recent  anniversary,  nor  of  the  cus- 
tom alluded  to. 

Because  N.  W.  did  not  know  the 
date  of  the  anniversary. 


Statements  by  Veda 
He  seems  to  think  that  you  would 
guess  about  him  being  interested  in 
the  church. 

(Note  by  N.  W. — I  had  learned 
that  they  were  married  at  Acock's 
Green,  but  it  made  no  impression — I 
was  swamped  in  masses  of  detail  I  did 
not  grip,  having  been  "in  the  dark  so 

No,  he  had  not  jumped.  My  wed- 
ding bouquet  was  of  pin\  roses.  Also 
I  had  sent  pink  roses  to  be  placed  on 
his  grave  in  St.  Nicholas  Churchyard 
on  the  5th. 

A  Honiton  lace  bertha,  my  mother's 
wedding  gift  to  me,  and  worn  on  the 
wedding  frock,  has  a  design  of  roses. 

It  is  not  shown  to  anyone.  This 
frock  was  referred  to  at  an  anony- 
mous sitting  of  Mrs.  White  on  May 

I  might  (N.  W.). 

He  is  smiling  a  little. 

You  wouldn't  understand  about 
him  specially  helping  lately,  because 
he  felt  her  doing  something  about  it. 
(N.  W.)  I  could  guess  the  church, 
that's  all.  (Thinking  of  St.  Nicholas, 
Wales.)  j    j 

And  he  says — 

feda:  Oh,  dear,  he's  jumped  from 

The  pink  roses  were  beautiful. 

The  pink  ones. 

He  loves  all  roses.  And  they  are 
symbolic  to  her  and  to  me. 

N.  W.:  I  know  that  now. 

(And  I  \new  that  pin\  ones  were 
specially  so — N.  W.) 

Anyone  might  speak  of  roses,  but 
they  mean  something  to  her  and  to 

.  .  .  there's  something  that  she's 
got  to  do  with  roses,  that  she  had 
when  he  was  here,  that  she  still  keeps. 
It  looks  to  Feda  like  a  kind  of  design 
of  roses.  On  something,  a  design  on 

She  doesn't  show  it  to  people,  she 
keeps  it  away.  And  I  get  something 
close  to  it,  like  verses,  verses.  Poetry. 



Annotations  by  Mrs.  White 
20,  1922. 

The  hymn-sheet  used  at  our  wed- 
ding service,  also  kept  with  the  dress. 

I  had  asked  Gwyther  to  refer  to 
our  wedding  anniversary  (September 
5).  Gwyther  does  so  very  fully  by 

1.  To  the  church  at  which  we  were 

2.  To  the  pink  roses  which  formed 
my  wedding  bouquet,  and  which 
in  consequence  have  held  a  spe- 
cial significance  for  us. 

3.  To  the  Honiton  lace  bertha  on 
the  dress,  which  has  the  design 
on  it. 

4.  To  the  hymn-sheet  used  at  our 
wedding  services,  also  kept  with 
the  dress. 

5.  To  the  "time  of  roses,"  signifi- 
cant of  a  "day  of  union"  in  the 
past  and  in  the  future. 

(a)  Our  engagement. 

(b)  Our  wedding. 

Statements  by  Veda 
(Feda    doesn't   like   poetry,   but   she 
thinks  Mrs.  White  does.) 

Yes,  he  says,  and  he  shows  Feda  a 
sheet  of  paper  with  something  like 
a  poem  on  it. 

And  it's  something  she's  got,  and 
she's  been  looking  at  it  lately.  And  she 
was  thinking  of  Mr.  White  strongly 
in  connection  with  a  verse  of  poetry 
quite  lately.  Now  again  he  says  roses 
seem  to  come  into  this. 

And  he  says  roses  often  come  into 
things  and  conditions  with  us.  Very 

And  he  says,  you  see,  the  time  of 
roses  was  a  very,  very  important  one 
to  us,  the  time  of  roses. 

Tell  her  it  was  a  very  important 
time,  twice,  at  two  different  times  it 
was  very  important,  but  in  quite  a 
different  way. 

Contemporary  note  by  N.  W.  stating  her  \nowledge  at  this  time 
"I  know  now  that  the  Whites'  wedding  was  a  rose  wedding:  pink  roses. 
And  that  pink  roses  were  buried  with  Gwyther;  that  roses  grew  on  his 
grave  and  in  his  garden;  also  that  Mrs.  White  became  engaged  in  July 
when  there  would  be  roses. 


"And  I  accidentally  learnt  that  Mrs.  White  was  married  in  September, 
but  not  the  date." 

The  constant  and  continual  allusion  to  roses  in  this  and  other  Leonard 
sittings  and  those  with  other  mediums  is  strikingly  appropriate.  Their 
garden  was  a  rose  garden;  roses  of  all  types,  dwarf,  climbing  and  pergola 
grew  there  and  the  average  gardener  might  have  criticized  it  on  the 
ground  that  rose  growing  was  cultivated  to  excess,  to  the  exclusion  of 
almost  every  flower. 

Mrs.  White  then  decided  on  another  test:  she  would  go  and  sit  with 
Mrs.  Leonard  to  see  if  the  communicators  who  turned  up  for  N.  W. 
would  respond  to  her.  She  was  unknown  to  Mrs.  Leonard,  for,  taking 
a  card  of  anonymous  introduction  from  N.  W.  with  her,  there  was  no 
normal  method  by  which  the  medium  could  obtain  a  clue  to  her  identity. 
The  sitting  took  place  on  November  10,  1921,  and  the  results  were  ex- 
cellent. Her  husband,  quickly  arriving  on  the  scene,  proceeded  to  repeat 
some  of  the  material  he  had  already  related  to  N.  W.  He  referred  to 
her  experiments  with  the  ouija-board,  his  communications  via  D.  W., 
the  symbol  of  roses,  and  mentioned  that  her  brother  Harold  was  beside 
him.  (He  had  already  stated  this  to  N.  W.)  He  concluded  by  prophesying 
that  she  would  soon  be  beside  him. 

In  September,  1922,  though  Mrs.  White  was  in  bed  with  a  serious 
illness,  N.  W.  still  continued  on  her  behalf  with  Mrs.  Leonard.  Mr.  White 
indicated  that  he  was  well  aware  of  his  wife's  condition. 

Feda:  Do  you  know,  he's  a  bit  worried  about  Mrs.  White.  (Said  in  a 
very  surprised  tone.)  This  is  the  first  time  he  has  talked  in  that  way 
about  her.  And  he's  looking  quite  serious  when  he  begins  to  talk  about 
her.  It  isn't  a  light  matter.  .  .  .  Do  you  know,  he's  anxious  about  her 
health.  Very  anxious  indeed  about  her  health.  He  wouldn't  mind  if  she 
was  to  come  over  to  him.  I  want  that,  she  wants  that.  But  he  somehow 
felt  that  the  time  had  not  yet  come. 

Mrs.  White  lingered  on  in  varying  conditions  of  health,  but  eventually 
died  in  July,  1924,  and  this  occurrence  was  the  opportunity  for  a  good 
test.  Would  the  Whites — husband  and  wife — appear  together  to  N.  W '., 
who  had  taken  every  precaution  to  conceal  Mrs.  White's  name  and 
address  from  the  medium  so  that  even  if  Mrs.  Leonard  had  seen  the 


announcement  of  her  death  in  a  newspaper,  it  would  not  have  had  any 
special  significance  for  her? 

On  September  12,  1924,  N.  W.  had  her  first  sitting  after  Mrs.  White's 
death,  and  at  the  beginning  Mr.  White  quickly  indicated  that  his  wife 
was  now  with  him  but  was  not  capable  of  taking  part  in  the  sitting; 
but  on  November  1,  1924,  Mrs.  White  spoke  on  her  own  behalf,  con- 
cluding this  unique  case  by  thanking  N.  W.  for  all  her  efforts. 

case  no.  78 
The  Bobby  Newlove  Case1 

In  September,  1932,  the  Rev.  C.  Drayton  Thomas,  when  having  sittings 
with  Mrs.  Leonard,  received  a  letter  from  a  Mr.  Hatch,  of  Nelson,  Lanes., 
asking  if  he  would  attempt  to  obtain  information  about  his  step-daughter's 
son,  ten  years  of  age,  who  had  recently  died  of  diphtheria.  The  reply  of 
Mr.  Thomas  did  not  encourage  expectation  of  success,  but  he  resolved  to 
make  the  attempt,  though  he  did  not  inform  the  child's  people  of  his 

He  took  Mr.  Hatch's  letter  to  the  sitting  on  November  4,  1932,  and  at 
the  appropriate  moment  said  to  his  father  and  sister  who  were  com- 
municating: "I  have  an  earnest  request  for  news  of  a  little  boy,  Bobby." 

The  first  message  that  Mr.  Thomas  received  was  a  description  of  Bobby's 
home  town  which  Mr.  Hatch  acknowledged  as  accurate.  Several  further 
statements  were  made,  all  proving  more  or  less  correct,  but,  on  the  whole, 
Mr.  Thomas  considered  the  results  were  poor. 

In  following  sittings,  however,  the  communications  from  Bobby  im- 
proved; he  referred  to  a  friend — a  Mr.  Burrows — who  had  been  fitting 
up  a  gymnasium  for  him  before  he  died;  a  photograph  of  himself  in 
fancy  dress;  a  girl  friend,  Marjorie,  who  was  the  mascot  of  the  hockey 
team  that  played  on  the  rink  that  Bobby  attended;  and  a  very  accurate 
description,  with  much  detail,  particularly  mentioning  a  damaged  stile, 
of  a  favorite  walk.  On  receipt  of  this  information  about  a  favorite  walk, 
Mr.  Hatch  replied  that  its  several  details  were  recognized  and  that  the 
most  striking  was  the  reference  to  a  broken  stile;  for  he  found  that 
this  stile  was  no  longer  there,  having  been  removed  shortly  before  Bobby's 

1  Proceedings,  S.P.R.,  XLIII,  Part  143.  Thomas,  Rev.  C.  Drayton,  An  Amazing 
Experiment  (London:  Lectures  Universal  Ltd.). 


death.  Clearly,  it  was  something  other  than  a  medium's  clairvoyance 
which  had  produced  this  mention  of  the  stile  which  Bobby  in  his  time 
had  so  often  climbed,  but  which  was  not  now  to  be  seen. 

Mr.  Hatch,  not  quite  satisfied,  wrote  to  Mr.  Thomas  for  information 
on  the  following  points: 

1.  What  did  Bobby  keep  in  the  bathroom  cupboard? 

2.  Where  did  he  go  with  his  mother  last  winter  in  the  evenings  and 

was  to  go  again  this  winter? 

3.  What  did  he  do  in  the  attic  besides  boxing? 

When  the  replies  came  back  they  correctly  described  or  referred  to: 

1.  A  cinematograph  lantern. 

2.  The  skating  rink. 

3.  Working  an  apparatus  for  developing  the  muscles. 

Mr.  Hatch  presently  considered  that  Bobby  had  proved  his  identity. 
He  sent  many  other  evidential  points  relative  to  his  boy  friends,  his 
diary,  and  his  surroundings  that  cannot  be  inserted  here  for  lack  of 
space,  and  the  selection  already  given  shows  evidence  that  passes  far  be- 
yond anything  attributable  to  chance-coincidence:  out  of  126  items  only 
18  were  unrecognized. 

Quite  early  in  the  sittings,  it  was  indicated  by  Mr.  Thomas'  father  that 
though  Bobby  had  died  of  diphtheria  there  had  been  something  that  had 
weakened  him  nine  wee\s  before  his  death.  When  Mr.  Thomas  asked  to 
be  told  what  it  was,  the  reply  came :  "Pipe,  pipes,  that  should  be  sufficient." 
Mr.  Thomas  thought  this  indicated  defective  drainage,  but  Mr.  Hatch 
would  not  acquiesce  in  this  idea. 

Eventually,  Mr.  Hatch  learned  that  Bobby  and  another  boy  had  formed 
themselves  into  a  secret  society  which  they  had  called  "The  Gang,"  and 
in  the  summer  before  Bobby's  death  had  frequented  a  place  they  called 
the  "Heights"  for  play  and  adventure.  Mr.  Hatch  was  still  at  a  loss  about 
the  pipes  and  asked  for  fuller  information. 

At  the  sitting  that  followed  this  request  a  route  was  indicated  very 
minutely :  starting  from  Bobby's  house,  looping  'round  the  railway  station, 
up  the  hill  past  Bentley  Street,  leading  to  the  old  stocks  in  the  churchyard, 


then  right  up  to  the  "Heights."  It  was  evident  that  the  intelligence  thai 
gave  this  information  was  intimately  acquainted  with  Bobby's  home  and 

At  a  still  later  sitting  a  further  description  was  given  which  eventually 
led  to  the  actual  place  on  the  "Heights,"  where  two  drain  pipes  were 
finally  discovered.  Water  issued  from  the  ground  through  these  pipes  into 
two  pools  and  it  was  there  that  Bobby  had  played  during  the  weeks  pre- 
ceding his  death. 

Infection  from  the  water  may  have  caused  a  condition  of  the  blood 
which  weakened  the  boy's  system  before  the  oncoming  of  diphtheria. 
Justification  for  the  communicator's  opinion  that  the  boy's  death  might 
be  attributed  to  his  playing  there  is  found  in  a  statement  made  by  the 
Medical  Officer  of  Health  for  the  district: 

"21st  February,  1939. 

".  .  .  The  water  in  both  pools  is  obviously  liable  to  contamination  from 
surface  water  and  is  not  fit  for  drinking  purposes.  Any  person,  child  or 
adult,  might  develop  a  low  or  even  acute  infection  from  the  drinking 
of  such  water.  / 

"J.  S.  Wilson,  M.B.,  CM., 
Medical  Officer  of  Health, 
Brierfield,  Lanes." 

Thus  emerged  information  quite  unsuspected  by  Bobby's  people,  but 
which  accounted  for  his  illness  and  premature  death.  Mr.  Thomas'  com- 
municators remarked  that  they  had  learned  of  the  secret  playground  and 
its  pipes  during  conversations  with  the  boy  and  had  surmised  its  connec- 
tion with  his  death.  Mr.  Thomas  had  asked  their  cooperation  in  enabling 
the  boy  to  give  evidence  of  his  identity.  In  his  report,  Mr.  Thomas  stated 
that  Mrs.  Leonard  was  told  absolutely  nothing  either  in  or  out  of  trance, 
about  Bobby's  town — Nelson — and  his  own  knowledge  of  the  place  was 
limited  to  a  single  visit  many  years  before  to  another  part  of  Nelson. 

case  no.  79 
The  Blair  Case1 
In  1937,  when  Mrs.  Lydia  W.  Allison  of  New  York  was  coming  over 
to  England  to  have  sittings  with  Mrs.  Leonard,  she  arranged  to  act  as  a 
1  Journal,  A.S.P.R.  (October,  1941),  196. 



proxy-sitter  for  a  fellow  American,  Mr.  Blair  (pseudonym).  Her  knowl- 
edge of  Mr.  Blair  was  scanty;  she  deliberately  made  it  so,  warning  him 
in  advance  not  to  be  too  hopeful — proxy  sittings  were  sometimes  a  gamble. 
Mrs.  Allison  received  from  Mr.  Blair  a  small,  round,  white-metal  vanity 
case  to  enable  her  to  contact  the  desired  communicator — his  wife.  In  all, 
Mrs.  Allison  held  three  sittings,  and  like  others  they  had  their  per- 
centages of  hits  and  misses;  but  with  the  Blair  sittings  the  former  out- 
weighed the  latter.  An  abbreviated  account  of  the  sittings  follows: 

This  lady  (Mrs.  B.?)  died  in  the 
prime  of  life. 

She  was  not  fussy  or  shouted  much. 

She  had  an  exhausted  feeling  at 
death.  It  happened  within  five  days. 

Until  the  illness  came  she  had  a 
strong  constitution. 

Before  she  died  he  (Mr.  B.?)  tried 
to  do  something  on  a  Monday.  He 
did  not  succeed.  He  tried  to  see  im- 
portant people  but  failed.  H.  and  M. 
are  the  letters  connected  with  them. 

Her  thoughts  go  to  a  man  and  her 

She  is  anxious  to  get  in  touch  with 
F.  B. 

This  man  (F.  B.)  has  something  to 
do  with  an  office. 

This  lady's  ancestors  were  not  or- 
dinary people. 

She  speaks  of  a  Charlie. 

He  (F.  B.)  is  closely  linked  with  a 
big  institution. 

He's  been  doing  something  special 
lately,  signing  his  name,  something 

He  is  at  the  top  of  this  institute,  a 

Annotations  by  Mr.  Blair 
She  was  thirty-seven  years  of  age. 

She  was  a  woman  of  strong  but 
restrained  character. 
Correct  as  stated. 

She  had  been  well  for  the  greater 
part  of  her  life. 

I  returned  home  on  the  Monday 
before  Mrs.  Blair  died.  I  found  her 
seriously  ill.  We  went  to  a  specialist 
that  day  and  a  minor  operation  was 
performed  without  beneficial  results. 
Later  I  called  in  Dr.  M.  and  wanted 
to  get  a  Dr.  H.,  but  didn't. 

We  have  three  daughters. 

My  initials. 

I  am  a  lawyer  and  of  course  have 
an  office. 

The  Lorens — my  wife's  tolks — were 
definitely  not  ordinary  people.  She 
had  some  outstanding  ancestors. 

Her  brother. 

I  am  Director  of  Works  in  my  state. 

The  oath  of  office  of  Director  of 
Public  Works  is  signed  in  a  large  book 
in  the  Comptroller's  office.  I  signed  it. 

See  previous  remarks. 



He  was  photographed  much  and 
didn't  like  it. 

Annotations  by  Mr.  Blair 
The  press  took  pictures  of  my  being 
sworn  in  by  the  new  Comptroller  and 
I  didn't  like  it. 

He's  had  special,  unusual  clothes 

He  has  lots  of  people  before  him. 
They  listen  to  him  like  a  Day  of 
Judgment.  They  want  his  opinion. 

He  has  something  to  seal. 

Is  he  fond  of  music? 

He  has  at  last  realized  what  we 
both  talked  over  together  so  often. 

He  has  got  more  money  lately  but 
he  is  careless  about  it. 

He  was  doing  something  big  con- 
nected with  a  platform. 

Was  he  connected  with  invalids  or 
cripples  in  some  big  way? 

I  think  this  refers  to  my  honorary 
degree.  I  dressed  up  in  an  academic 
cap  and  gown. 

See  previous  remarks. 

Seals    are    relevant    to    a    lawyer's 

There  has  been  a  more  or  less  favor- 
able turn  in  some  of  my  investments. 
I  do  not  think  about  money — probably 
not  as  much  as  I  should. 

The  honorary  degree  was  conferred 
on  a  platform. 

I  am  trustee  for  a  hospital  for 
crippled  children. 

Mr.  Blair  expressed  his  gratification  with  the  records  when  they  were 
forwarded  to  him  and  said  they  contained  some  excellent  points  which 
eliminated  telepathy  from  the  sitter. 

Chapter  10 


At  a  direct  voice  seance,  the  medium  sits  in  a  chair,  surrounded  by  the 
sitters,  who  form  a  circle,  and  the  room  is  pitch  black;  not  one  single  ray 
of  light  must  enter. 

A  trumpet  is  placed  in  the  center  of  the  circle  and  after  a  certain  period 
of  waiting,  during  which  the  sitters  sing  and  talk,  a  faint  voice  is  heard. 
The  voice  is  encouraged  to  speak  up,  then  when  the  necessary  "power" 
has  been  obtained,  the  majority  of  the  sitters  are  rewarded  with  messages 
from  departed  friends. 

In  addition  to  the  voice  phenomena,  touches  are  made  by  the  trumpet 
on  the  sitters'  hands  and  faces,  and  pale  grey  and  other  shades  of  light 
occasionally  flicker  in  a  most  astonishing  manner. 

Is  the  whole  thing  a  fraud?  Was  it  the  medium  or  an  accomplice  who 
spoke  through  the  trumpet?  Were  the  touches  and  lights  produced  by 
normal  means?  It  is  difficult  to  believe  that  discarnate  intelligence  is  re- 
sponsible for  such  physical  action,  and  to  be  on  the  safe  side,  as  in  trance 
mediumship,  the  sitter  must  rely  on  the  evidential  quality  of  the  com- 
munication alone  before  he  condemns  or  approves.  In  the  instances  that 
follow  in  this  chapter,  no  stock  has  been  taken  of  touches,  lights,  per- 
fumes, etc.,  that  are  alleged  to  occur  in  direct  voice  seances;  all  that  has 
been  presented  are  the  communicators'  efforts  to  give  proofs  of  their 

case  no.  80 
The  Kennedy  Case1 
"On  the  evening  of  February  16,  1890,  a  seance  was  held  at  my  house, 
in  Church  End,  Finchley,  the  circle  consisting  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Everitt 
(Mrs.  Everitt  being  the  medium) ;  Mr.  H.  Withall  and  Miss  H.  Withall, 
of  Angell  Park  Gardens,  Brixton;  my  wife,  my  two  daughters,  my  son, 
and  myself.  We  sat  in  the  dark  for  the  'direct  voice';  in  that  way  com- 

1  "The  Life  Story  of  Edmund  Dawson  Rogers,  Journalist,"  Light. 



munications  had  come  from  several  spirit  friends.  In  the  course  of  the 
evening  a  'stranger'  spoke,  giving  us  his  name,  the  time  of  his  decease, 
and  his  age,  and  mentioning  a  town  in  Missouri  as  the  place  of  his  resi- 
dence when  he  departed  this  life.  Wishing,  if  possible,  to  verify  the  cor- 
rectness of  the  message,  I  addressed  the  following  letter  to  Colonel  Bundy, 
the  editor  of  The  Religio-Philosophical  Journal,  Chicago: 

During  a  seance  held  at  my  residence  on  the  16th  inst.,  with  Mrs. 
Everitt,  a  spirit  came,  and  speaking  in  firm,  emphatic  and  distinct  tones, 
with  a  decidedly  American  accent,  expressed  his  interest  in  the  work  in 
which  we  were  engaged  and  his  wish  for  our  success.  He  added  that  his 
name  was  Moses  Kennedy,  and  that  he  had  passed  away  in  September 
last  at  Glenfield,  Missouri,  aged  seventy-one.  I  had  no  opportunity  of 
making  a  note  of  his  remarks  until  the  close  of  the  seance,  and  as  to  one 
word,  'Glenfield,'  I  am  not  quite  certain  that  I  remembered  it  correctly, 
but  I  think  I  did.  I  shall  be  glad  if  any  of  your  readers  can  confirm  the 
accuracy  of  the  message. 

E.  Dawson  Rogers. 
London,  England. 
February  23. 

"This  letter  appeared  in  the  Journal  of  March  22.  In  the  meantime — 
namely,  on  the  evening  of  March  9 — we  had  another  seance,  the  members 
of  the  circle  being  the  same  as  before,  with  the  single  exception  that  Miss 
H.  Withall  was  absent,  and  that  her  sister  occupied  her  place.  During 
this  sitting  a  spirit  friend,  referring  to  Moses  Kennedy's  communication 
on  the  previous  occasion,  said  he  thought  we  had  misunderstood  the  name 
of  his  place  of  residence — he  believed  that  the  stranger  had  said  'not  Glen- 
field, but  Glenwood,  or  some  such  name  as  that.'  As  there  was  no  reason 
to  think  that  'Glenwood'  was  more  likely  to  be  correct  than  'Glenfield,' 
no  mention  of  this  incident  was  sent  to  The  Religio-Philosophical  Journal. 

"On  the  17th,  the  post  brought  me  the  following  letter  from  S.  T. 
Suddick,  M.D.,  Cuba,  Missouri,  dated  April  6: 

"Respected  Sir, 

"Yours  of  underdate  of  February  23  was  forwarded  to  me  by  Bro.  Bundy 
for  confirmation.  I  have  investigated  the  matter  with  the  following  results: 


"There  is  no  such  town  in  Missouri  as  'Glenfield.'  I  wrote  to  Glenwood, 
Schuyler  County,  Missouri,  and  found  that  Moses  Kennedy  died  there 
September  30,  1889.  He  was  born  in  Clement  County,  Ohio,  November 
18,  1818.  His  widow,  Mrs.  Phcebe  Kennedy,  still  resides  there.  I  have 
written  her,  and  her  answer  is  before  me,  received  today.  Full  particulars 
will  be  sent  to  the  Journal  this  p.m. 

"I  would  be  pleased  to  have  you  write  me. 

Yours  very  respectfully, 

S.  T.  Suddick,  M.  D. 

"From  Mr.  Suddick's  letter  it  will  be  seen  that  the  message  was  correct 
in  every  particular — as  to  name,  age,  place  of  residence,  and  time  of  de- 
cease. And  yet  none  of  us  who  formed  the  circle  to  which  the  message 
was  given  had  so  much  as  known  of  Moses  Kennedy's  existence." 

case  no.  81 
The  Randall  Case1 
Mr.  Edward  C.  Randall,  a  lawyer  in  Buffalo,  experimented  twenty  years 
with  Mrs.  Emily  S.  French,  a  very  frail  and  deaf  old  lady.  The  medium's 
deafness  was  a  distinct  advantage  to  Mr.  Randall;  it  created  a  natural 
test  condition  for  the  medium  that  the  lawyer  could  not  improve  on. 
"Often,"  he  wrote,  "we  sat  alone  in  my  house  and  the  voice  that  broke  the 
stillness  was  not  the  voice  of  Mrs.  French,  nor  were  her  vocal  organs 
used  by  another.  She,  being  deaf,  often  failed  to  hear  the  voices  of  spirit 
people  and  spoke  while  they  were  speaking,  such  interruptions  causing 
confusion."  In  his  investigation  of  Mrs.  French  over  700  sittings  were 
held,  and  when  she  died  in  1912  he  wrote  regarding  her: 

"The  memory  of  Emily  S.  French  comes  like  a  benediction.  She  made 
me  her  friend  by  being  honest;  I  made  her  my  friend  by  being  fair  and 
so  we  worked  for  twenty  years  and  more  to  learn  how  to  expel  the  fear 
of  death  from  the  human  heart.  She  was  the  noblest  woman  I  have 
known;  she  was  both  honest  and  brave;  she  enriched  herself  by  aiding 

On  May  26,  1896,  Mr.  Randall  held  a  sitting  with  Mrs.  French.  At 

ten  o'clock  that  morning  the  Brown  Building  in  Buffalo,  then  being 

1  Randall,  Edward  C,  The  Dead  Have  Never  Died  (New  York:  Alfred  A.  Knopf, 


repaired,  collapsed  and  the  city  was  full  of  rumors  that  many  people  had 
been  killed.  The  number  was  put  at  six  or  seven,  but  there  was  no  way 
of  ascertaining  the  truth  until  the  debris  could  be  removed,  and  this  would 
require  many  days. 

At  the  sitting  that  evening,  four  voices  announced  themselves :  William 
P.  Straub,  George  Metz,  Michael  Schurzke,  a  Pole,  and  Jennie  M. 
Griffin,  claiming  that  they  had  lost  their  lives  in  the  fall  of  the  building. 
This  was  verified  some  days  later. 

On  another  occasion  Mr.  Randall's  father  stated  that  there  was  one 
small  item  in  the  settlement  of  his  estate  that  had  been  overlooked. 

Mr.  Randall  replied,  "Your  mind  was  ever  centered  on  the  accumulation 
of  money.  Why  take  up  my  time  .  .  .  with  your  estate?  It  has  already 
been  divided." 

"Yes,"  he  answered,  "I  know  that,  but  I  worked  too  hard  for  my  money, 
and  there  is  an  asset  you  have  not  discovered." 

"Tell  me  about  it." 

"Some  years  before  I  left,  I  loaned  a  small  sum  of  money  to  Susan 
Stone,  who  resided  in  Pennsylvania,  and  I  took  from  her  a  promissory 
note  upon  which,  by  the  laws  of  that  state,  I  was  entitled  to  enter  a  judg- 
ment at  once  without  suit.  I  was  somewhat  anxious  about  the  loan;  so 
before  its  maturity  I  took  the  note  and  filed  it  with  the  prothonotary  at 
Erie,  Pennsylvania,  and  he  entered  judgment,  which  became  a  lien  on  her 
property.  In  my  books  there  was  no  reference  to  that  note  or  judgment. 
If  you  go  to  the  prothonotary's  office  in  Erie,  you  will  find  the  judgment 
on  record  and  I  want  you  to  collect  it.  There  are  many  things  you  don't 
know  and  this  is  one  of  them." 

Mr.  Randall  was  much  surprised  at  the  information  thus  received  and 
naturally  sent  for  a  transcript  of  that  judgment.  He  found  it  entered  on 
October  21,  1896,  and  with  that  evidence  of  the  debt  he  collected  from 
the  woman  $70  with  interest.  He  questioned  if  anyone  knew  of  this  affair 
besides  the  makers  of  the  note  and  the  prothonotary  in  Erie.  He  certainly 
did  not  and  had  no  reason  to  suspect  it;  and  he  considered  that  it  was 
entirely  impossible  for  Mrs.  French  to  have  any  knowledge  of  it. 

"My  father's  voice  was  clearly  recognizable  on  that  occasion,  as  it  has 
been  on  hundreds  of  others,  and  I  cite  this  instance  for  the  benefit  of  those 
who  measure  everything  from  an  evidential  standpoint." 


CASE  NO.  82 

The  Rose  Bay  Case1 

The  two  examples  that  follow  are  taken  from  an  address  delivered  by 
the  late  Vice-Admiral  W.  Usborne  Moore  at  the  South  Place  Institute, 
Finsbury,  on  May  14,  1914,  concerning  the  mediumship  of  Etta  Wreidt, 
an  American  direct-voice  medium. 

A  lady  born  in  Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  who  had  spent  all  her  child- 
hood there  and  latterly  resided  in  Devonshire,  gave  him  this  evidence  she 
received  at  a  sitting: 

"One  day  in  1911,  my  sister  and  I  had  a  private  sitting  at  Cambridge 
House  and  a  voice  announced  itself  as  'George.'  We  knew  several  Georges 
who  had  passed  over  and  my  sister  said,  'Are  you  George  Lloyd?'  Answer: 
'No ! '  Question :  'What  is  your  other  name  ? '  The  voice  seemed  to  find  great 
difficulty  in  replying  to  this  positive  Question,  so  I  said,  Where  did  you 
know  me?'  Answer:  'At  Rose  Bay.  My  name  is  George  Smith.  Your 
father  brought  me  here.'  I  was  much  puzzled  and  the  name  conveyed 
nothing  to  me,  but  my  sister  said,  'Did  you  live  at  Rose  Bay?'  'Yes,  near 
your  old  home.'  (Our  old  home  was  at  Rose  Bay,  one  of  the  numerous 
little  bays  in  Port  Jackson;  it  is  three  miles  from  the  city  of  Sydney.) 

"Then  the  voice  answered  me,  'Where  is  your  sling  stone?  When  you 
were  a  little  girl,  you  used  to  have  a  sling  stone.'  Question:  'Do  you 
mean  a  catapult?'  Answer:  'Yes,  you  were  a  little  mischief.'  (I  used  to 
have  a  catapult  when  I  was  a  small  child;  it  is  possible  that  I  was  a 
great  nuisance  to  the  neighborhood.)  Then  turning  to  my  sister  he  said, 
'I  should  not  have  known  you.  What  have  you  done  to  yourself?  You 
were  always  the  sedate  one.'  (This  allusion  is  quite  correct.)  When  the 
voice  no  longer  spoke,  my  sister  said,  Well,  I  am  the  only  one  in  the 
world  who  would  remember  him.  You  were  too  young.  George  Smith 
did  live  near  us  at  Rose  Bay.  He  was  a  contractor.'  (This  was  forty-six 
years  ago.) 

"(Signed)  E.  R.  Richards." 

Mrs.  Jacobs,  Mrs.  Richards'  sister,  wrote: 

"I  beg  to  confirm  my  sister's  account.  I  am  six  years  older  than  my 

1  Moore,  W.  Usborne,  Spirit  Identity  by  Direct  Voice  (Manchester:  The  Two  Worlds 
Publishing  Co.,  Ltd.). 


sister  and  certify  to  the  fact  that  a  contractor,  named  George  Smith,  did 
live  a  short  distance  from  my  father's  house  at  Rose  Bay,  Sydney.  He 
must  have  known  us  by  sight  when  we  played  as  children  and  probably 
spoke  to  us  now  and  then.  My  sister  had  a  small  catapult." 

case  no.  83 

The  W / Case1 

Mr.  W J ,  a  Glasgow  merchant,  wrote  concerning  sittings  he 

participated  in  with  Mrs.  Wreidt: 

"The  medium  was  a  stranger  when  I  met  her  for  the  first  time  on  the 
morning  of  July  2,  1912.  A  voice  we  recognized  at  once  came  close  to  me 
and  said,  'Bill,  Bill,  how  are  ye?'  'Who  are  you?'  I  asked.  'Neil,  Neil,  I 
am  Neil,  man,'  followed  by  a  hearty  laugh  ...  his  laugh  was  not  like 
that  of  anyone  I  knew.  Neil  McQuarrie  was  a  relative  of  mine  by  marriage 
and  had  been  for  many  years  our  cashier.  For  a  little  he  spoke  to  his  wife 
about  their  children,  each  by  name.  Mrs.  White,  who  sat  next  to  me, 
whispered,  'Do  you  think  he'll  know  me?'  and  immediately  came  the 
answer,  'Dae  ye  think  I'll  no  ken  ye,  Annie  White?' 

"The  next  sitting  was  on  the  following  day.  I  phoned  to  Mrs.  Mc- 
Master  and  she  came  by  putting  off  an  engagement,  so  that  her  presence 
was  wholly  unexpected;  she  had  never  been  to  a  sitting  before.  The 
first  voice  was  that  of  her  husband  who  had  passed  nine  months  before :  'I 
am  glad  to  see  you  getting  on  so  well;  give  my  love  to  Jeffrey.'  Mrs.  Mc- 
Master,  'You  can  give  your  love  to  Mr.  Jeffrey  yourself,  he  is  sitting  next 
to  me.'  The  voice  said,  emphatically,  'No,  no,  I  want  to  give  my  love 
to  my  little  boy,  Jeffrey  McMaster.' 

"Another  sitting  was  held  five  days  later.  The  first  to  address  me  was 
an  old  friend,  Sterling,  who  had  departed  this  life  some  twenty  years 
ago.  .  .  .  'Are  you  the  Mr.  Sterling  I  knew  long  ago?'  'Yes,'  was  the 
answer.  'Well,  do  you  remember  what  was  the  matter  with  you  before 
you  died?'  I  asked.  He  answered,  'I  was  totally  blind  for  five  years.' 
This  was  correct  and  a  strong  bit  of  evidence  for  us.  ...  A  voice  saying 
'Colin!'  'What  Colin?'  'Colin  Buchanan,'  and  shortly  afterwards  it  ad- 
dressed Mrs.  McQuarrie,  touching  upon  some  sad  and  private  matters 
which  I  knew  were  unknown  to  anyone  in  the  room.  It  went  back  into 

1  Moore,  W.  Usborne,  op.  cit. 



old  history  of  forty  years  ago — a  revelation  indeed.  The  facts  unfolded 
were  of  a  character  that  with  propriety  cannot  be  given  to  others.  I 
regret  this  is  the  case,  for  it  is  evidence  of  this  kind  which  is  so  convincing." 

case  no.  84 

The  Saunders  Case 

About  the  year  1918,  Arthur  Findlay,  a  stockbroker  and  chartered 
accountant  of  Glasgow,  commenced  to  investigate  the  mediumship  of 
John  C.  Sloan,  little  imagining  that  he  would  eventually  publish  his  ex- 
periences and  make  Sloan  one  of  the  best-known  mediums  of  the  present 

Findlay  was  slightly  suspicious  of  Sloan  at  the  first  sitting,  but  giving 
him  the  benefit  of  the  doubt,  patiently  sat  through  another  fifty  and  be- 
came convinced  of  two  things — human  survival  of  death  and  Sloan's 
integrity.  Findlay  did  not  conceal  his  beliefs  and  published  them  in  four 
books:  On  the  Edge  of  the  Etheric,  The  Koc\  of  Truth,  The  Unfolding 
Universe  and  The  Torch  of  Knowledge.  In  the  first1  he  quotes  the  fol- 
lowing case  which  he  considers  fraud-proof,  telepathy-proof,  cryptesthesia- 
proof  and  coming  up  to  his  "Al"  standard. 

In  1919,  Arthur  Findlay  took  his  brother  John  to  a  sitting,  taking  good 
care  that  no  one  should  know  the  relationship  between  the  two.  Midway 
through  the  sitting  a  voice  calling  itself  "Eric  Saunders"  claimed  ac- 
quaintanceship with  John,  who  replied  that  he  had  never  known  any 
person  of  that  name. 

j.  f.:  Where  did  you  meet  me? 

voice:  In  the  army. 

Findlay  mentioned  a  number  of  places:  Aldershot,  Bisley,  France, 
Palestine,  etc.,  but  he  deliberately  omitted  Lowestoft,  where  he  had  spent 
most  of  his  army  life. 

voice:  No,  none  of  these  places.  I  knew  you  when  you  were  near 

j.  f.:  Why  do  you  say  near  Lowestoft? 

voice:  You  were  not  in  Lowestoft  then  but  at  Kessingland. 

This  was  correct.  Findlay  had  spent  part  of  his  time  at  that  small 
village  near  Lowestoft,  training  machine-gunners  for  the  army. 

1  Findlay,  Arthur,  On  the  Edge  of  the  Etheric  (London:  Psychic  Press,  Ltd.),  92-96. 


j.  f.:  What  company  were  you  in? 

The  answer  was  indistinct — it  sounded  like  "B"  or  "C" — then  Findlay 
inquired  if  he  remembered  the  name  of  the  company  commander. 

voice:  MacNamara. 

This  was  correct;  that  was  the  name  of  the  officer  commanding  B 

j.  f.  (by  way  of  a  test) :  You  were  one  of  my  Lewis  gunners,  were  you 

voice  (evading  the  trap) :  No,  you  had  not  the  Lewis  gun  then,  it  was 
the  Hotchkiss. 

Several  leading  questions  were  correctly  answered,  then  the  voice  said 
he  had  been  killed  in  France. 

j.  f.:  When  did  you  go  out? 

voice:  With  the  big  draft  in  August,  1917. 

j.  f.:  Why  do  you  say  "big  draft"? 

voice  :  Don't  you  remember  the  big  draft,  when  the  colonel  came  on  the 
parade  ground  and  made  a  speech? 

This  statement  applied  to  an  extra  large  draft  sent  to  France  that  month, 
and  the  only  occasion  that  Findlay  could  remember  of  the  colonel  per- 
sonally saying  good-bye  to  the  men. 

j.  f.:  Why  have  you  come  to  speak  to  me? 

voice  :  Because  I  have  never  forgotten  that  you  once  did  me  a  good  turn. 

Findlay  had  a  hazy  recollection  of  obtaining  leave  for  one  of  his  gun- 
ners, but  could  not  remember  if  Saunders  was  his  name.  Six  months  later, 
Findlay  met  by  arrangement  the  man  who  had  been  his  corporal,  and 
telling  him  of  the  incident,  asked  if  he  remembered  Eric  Saunders.  The 
corporal  did  not,  but  fortunately  had  brought  a  notebook  in  which  he 
had  entered  the  names  of  the  men  who  had  served  under  him.  In  the 
records  of  B  Company  for  1917  appeared  the  words,  "Eric  Saunders,  f.q. 
August,  1917,"  with  a  red  line  drawn  through  them.  Although  Findlay 
knew  quite  well  what  the  red  line  represented,  he  inquired  its  meaning. 

"Don't  you  remember,  Mr.  Findlay?"  answered  the  ex-corporal.  "I  al- 
ways drew  a  line  through  the  men's  names  when  they  went  away.  This 
shows  that  Saunders  went  out  in  August,  1917." 

John  Findlay  regretted  that  he  did  not  ask  Saunders,  at  the  sitting,  the 
name  of  his  regiment,  and  so  was  unable  to  trace  his  death.  Without  this 


information  the  War  Office  could  give  no  details  except  that  4,000  men 
of  the  name  of  Saunders  fell  in  the  1914-18  war. 

case  no.  85 
The  Sew  aid  Case1 

In  the  year  1922,  when  living  in  Scotland,  the  Rev.  V.  G.  Duncan 
began  reading  books  concerning  psychical  research,  and  his  bookseller, 
noticing  his  predilection  for  this  type  of  literature,  offered  to  introduce 
him  to  a  lady,  a  Miss  McCall,  who  would  give  him  an  opportunity  of 
having  a  sitting  with  the  Misses  Moore,  of  Glasgow,  direct-voice  mediums. 
Mr.  Duncan  accepted  the  bookseller's  offer  and  a  sitting  was  arranged 
to  be  held  in  a  house  in  the  suburbs  of  Edinburgh.  In  case  his  history 
had  been  worked  up  in  advance,  Mr.  Duncan  decided  to  take  a  friend — 
who  belonged  to  a  north  European  race — with  him,  and  he  was  certain 
that  neither  the  bookseller,  Miss  McCall,  or  the  Misses  Moore  knew  any- 
thing about  the  unknown  stranger. 

"The  lady,"  wrote  Mr.  Duncan,  "who  has  made  my  appointment  had 
promised  that  my  name,  as  well  as  any  information  she  might  know 
concerning  me,  should  be  withheld  from  the  mediums.  In  any  case,  my 
colleague  in  the  experiment  was  a  total  stranger  to  them  all,  as  I  had 
taken  care  that  he  should  remain  anonymous  by  simply  stating  that  a 
'friend  would  accompany  me.' 

"Early  in  the  sitting  a  control  indicated  that  a  lady  wished  to  speak  to 
Mr.  L.  (Mr.  Duncan's  friend).  In  soft  tones  a  voice  spoke,  'Jan!  Jan!' 

sitter:  Oh,  Mother  darling,  is  it  really  you? 

voice:  Yes,  Jan,  it  is  really  me. 

"Then,"  says  Mr.  Duncan,  "they  talked  of  the  trifling  things  which 
make  life  for  us  all:  of  the  father  who  was  left  behind;  of  the  son  who 
needed  special  care;  of  the  son's  wife  (addressed  correctly  by  name); 
and  of  the  uncle  who  would  soon  pass  over.  Before  she  left,  my  friend 
asked  one  final  question — not  so  much,  he  told  me  afterwards,  in  a  spirit 
of  doubt,  but  because  he  felt  every  shred  of  evidence  was  of  such  tre- 
mendous value  to  him.  'Can  you  remember,  Mother,'  he  asked,  'the  second 
name  of  B.?'  Now  my  friend's  father  belonged  to  a  north  European  race. 

1  Duncan,  Rev.  V.  G.,  Proof  (London:  Wm.  Rider  and  Co.). 


But  nobody  in  the  room  except  himself  knew  that  fact.  The  name  asked 
for  was  a  peculiar  one  and  had  reference  to  the  origin. 

"  'Why,  Sewald,  of  course,'  came  the  answer,  without  a  moment's  hesita- 

"It  was  perfectly  true." 

The  George  W.  Crawford  Case1 

The  following  extracts  are  taken  from  accounts  of  sittings  which  Mr. 
H.  Dennis  Bradley  had  with  George  Valiantine,  an  American  medium. 

(Mr.  Bradley,  while  on  a  visit  to  the  United  States  in  June,  1923,  met 
Valiantine  at  the  house  of  Mr.  Joseph  de  Wyckoff,  where — so  far  as  Dennis 
Bradley  was  concerned — a  test  sitting  was  arranged.  The  communications 
that  Dennis  Bradley  received  on  that  day  were  so  convincing  that  some 
time  later  he  invited  Valiantine  to  visit  him  in  England  for  the  purpose 
of  holding  a  series  of  sittings  during  the  early  months  of  1924.) 

On  February  8,  1924,  a  sitting  was  in  progress  in  the  dining-room  of 
Dennis  Bradley's  house  at  Dorincourt  when  a  voice  addressed  Joseph  De 
Wyckoff.  There  was  some  difficulty  in  deciphering  the  voice — it  was  not 
too  clear — but  eventually  the  voice  described  how  "he"  had  died  on  board 
a  ship  coming  from  New  York  to  England  in  1916. 

the  voice:  I  was  travelling  on  the  same  boat  with  Joe  and  Minerva 
(Mr.  and  Mrs.  De  Wyckoff). 

de  wyckoff  :  Will  you  please  tell  us  whether  you  were  a  small  or  a  big 

the  voice:  I  was  very  big. 

de  wyckoff:  How  big? 

the  voice:  So  big  that  I  could  hardly  get  through  the  door. 

mrs.  de  wyckoff  (excitedly) :  George  Crawford! 

De  Wyckoff,  annoyed  at  his  wife  for  giving  the  name  away  before  it 
had  been  volunteered,  said,  "Why  did  you  do  that?"  At  that  moment  the 
voice  disappeared  from  the  sitting. 

Two  days  later,  February  10,  another  sitting  was  held  but  this  time  in 
Dennis  Bradley's  study.  The  voice  returned  and  on  this  occasion  gave  his 
name  so  clearly  that  all  in  the  room  heard  it. 

1  Bradley,  H.  Dennis,  Towards  the  Stars  (London:  T.  Werner  Laurie,  Ltd.),  173-74, 
178,  184-85. 



the  voice  :  I  am  George  W.  Crawford. 

De  Wyckoff  asked  for  further  evidence  of  his  personality  and  "George 
W.  Crawford"  replied,  "Don't  you  remember  when  you  changed  the 
room  ? " 

De  Wyckoff  (under  the  impression  that  Crawford  was  referring  to  the 
present  sitting  taking  place  in  the  study  instead  of  the  dining-room  as 
formerly)  answered,  "Yes,  we  changed  the  room  because  the  conditions 
here  are  better." 

crawford:  I  do  not  mean  that,  I  mean  that  you  changed  my  room  for 
me  aboard  ship. 

This  information  startled  De  Wyckoff,  and  he  stated  that  when  Craw- 
ford was  taken  ill  on  board  ship  he  persuaded  the  purser  to  have  him 
removed  to  a  larger  cabin,  in  which  he  died. 

On  February  15,  Crawford  returned  and  renewed  his  conversation  with 
De  Wyckoff. 

de  wyckoff:  How  long  is  it  since  you  passed  away? 

crawford:  About  eight  years.  (Correct.) 

de  wyckoff:  What  was  the  name  of  the  boat  you  were  travelling  on? 

crawford:  The  St.  Paul.  (Correct.) 

De  Wyckoff  then  asked  what  was  the  cause  of  his  death,  to  which  Craw- 
ford replied,  "Over-eating."  (Crawford  weighed  about  twenty-five  stone 
and  had  an  appetite  equivalent  to  his  weight.) 

de  wyckoff:  Do  you  remember  your  burial? 

crawford:  Yes,  I  was  put  in  a  box  with  heavy  weights.  (He  was  buried 
at  sea.) 

The  foregoing  are  a  few  of  the  evidential  questions  put  by  De  Wyckoff; 
in  every  case  the  correct  answer  was  returned,  and  at  the  end  Crawford 
said,  "I  think  I  have  given  you  enough." 

case  no.  87 
The  Welsh  Language  Case1 
On  February  27  another  sitting  was  held  at  Dorincourt,  composed  of 
the  following:  Dennis  Bradley,  Mrs.  Dennis  Bradley,  Newman  Flower, 
Harold  Wimbury,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Caradoc  Evans,  Miss  Queenie  Bayliss, 
and  George  Valiantine. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Evans,  who  had  attended  previous  sittings,  renewed 
1  Bradley,  H.  Dennis,  Towards  the  Stars,  208-11. 


acquaintanceship  with  an  old  friend — Edward  Wright.  After  various 
topics  of  mutual  interest  had  been  discussed,  a  new  voice,  claiming  to 
be  that  of  Mr.  Evans'  father,  came  on  the  scene. 

caradoc  evans :  Do  you  want  me? 

voice:  Yes. 

caradoc  evans  :  Who  are  you  ? 

voice:  Your  father! 

caradoc  evans:  Father!  Can't  be.  How  do  you  know  that  I  am  here? 
Who  told  you? 

voice:  Edward  Wright. 

caradoc  evans  :  Well,  look,  if  you  are  my  father,  siaradwch  a  fy  yn  etch 

voice:  Beth  i  chwi  am  i  fy  ddweyd? 

caradoc  evans:  Eich  enw,  wrth  gwrs. 

voice  :  William  Evans. 

caradoc  evans:  Yn  le  marwo  chwi? 

voice:  Caerfyrddin. 

caradoc  evans  :  Sir? 

voice:  Tre. 

caradoc  evans  :  Ble  mae'r  ty? 

voice:  Uch  ben  ye  avon.  Mae  steps — lawer  iawn — rhwng  y  ty  ar  rheol. 
Pa  beth  yr  ydych  yn  gojyn?  Y  chwi  yn  mynd  i  weled'  a  ty  bob  tro  yr 
rydych  yn  y  dre. 

caradoc  evans  :  'Nhad . 


.  .  .  speak  to  me  in  your  own  language. 

voice:  What  do  you  want  me  to  say? 

caradoc  evans:  Your  name,  of  course. 

voice  :  William  Evans. 

caradoc  evans:  Where  did  you  die? 

voice:  Carmarthen. 

caradoc  evans:  Shire? 

voice:  Town. 

caradoc  evans:  Where  is  the  house? 

1  After  the  sitting,  Caradoc  Evans  supplied  Dennis  Bradley  with  the  conversation  in 
Welsh  and  the  translation  in  English. 


voice:  Above  the  river.  There  are  steps — many  steps — between  the 
house  and  the  road.  Why  do  you  ask  me?  You  go  to  see  the  house  every 
time  you  are  in  the  town. 

caradoc  evans  :  My  father . 

case  no.  88 
The  Walter  Case1 

Mr.  Harold  Wimbury  was  fortunate  to  receive  substantial  evidence 
at  the  same  sitting,  although  it  had  not  the  same  high  dramatic  quality 
as  that  obtained  by  Mr.  Caradoc  Evans. 

A  voice  spoke  and  someone  in  the  circle  said,  "It  sounds  like  Walter." 

harold  wimbury:  Is  it  Walter? 

voice:  Yes. 

harold  wimbury:  Did  I  know  you  here? 

voice:  Yes. 

harold  wimbury:  For  how  long? 

voice:  For  several  years. 

harold  wimbury:  How  long  ago? 

voice:  About  twenty  years. 

harold  wimbury:  Where? 

voice:  Birmingham. 

harold  wimbury:  What  is  your  other  name? 

voice:  Downing. 

harold  wimbury:  Good  Lord,  Walter,  I  am  glad  to  see  you.  Do  you 
remember  our  last  holiday? 

voice  :  Yes — I've  all  my  faculties  now. 

harold  wimbury:  You  always  had. 

harold  wimbury:  Do  you  remember  Sally?  (This  was  a  trap.  Sally 
was  the  nickname  of  a  man  named  Sanders.  Not  a  woman?) 

voice:  Yes — I  remember  him  and  all  of  them.  Tell  them  I  am  very 
happy  here. 

harold  wimbury  :  Do  you  remember  we  lived  together  ? 

voice:  Yes. 

harold  wimbury:  Where? 

1  Bradley,  H.  Dennis,  Towards  the  Stars,  211-13. 



voice:  Over  the  hotel. 

("Walter  and  I,  working  on  a  morning  paper,  often  missed  our  last 
trains  to  our  homes  and  so  we  shared  a  room  in  Birmingham,  where  we 
snugged  in  when  late,  often  together.  The  room  was  over  the  Crown 
Hotel,  two  minutes  from  the  office." — Harold  Wimbury.) 

Mr.  Wimbury  supplied  the  foregoing  explanations  to  Dennis  Bradley. 

Incidents  from  Various  Sittings  Case1 

In  the  month  of  February,  1925,  George  Valiantine  paid  a  return  visit 
to  England  for  the  purpose  of  holding  a  further  series  of  sittings  with 
Dennis  Bradley — this  visit  lasting  to  the  month  of  April. 

On  this  occasion,  Bradley  made  a  point  of  bringing — without  making 
introductions  to  Valiantine — friends  and  strangers  from  many  profes- 
sions: law,  art,  science,  stage,  politics,  journalism,  the  army,  etc.,  and 
this  was  deliberately  done  with  a  view  to  observing  the  reactions  on 
Valiantine's  mediumship. 

The  sittings  were  of  a  varied  character,  good,  bad  and  indifferent;  not 
all  the  good  sittings  were  completely  evidential,  while  many  of  those 
which  were  inferior  contained  some  evidential  items.  In  the  course  of  this 
series  communicators  spoke  in  most  European  languages,  occasionally  in 
Chinese  and  Japanese;  and  sitters,  during  the  conversation,  changed  the 
language  from  German  to  English,  Danish  to  Russian,  or  Italian  to 
French,  and  the  communicators  carried  on  without  pause. 

Some  of  the  outstanding  evidence  in  these  sittings  has  been  collected 
and  summarized  in  this  case. 

Sitting  on  February  25,  1925 
A  voice  addressed  Countess  Tyong  Oeitiongham  in  Chinese,  in  which 
language  a  conversation  was  carried  on  between  them  for  a  short  time. 
After  the  sitting  the  Countess  stated  that  there  were  at  least  twenty 
dialects  in  Chinese,  each  of  which  might  have  been  used.  The  voice  spoke 
to  her  in  two  languages,  mixed  in  a  way  which  no  European — even  if  he 
were  able  to  speak  Chinese — could  do.  One  of  the  dialects  was  one  in 
which  her  father  used  to  spea\  to  her  when  she  was  a  child,  and  the  other 
was  one  which  they  spo\e  together  after  she  had  grown  up. 

1  Bradley,  H.  Dennis,  The  Wisdom  of  the  Gods  (London:  T.  Werner  Laurie,  Ltd.), 


Sitting  on  March  10,  1925 
A  voice  addressed  Countess  Ahlefeldt-Laurvig  and  she  replied  to  it  in 
Danish.  The  voice  then  said  to  her,  "Speak  to  me  in  Russian,"  and  an- 
nounced that  he  was  her  brother  Oscar.  Together  they  talked  for  a  little 
time  in  the  Russian  language. 

Sitting  on  March  18,  1925 
The  most  dramatic  event  of  the  evening  was  when  a  voice  addressed 
Mr.  Gonnoske  Komai  in  Japanese.  The  voice  called,  "Gonnoske,  Gon- 
noske," and  then  gave  the  name  "Otani."  Identity  was  established  and 
a  conversation  was  carried  on  in  Japanese.  Afterwards,  Mr.  Komai  stated 
an  important  point:  in  Japan,  only  an  elder  brother,  father,  or  mother 
is  allowed  to  address  a  man  by  his  first  name,  and  the  voice  was  that  of 
his  elder  brother  who  had  passed  away  some  time  ago. 

Sitting  on  April  7,  1925 

A  voice  claiming  to  be  Dr.  Peebles  spoke  to  Dr.  Abraham  Wallace. 
"You  remember  there  was  a  banquet  held  in  my  honor  when  the  empty 
chair  was  left  for  me  and  I  appreciated  it  very  much;  I  enjoyed  the 

Afterwards,  Dr.  Wallace  explained  that  a  banquet  had  been  held  in 
California  in  honor  of  the  100th  birthday  of  Dr.  Peebles,  who  died  just 
prior  to  the  banquet;  nevertheless,  the  banquet  was  held  with  the  empty 
chair  at  the  table  in  appreciation  of  Dr.  Peebles.  This  incident  was 
accepted  as  evidential  by  Dr.  Wallace,  as  no  one  in  the  room  but  himself 
knew  of  this  happening. 

Sitting  on  April  10,  1925 
Michael  Bradley — an  uncle  of  Dennis  Bradley — spoke  in  loud  and  dis- 
tinct tones.  "He  addressed  my  father  as  'Dan,'  the  name  by  which  he 
was  accustomed  to  address  him.  They  conversed  together  for  quite  a 
while,  my  father  asking  many  questions  which  called  for  evidential  re- 
plies. Michael  spontaneously  volunteered  all  the  information  which  was 
required  of  him.  He  remembered  the  place  of  his  birth,  near  Galway, 
his  age  when  he  passed  over,  and  many  details  of  his  career  on  earth, 
thereby  establishing  his  identity." 

Sitting  on  April  16,  1925 
A  voice  spoke  to  Mr.  P.  H.  G.  Fender,  claiming  the  relationship  of 


grandfather.  Mr.  Fender  asked  where  he  had  lived  and  he  correcdy 
replied  "Dundee." 

To  Mrs.  Theodore  McKenna  a  voice  announced  itself  as  "Just 
McKenna."  Later,  Mrs.  McKenna  said  that  her  son,  Justine  McKenna, 
who  had  died  when  he  was  twenty-one  years  old,  was  addressed  by  the 
family  as  "Just." 

A  voice  claiming  to  be  his  mother  spoke  to  Mr.  Oscar  Hammerstein, 
and  in  the  course  of  her  conversation  mentioned  Aunt  Annie.  Mr.  Ham- 
merstein did  not  quite  catch  the  name,  but  Mrs.  Hammerstein,  seated 
opposite,  heard  it  and  said,  "She  is  speaking  of  Aunt  Annie."  The  voice 
then  went  over  to  Mrs.  Hammerstein  and  said,  "I  was  talking  of 
'Mousie' " — the  nickname  by  which  Aunt  Annie  was  known  in  the  family. 

case  no.  90 
The  Chinese  Case1 

When  Dr.  Neville  Whymant,  lecturer  for  many  years  in  Chinese  at 
Oxford,  was  in  New  York,  where  he  had  been  controlling  the  Oriental 
department  of  a  new  encyclopaedia,  he  was  invited  by  Judge  W.  M.  Can- 
non to  attend  a  sitting  with  Valiantine.  Dr.  Whymant  had  been  informed 
that  voices  had  spoken  in  foreign  tongues,  European  and  Oriental,  at 
previous  sittings;  and  as  Dr.  Whymant  spoke  thirty  dialects  and  lan- 
guages his  presence  was  desired  to  pass  judgment  on  those  voices,  which 
none  of  the  sitters  could  interpret. 

He  was  amused  at  the  invitation  and  thought  that  after  an  evening 
of  enjoyable  relaxation  listening  in  the  dark  to  various  voices  someone 
would  reveal  the  technique  of  an  ingenious  hoax.  Dr.  Whymant,  when 
he  met  Valiantine,  formed  the  opinion  that  he  was  a  simple,  rather  stupid 
and  unlettered  man,  utterly  incapable  of  any  form  of  acting. 

The  sitting  began  with  the  Lord's  Prayer,  followed  by  some  singing, 
and  the  first  voices  that  came  spoke  on  such  private  matters  to  the  other 
sitters  that  the  lecturer  "felt  like  an  eavesdropper,  but  luckily  the  dark- 
ness covered  all  blushes."  Next  a  voice  spoke  in  Italian  which  Dr. 
Whymant  translated  for  the  benefit  of  one  of  the  sitters.  Then  suddenly — 
"a  weird,  crackling,  broken  little  sound  which  at  once  carried  my  mind 

1  Whymant,  Dr.  Neville,  Psychic  Adventures  in  New  York  (London:  Motley  and 
Mitchell  Kennerley). 


straight  back  to  China.  It  was  the  sound  of  a  flute,  rather  poorly  played, 
such  as  can  be  heard  in  the  streets  of  the  Celestial  Land  but  nowhere 
else."  The  next  sound  seemed  to  be  a  hollow  repetition  of  a  Chinese  name, 
K'ung-fu-T'zo,  "The  Philosopher-Master-K'ung,"  the  name  by  which 
Confucius  was  canonized.  "I  was  not  sure  I  had  heard  aright  and  I 
asked  in  Chinese  for  another  opportunity  of  hearing  what  had  been  said 
before.  This  time  without  any  hesitation  at  all  came  the  name,  K'ung-fu- 
T'zo.  Now,  I  thought,  this  was  my  opportunity.  Chinese  I  had  long 
regarded  as  my  own  special  research  area,  and  he  would  be  a  wise  man, 
medium  or  other,  who  would  attempt  to  trick  me  on  such  soil.  It  was 
very  difficult  to  discover  what  was  said  next,  and  I  had  to  keep  calling 
for  a  repetition.  Then  it  burst  upon  me  that  I  was  listening  to  Chinese 
of  a  dialect  not  now  spoken  in  any  part  of  China.  As  the  voice  went  on 
I  realized  that  the  style  of  Chinese  used  was  identical  with  that  of  a 
Chinese  classic  edited  by  Confucius  2,500  years  ago.  Only  among  scholars 
in  archaic  Chinese  could  one  now  hear  that  accent  and  style,  and  then 
only  when  they  intoned  some  passage  from  the  ancient  books.  In  other 
words,  the  Chinese  to  which  we  were  now  listening  was  as  dead  col- 
loquially as  Sanskrit  or  Latin.  I  thought  suddenly  of  a  supreme  test. 
There  are  several  poems  in  the  Shih  King  (Classic  of  Poetry)  which 
have  baffled  the  commentators  ever  since  Confucius  himself  edited  the 
work  and  left  it  to  posterity  as  a  model  anthology  of  early  Chinese  verse. 
Western  scholars  have  attempted  in  vain  to  wrest  their  meaning,  and 
Chinese  classical  scholars  versed  in  the  lore  and  literature  of  the  ancient 
empire  have  long  ago  given  up  trying  to  understand  them.  I  have  never 
read  any  of  these  poems  myself,  but  I  knew  the  first  lines  of  some  of 
them  through  seeing  them  so  often  while  looking  through  the  book  for 
others.  At  this  moment  it  occurred  to  me  that  if  I  could  remember  the 
first  line  of  them  I  might  now  get  a  chance  to  astonish  the  communicator 
who  called  himself  'Confucius.'  I  asked  if  the  'Master'  would  explain  to 
me  the  meaning  of  one  of  those  long,  obscure  odes.  Without  exerting 
conscious  choice  I  said,  'Ts'ai  Ts'ai  chuan  erh'  which  is  the  first  line  of 
the  third  ode  of  the  first  book  (Chow  nan)  of  the  Classic  of  Poetry.  I  cer- 
tainly could  not  have  repeated  another  line  of  this  poem,  for  I  did  not 
know  any  of  the  remaining  fifteen  lines;  but  there  was  no  need  or  even 
opportunity,  for  the  voice  took  up  the  poem  and  recited  to  the  end.  I  had 


a  pad  of  paper  and  a  pencil  and  I  made  notes  of  what  the  voice  said  and 
jotted  down  keys  to  the  intonation  used. 

"In  declaiming  the  ode  the  voice  had  put  a  construction  on  the  verses 
and  made  the  whole  thing  hang  together  as  a  normal  poem.  Altogether 
there  were  about  sixteen  sittings  at  which  I  assisted  in  exactly  the  same 
fashion  as  that  detailed  in  the  first  sitting.  The  self-styled  Confucius  was 
very  regular  in  its  incidence.  Fourteen  foreign  languages  were  used  in  the 
course  of  the  sittings  I  attended.  They  included  Chinese,  Hindu,  Persian, 
Basque,  Sanskrit,  Arabic,  Portuguese,  Italian,  Yiddish  (spoken  with 
great  fluency  when  a  Yiddish  and  Hebrew  speaking  Jew  was  a  member 
of  the  circle),  German,  and  modern  Greek." 

Dr.  Whymant  stressed  several  points  on  "Confucius,"  whom,  of  course, 
he  did  not  accept  at  face  value,  but  he  said  that  only  the  Chinese  could 
have  pronounced  the  name  correctly,  as  this  voice  had  done,  and  the 
syllables  "T'zu"  or  "T'ze"  were  very  difficult  to  say;  they  were  not 
pronounced  "T'zoo"  or  "T'zee"  but  "Ts,"  which  latter  sound  cannot  be 
represented  by  English  letters.  As  diction  and  Chinese  intonation  were 
correctly  uttered,  Dr.  Whymant  did  not  doubt  that  the  owner  of  the 
voice  was  a  Chinese  scholar — wherever  he  operated  from.  One  question 
asked,  "What  was  your  popular  name  when  fourteen  years  of  age?" 
brought  out  the  correct  reply  with  the  true  intonation,  and  this  informa- 
tion is  known  only  to  experts  in  the  Chinese  language. 

On  one  occasion  Dr.  Whymant  was  thanked  for  the  "work  which  thou 
hast  done  for  the  Mongolians";  this,  he  thought,  was  a  reference  to  a 
small  Mongolian  grammar  he  had  written  and  published  anonymously. 
One  sitting  was  missed  on  account  of  illness  and  when  Dr.  Whymant 
returned  "Confucius"  greeted  him  with  the  remark,  "The  weed  of 
sickness  was  growing  beside  thy  door,"  a  phrase  no  longer  current  in 
China  but  used  in  ancient  literature. 

"Confucius"  spoke  in  a  dialect  not  used  in  China  today,  but  Dr. 
Whymant  could  not  definitely  say  that  it  was  the  language  of  the 
philosopher  2,500  years  ago,  and  there  is  not  one  person  alive  who  knows 
how  Chinese  was  spoken  then.  All  that  is  known  is  the  phonetic  value 
of  some  3,000  words  spoken  1,000  years  after  the  death  of  Confucius. 
After  twenty-five  years  of  research  on  this  question  there  are  only  about 
a  dozen  sounds  known  of  the  time  of  Confucius,  and  these  archaic  sounds 
were  uttered  by  the  voice. 


To  check  up  on  the  correct  poetic  diction  furnished  by  the  communi- 
cating entity,  Dr.  Whymant  went  the  next  day  to  the  Civic  Library  to 
make  the  necessary  investigations,  concerning  which  he  wrote:  "By  com- 
paring my  notes  of  the  previous  evening  with  the  original  text  I  discovered 
that  an  error  had  been  made — either  I  had  misheard  and  had  written 
down  one  wrong  character  or  the  voice  had  erred  in  its  recital  of  the 
poem.  Before  I  had  time  to  comment  on  this  at  the  second  sitting  the 
voice  said,  'Speaking  the  other  day,  this  clumsy,  witless  one  stepped  into 
error.  Too  frequently,  alas!  has  he  done  this;  and  the  explanation  he  gave 
was  a  faulty  one.  Listen  now  to  the  reading  of  the  passage  about  which 
the  illustrious  scholar  inquired.'  Then  followed  the  true  reading  with 
the  faulty  character  corrected!  This  certainly  impressed  me  as  out  of  the 

case  no.  91 
The  Bessy  Manning  Case1 

"I  am  Bessy  Manning  and  I  want  you  to  send  a  message  to  my  mother." 
This  request  was  made  to  Maurice  Barbanell  at  a  direct-voice  sitting  held 
on  February  10,  1933,  at  which  Estelle  Roberts  was  the  medium.  Then  the 
voice  added  the  mother's  address:  "14  Canterbury  Street,  Blackburn." 

"My  name  is  Bessy  Manning,"  she  repeated,  "and  I  died  with  tubercu- 
losis last  Easter.  I  have  brought  my  brother  who  was  killed  by  a  motor. 
.  .  .  Tell  Mother  I  still  have  my  long  plaits.  I  am  twenty-two  and  I  have 
blue  eyes.  Tell  her  to  come,  could  you  bring  her  here?  .  .  .  She  is  not 
rich,  she  is  poor." 

Next  day,  without  the  slightest  hesitation  that  the  name  and  address 
might  be  wrong;  Maurice  Barbanell  sent  off  a  telegram  of  invitation  to 
Bessy's  mother  in  Blackburn — and  it  found  her! 

On  February  20,  Mr.  Barbanell  met  Mrs.  Manning  at  the  station  and 
escorted  her  to  Teddington,  London,  where  the  seance  was  held.  A  few 
days  after  the  seance  she  wrote  thanking  Mr.  Barbanell,  Mr.  Hannen 
Swaffer,  and  Mrs.  Estelle  Roberts  for  their  kindness  in  making  it  possible 
for  her  to  visit  London.  "I  heard  my  own  daughter  speaking,  in  the 
same  old  loving  way  and  the  self-same  peculiarities  of  speech.  She  spoke 
of  incidents  that  I  know  for  a  positive  fact  no  other  person  could  know. 
I  am  her  mother  and  am  the  best  judge." 

1  Barbanell,  Maurice,  The  Trumpet  Shall  Sound  (London:  Wm.  Rider  and  Co.),  129. 


"No  theories  of  telepathy,"  writes  Mr.  Barbanell,  "or  subconscious  mind 
can  apply  to  the  evidence.  No  suggestion  of  fraud  or  collusion  can  be 
entertained.  Mrs.  Manning  had  never  seen  Estelle  Roberts  in  her  life,  yet 
a  full  name  and  address  were  transmitted  and  a  complete  message  given, 
every  detail  of  which  was  accurate." 

case  no.  92 
The  Hungarian   Case1 

This  was  Dr.  Fodor's  first  experience  of  direct-voice  phenomena  with 
Arthur  Ford,  to  whom  he  was  introduced  by  William  Cartheuser.  Dr. 
Fodor  had  just  arrived  in  New  York  a  day  or  so  previously,  his  ante- 
cedents were  unknown,  and  he  went  merely  to  pass  the  night;  he  might 
easily  have  gone  to  a  picture  show  or  a  theatre  instead. 

"We  sat  in  a  circle,  men  and  women  alternating.  A  shaded  red  lamp 
cast  a  feeble  glow  on  the  middle  of  the  floor.  Alongside  were  two  tele- 
scopic trumpets.  We  sang  and  conversed  to  provide  vibrations. 

"In  the  red  glimmer  I  saw  one  of  the  trumpets  sway.  Then  it  shot 
up  and  vanished  in  the  upper  darkness.  Occasionally,  it  was  revealed  in 
swift  motion  by  the  red  light. 

"While  the  medium  was  heard  speaking  in  his  place,  it  travelled  around 
and  gently  touched  various  sitters. 

"I  heard  whistling  from  the  trumpet.  Then  a  sonorous,  pleasant,  and 
friendly  voice  says:  'Good  evening,  my  friends.' 

"The  seance  is  in  full  swing.  'Dead'  sweethearts,  fathers,  and  mothers 
come  to  talk. 

"I  feel  breathless,  keyed  up.  The  trumpet  is  not  very  clear.  It  is  only 
Fletcher  (Ford's  guide)  whom  one  can  easily  follow.  He  often  steps  in 
and  explains.  He  cracks  jokes.  His  laugh  is  delightful. 

"The  strain  is  easing.  It  is  a  social  evening.  People  are  quite  jolly. 
|  risk  a  request. 

"Could  Fletcher  bring  someone  speaking  Hungarian?  My  wife  is  more 
practical.  She  wants  her  brother,  a  brilliant  artist  who  died  very  young. 
Fletcher,  full  of  sympathy,  says :  'I  will  try.  Have  a  little  patience.' 

"The  trumpet  clatters  to  the  floor.  Silence.  Now  it  shoots  up.  I  hear  a 

1  By  courtesy  of  Dr.  Nandor  Fodor,  New  York — from  The  Psychic  News,  November 
7,  1936.  London. 



voice.  Cold  shivers  run  down  my  back.  It  sounds  like  a  distant  cry. 
It  is  repeated.  Someone  is  calling  my  name. 

"'Who  .  .  .  who  is  it?  Whom  do  you  want?'  I  ask  hoarsely  in  my 
native  tongue. 

"The  call  is  more  explicit:  'Fodor.  .  .  .  Journalist!' 

"The  last  word  shakes  me  to  the  core.  It  is  pronounced  in  German.  It  is 
the  only  German  word  my  father  ever  used.  He  used  it  only  when  he 
spoke  about  me! 

"I  stammered  an  answer.  Craning  my  neck  in  the  dark  in  the  direction 
of  the  trumpet,  I  listened  with  strained  nerves  to  tatters  of  a  terrific 
struggle  for  expression. 

"  'Edesapa  .  .  .  edesapa.  .  .  .'  (Dear  father  .  .  .  dear  father.) 

"The  voice  vibrates  with  emotion.  It  makes  me  hot  and  burning.  I 
sound  unnatural  to  myself:  'Apdm?  Apdtn?'  (Father,  dear?) 

"  'Iges.  Edes  fiam.  .  .  .'  (Yes,  dear  son.  .  .  .) 

"I  cannot  describe  the  minutes  that  followed.  From  beyond  the  Great 
Divide  somebody  who  says  he  is  my  father  is  making  desperate  efforts 
to  master  some  weird  instrument  of  speech,  and  trembles  with  anxiety 
to  prove  his  presence  by  speaking  in  his  native  tongue : 

'"Budapest  .  .  .  nem  ertesz?  Ene\ele\.  .  .  .  Magyar  Kislany  vagyo\! 
(Budapest  .  .  .  don't  you  understand?  ...  I  will  sing.  .  .  .) 

"I  don't  know  the  song.  Two  lines  rhyming.  Have  I  heard  them  before? 

"I  recognize  the  pet  name  of  my  eldest  brother,  to  whom  my  father 
was  very  attached. 

"The  voice  comes  from  near  the  ceiling.  But  it  comes  nearer  at  my 
request.  It  is  still  struggling  for  words. 

"Fletcher  takes  pity  and  explains:  'Your  father  wishes  to  tell  you  that 
he  died  on  January  16.  It  is  for  the  first  time  he  tries  to  speak.  That  makes 
it  very  difficult  for  him.' 

"The  interruption  brings  relief.  The  voice  becomes  much  clearer.  It 
gives  me  a  message  about  my  mother  and  sister. 

"Then:  'Isten  dldjon  meg,  edes  fiam.'  (God  bless  you,  my  son.) 

"Sounds  of  kisses.  .  .  .  Silence.  .  .  . 

"The  trumpet  provides  a  fresh  thrill.  It  speaks  again  in  Hungarian: 
'Esti  Ujsdg.'  (Evening  News.) 

"My  wife  screams. 


"Esti  Ujsdg  was  the  newspaper  on  the  staff  of  which  her  brother  was 
employed  before  he  died. 

"  'Sanyi\a?' 


"I  feel  her  trembling  with  excitement. 

"The  voice  is  youthful  and  explosive.  It  speaks  as  my  wife's  brother 
would.  'He'  knows  all  about  the  family  and  is  always  about.  'He'  has  but 
one  regret:  'Szegeny  Vilmis  bacsil'  (Poor  Uncle  Vilmos.) 

"  'Why,  what  is  wrong  with  Uncle  Vilmos  ? ' 

"  'He  is  not  well.  He  will  go  blind.' 

"We  receive  the  prophecy  in  dead  silence. 

"My  experience  was  more  unusual  than  that  of  the  majority.  I  was 
a  foreigner  on  the  staff  of  a  foreign  daily  in  New  York.  I  had  few 
friends.  They  were  all  new  ones.  None  of  them  knew  about  my  old 
country  relations.  Yet  the  statements  about  my  family  were  correct. 

"The  voice  spoke  in  Hungarian.  Plain  as  the  words  were,  my  native 
tongue  offers  a  variety  of  expression  for  the  relationship  between  father 
and  son. 

"The  voice  made  no  mistake.  My  father  was  in  the  habit  of  using  the 
very  words. 

"He  had  forgotten  his  German  years  before.  It  was  no  more  spoken  at 
home.  The  only  word  retained  was  'journalist.'  He  was  very  proud  of  his 
boy,  the  journalist.  The  Hungarian  equivalent  is  ujsdgiro.  He  never  used 
it.  He  preferred  the  German  term. 

"The  reference  to  the  date  of  his  death  was  not  correct.  He  did  not  die 
on  January  16.  But  he  was  buried  on  that  day. 

"Uncle  Vilmos,  as  predicted,  went  blind — and  committed  suicide!  I 
knew  him  as  Uncle  Villy.  Vilmos  (the  proper  name)  left  me  uneasy. 
I  had  the  matter  out  with  my  mother-in-law  two  years  later  when  I 
revisited  Budapest.  She  opened  her  eyes  wide. 

"'Why,  didn't  you  know?  My  boy  alone  in  the  family  called  him 
Uncle  Vilmos.  He  was  Uncle  Villy  to  everybody  else!' " 

Chapter  11 

The  character  of  the  ordinary  materializing  seance  is  probably  known 
well  enough  to  render  any  long  description  unnecessary. 

The  medium  is  usually  inside  a  cabinet,  sometimes  tied  or  fastened, 
while  the  investigators  sit  'round  in  the  form  of  a  half-circle  in  a  room, 
sometimes  completely  dark  or  lighted  by  a  red  light.  After  a  certain 
time,  full  life-size  figures  issue  from  the  cabinet  and  walk  about  the 

It  is  believed  that  these  forms  are  built  up  in  some  way  with  a  vital 
substance,  probably  of  biological  origin — known  as  ectoplasm — drawn 
from  the  bodies  of  the  sitters  and  the  medium.  In  the  course  of  time, 
when  the  power  wanes,  the  forms  dematerialize  before  the  eyes  of  the 

The  foregoing,  of  course,  is  what  the  sitters  see  when  they  attend 
materializing  seances;  the  interpretation  of  such  is  an  entirely  different 
matter,  on  which  authorities  differ,  and  if  any  branch  of  psychical  phe- 
nomena should  be  left  in  the  hands  of  the  experts,  it  should  be  the  study 
of  materialization.  It  is  far  too  complicated  for  the  amateur  investigator. 

case  no.  93 
The  Katie  King  Case1 
Today,  the  study  and  investigation  of  psychical  research  is  considered 
proper  and  respectable  and  in  it  even  the  clergy  and  aristocracy  may  safely 
indulge  to  their  heart's  content  without  losing  caste  in  their  own  par- 
ticular strata  of  society,  but  there  was  a  time — about  seventy  years  ago — 
when  only  the  bravest  of  the  brave  could  allow  it  to  be  known  that  such 
was  occupying  their  attention.  Many  scientists  have  been,  and  are, 
psychical  researchers,  but  none  more  courageous  than  Sir  William 
Crookes,  who  first  blazed  the  trail  in  the  bigoted  Victorian  era.  He 

1  Crookes,  Sir  William,  Researches  into  the  Phenomena  of  Spiritualism  (London: 
James  Burns). 



suffered  not  only  at  the  hands  of  the  general  public,  the  press,  and  the 
pulpit — that  was  only  to  be  expected — but  his  fellow  scientists  poured 
scorn  and  contempt  upon  his  head.  Nevertheless,  he  did  not  retreat  from 
the  position  he  had  taken,  but  stood  his  ground  till  the  day  of  his  death. 
D.  D.  Home  was  one  of  the  first  mediums  he  investigated.  We  are  not 
concerned  with  him  in  this  chapter,  but  with  a  lady — Miss  Florence  Cook, 
a  materializing  medium. 

Miss  Cook  had  been  attacked  by  opponents  and  Crookes  defended 
her  by  publishing  his  experiences  with  her  in  a  series  of  letters  in  the 
psychic  press  of  that  day. 

The  first  letter,  written  on  February  3,  1874,  describes  a  single  sitting: 

"The  seance  was  held  at  the  house  of  Mr.  Luxmore,  and  the  'cabinet' 
was  a  black  drawing-room,  separated  from  the  front  room  in  which  the 
company  sat  by  a  curtain. 

"The  usual  formality  of  searching  the  room  and  examining  the  fasten- 
ings having  been  gone  through,  Miss  Cook  entered  the  cabinet.  After  a 
little  time  the  form  of  Katie  appeared  at  the  side  of  the  curtain,  but  soon 
retreated,  saying  her  medium  was  not  well  and  could  not  be  put  into 
a  sufficiently  deep  sleep  to  make  it  safe  for  her  to  be  left. 

"I  was  sitting  within  a  few  feet  of  the  curtain  close  behind  which  Miss 
Cook  was  sitting  and  I  could  frequently  hear  her  sob  and  moan  as  if  in 
pain.  This  uneasiness  continued  at  intervals  nearly  the  whole  duration 
of  the  seance,  and  once,  when  the  form  of  Katie  (King,  the  materialized 
control)  was  standing  before  me  in  the  room  I  distinctly  heard  a  sobbing, 
moaning  sound,  identical  with  that  which  Miss  Cook  had  been  making 
at  intervals  the  whole  time  of  the  seance,  come  from  behind  the  curtain 
where  the  young  lady  was  supposed  to  be  sitting.  I  admit  that  the  figure 
was  startlingly  lifelike  and  real,  and  as  far  as  I  could  see  in  the  some- 
what dim  light,  the  features  resembled  those  of  Miss  Cook;  but  still  the 
positive  evidence  of  one  of  my  own  senses  that  the  moan  came  from 
Miss  Cook  in  the  cabinet,  while  the  figure  was  outside,  is  too  strong  to  be 
upset  by  a  mere  inference  to  the  contrary,  however  well  supported." 

Crookes  was  not  quite  convinced  by  this  single  sitting  and  he  asked 
his  readers  to  suspend  judgment  until  he  had  completed  a  series  of 


seances,  when  they  would  hear  from  him  again  one  way  or  another, 
whether  she  was  fraudulent  or  genuine. 
On  March  30,  he  published  his  next  letter: 

"I  will,  for  the  present,  pass  over  most  of  the  tests  which  Katie  has 
given  me  on  the  many  occasions  when  Miss  Cook  has  favored  me  with 
seances  at  this  house,  and  will  describe  only  one  or  two  which  I  have 
recently  had.  I  have  for  some  time  past  been  experimenting  with  a  phos- 
phorus lamp,  consisting  of  a  6-ounce,  or  8-ounce  bottle  containing  a  little 
phosphorized  oil  and  tighdy  corked.  I  have  had  reason  to  hope  that  by 
the  light  of  this  lamp  some  of  the  mysterious  phenomena  of  the  cabinet 
might  be  rendered  visible,  and  Katie  has  also  expressed  herself  hopefully 
as  to  the  same  result.  On  March  12,  during  a  seance  here,  after  Katie  had 
been  walking  among  us  and  talking  for  some  time,  she  retreated  behind  the 
curtain  which  separated  my  laboratory,  where  the  company  was  sitting, 
from  my  library, .  which  did  temporary  duty  as  a  cabinet.  In  a  minute 
she  came  to  the  curtain  and  called  me  to  her,  saying,  'Come  into  the  room 
and  lift  my  medium's  head  up;  she  has  slipped  down.'  Katie  was  then 
standing  before  me  clothed  in  her  usual  white  robes  and  turban  head- 
dress." I  immediately  walked  into  the  library  to  Miss  Cook,  Katie  step- 
ping aside  to  allow  me  to  pass.  I  found  Miss  Cook  had  slipped  partially 
off  the  sofa,  and  her  head  was  hanging  in  a  very  awkward  position. 
I  lifted  her  on  to  the  sofa,  and  in  doing  so  had  satisfactory  evidence,  in 
spite  of  the  darkness,  that  Miss  Cook  was  not  attired  in  the  'Katie'  cos- 
tume, but  had  on  her  ordinary  black  velvet  dress  and  was  in  a  very  deep 
trance.  Not  more  than  three  seconds  elapsed  between  my  seeing  the 
white-robed  Katie  standing  before  me  and  my  raising  Miss  Cook  on  to  the 
sofa  from  the  position  into  which  she  had  fallen. 

"On  returning  to  my  post  of  observation  by  the  curtain,  Katie  again 
appeared,  and  said  she  thought  she  should  be  able  to  show  herself  and 
her  medium  to  me  at  the  same  time.  The  gas  was  then  turned  out,  and 
she  asked  for  my  phosphorus  lamp.  After  exhibiting  herself  by  it  for 
some  seconds,  she  handed  it  back  to  me  saying,  'Now,  come  in  and  see 
my  medium.'  I  closely  followed  her  into  the  library,  and  by  the  light  of 
my  lamp  saw  Miss  Cook  lying  on  the  sofa  just  as  I  had  left  her.  I  looked 


'round  for  Katie  but  she  had  disappeared.  I  called  her  but  there  was  no 

"On  resuming  my  place,  Katie  soon  reappeared  and  told  me  that  she 
had  been  standing  close  to  Miss  Cook  all  the  time.  She  then  asked  if  she 
might  try  an  experiment  herself,  and  taking  the  phosphorus  lamp  from 
me  she  passed  behind  the  curtain,  asking  me  not  to  look  in  for  the  present. 
My  eldest  son,  a  lad  of  fourteen,  who  was  sitting  opposite  me  in  such  a 
position  that  he  could  see  behind  the  curtain,  tells  me  he  distinctly  saw  the 
phosphorus  lamp  apparently  floating  in  space  over  Miss  Cook,  illuminat- 
ing her  as  she  lay  motionless  on  the  sofa,  but  he  could  not  see  anyone 
holding  the  lamp. 

"I  pass  on  to  a  seance  held  last  night  at  Hackney.  Katie  never  appeared 
to  greater  perfection,  and  for  nearly  two  hours  she  walked  about  the 
room,  conversing  familiarly  with  those  present.  On  several  occasions 
she  took  my  arm  when  walking,  and  the  impression  conveyed  to  my  mind 
that  it  was  a  living  woman  by  my  side  instead  of  a  visitor  from  the  other 
world,  was  so  strong  that  the  temptation  to  repeat  a  certain  celebrated 
experiment  became  almost  irresistible.  Feeling,  however,  that  if  I  had  not 
a  spirit,  I  had  at  all  events  a  lady  close  to  me,  I  asked  her  permission  to 
clasp  her  in  my  arms,  so  as  to  be  able  to  verify  the  interesting  observations 
which  a  bold  experimentalist  has  recently  somewhat  verbosely  recorded. 
Permission  was  graciously  granted,  and  I  accordingly  did — well,  as  any 
gentleman  would  do  in  the  circumstances.  .  .  . 

"Katie  now  said  she  thought  she  should  be  able  this  time  to  show 
herself  and  Miss  Cook  together.  I  was  to  turn  the  gas  out,  and  then  come 
with  my  phosphorus  lamp  into  the  room  now  used  as  a  cabinet.  This  I 
did,  having  previously  asked  a  friend  who  was  skillful  at  shorthand  to 
take  down  any  statement  I  might  make  when  in  the  cabinet,  knowing 
the  importance  attaching  to  first  impressions,  and  not  wishing  to  leave 
more  to  memory  than  necessary.  His  notes  are  now  before  me. 

"I  went  cautiously  into  the  room,  it  being  dark,  and  felt  about  for  Miss 
Cook.  I  found  her  crouching  on  the  floor.  Kneeling  down,  I  let  air 
enter  the  lamp,  and  by  its  light  I  saw  the  young  lady  dressed  in  black 
velvet,  as  she  had  been  in  the  early  part  of  the  evening,  and  to  all 
appearances  perfectly  senseless;  she  did  not  move  when  I  took  her  hand 
and  held  the  light  quite  close  to  her  face,  but  continued  quietly  breathing: 


Raising  the  lamp,  I  looked  around  and  saw  Katie  standing  close  behind 
Miss  Cook.  She  was  robed  in  flowing  white  drapery  as  we  had  seen  her 
previously  during  the  seance.  Holding  one  of  Miss  Cook's  hands  in  mine, 
and  still  kneeling,  I  passed  the  lamp  up  and  down  so  as  to  illuminate 
Katie's  whole  figure,  and  satisfy  myself  thoroughly  that  I  was  really 
looking  at  the  veritable  Katie  whom  I  had  clasped  in  my  arms  a  few 
minutes  before,  and  not  at  the  phantasm  of  a  disordered  brain.  She 
did  not  speak,  but  moved  her  head  and  smiled  in  recognition.  Three 
separate  times  did  I  carefully  examine  Miss  Cook  crouching  before  me, 
to  be  sure  that  the  hand  I  held  was  that  of  a  living  woman,  and  three 
separate  times  did  I  turn  the  lamp  to  Katie  and  examine  her  with  stead- 
fast scrutiny  until  I  had  no  doubt  whatever  of  her  objective  reality.  At 
last  Miss  Cook  moved  slightly,  and  Katie  instantly  moved  me  to  go 
away.  I  went  to  another  part  of  the  cabinet  and  then  ceased  to  see  Katie, 
but  did  not  in  fact  leave  the  room  till  Miss  Cook  woke  up,  and  two  of 
the  visitors  came  in  with  a  light. 

"Before  concluding  this  article  I  wish  to  give  some  of  the  points  of 
difference  I  have  observed  between  Miss  Cook  and  Katie.  Katie's  height 
varies;  in  my  house  I  have  seen  her  six  inches  taller  than  Miss  Cook.  Last 
night,  with  bare  feet  and  not  'tip-toeing,'  she  was  four  and  a  half  inches 
taller  than  Miss  Cook.  Katie's  neck  was  bare  last  night;  the  skin  was  per- 
fectly smooth  both  to  touch  and  sight,  whilst  on  Miss  Cook's  neck  is  a 
large  blister,  which,  under  similar  circumstances,  is  distinctly  visible  and 
rough  to  the  touch.  Katie's  ears  are  unpierced,  whilst  Miss  Cook  habitu- 
ally wears  earrings.  Katie's  complexion  is  very  fair,  while  that  of  Miss 
Cook  is  very  dark.  Katie's  fingers  are  much  longer  than  Miss  Cook's, 
and  her  face  is  also  larger.  In  manners  and  ways  of  expression  there  are 
also  many  decided  differences." 

Later,  Crookes  described  his  final  sitting  when  Katie  King  materialized 
for  the  last  time: 

"During  the  week  before  Katie  took  her  departure  she  gave  seances  at 
my  house  almost  nightly,  to  enable  me  to  photograph  her  by  artificial 
light.  Five  complete  sets  of  photographic  apparatus  were  accordingly  fitted 
up  for  the  purpose,  consisting  of  five  cameras,  one  of  the  whole-plate  size, 
one  half-plate,  one  quarter-plate,  and  two  binocular  stereoscopic  cameras, 


which  were  all  brought  to  bear  upon  Katie  at  the  same  time  on  each 
occasion  on  which  she  stood  for  her  portrait.  Five  sensitizing  and  fixed 
baths  were  used,  and  plenty  of  plates  were  cleaned  ready  for  use  in  ad- 
vance, so  that  there  might  be  no  hitch  or  delay  during  the  photographic 
operations,  which  were  performed  by  myself,  aided  by  one  assistant. 
.  .  .  Each  evening  there  were  three  or  four  exposures  of  plates  in  the 
five  cameras,  giving  at  least  fifteen  separate  pictures  at  each  seance;  some 
of  these  were  spoilt  in  the  developing,  and  some  in  regulating  the  amount 
of  light.  Altogether  I  had  forty-four  negatives,  some  inferior,  some 
indifferent,  and  some  excellent. 

"Katie  instructed  all  the  sitters  but  myself  to  keep  their  seats  and  to 
keep  conditions,  but  for  some  time  past  she  has  given  me  permission  to 
do  what  I  liked — to  touch  her,  and  to  enter  and  leave  the  cabinet  almost 
whenever  I  pleased.  I  have  frequently  followed  her  into  the  cabinet,  and 
have  sometimes  seen  her  and  her  medium  together,  but  most  generally 
I  have  found  nobody  but  the  entranced  medium  lying  on  the  floor,  Katie 
and  her  white  robes  having  instantaneously  disappeared. 

"During  the  last  six  months  Miss  Cook  has  been  a  frequent  visitor 
at  my  house,  remaining  sometimes  a  week  at  a  time.  She  brings  nothing 
with  her  but  a  little  handbag,  not  locked ;  during  the  day  she  is  constantly 
in  the  presence  of  Mrs.  Crookes,  myself,  or  some  other  member  of  the 
family;  and,  not  sleeping  by  herself,  there  is  absolutely  no  opportunity  for 
any  preparation  even  of  a  less  elaborate  character  than  would  be  required 
for  enacting  Katie  King.  I  prepare  and  arrange  my  library  as  the  dark 
cabinet,  and  usually,  after  Miss  Cook  has  been  dining  and  conversing 
with  us,  and  scarcely  out  of  our  sight  for  a  minute,  she  walks  directly  into 
the  cabinet,  and  I,  at  her  request,  lock  its  second  door,  and  keep  possession 
of  the  key  all  through  the  seance.  The  gas  is  then  turned  out,  and  Miss 
Cook  is  left  in  darkness. 

"On  entering  the  cabinet  Miss  Cook  lies  down  upon  the  floor,  with 
her  head  on  a  pillow,  and  is  soon  entranced.  During  the  photographic 
seance  Katie  muffled  the  medium's  head  up  in  a  shawl  to  prevent  the 
light  falling  upon  her  face.  I  frequently  drew  the  curtain  on  one  side  when 
Katie  was  standing  near,  and  it  was  a  common  thing  for  the  seven  or 
eight  of  us  in  the  laboratory  to  see  Miss  Cook  and  Katie  at  the  same  time, 
under  the  full  blaze  of  the  electric  light.  We  did  not  on  these  occasions 


actually  see  the  face  of  the  medium,  because  of  the  shawl,  but  we  saw 
her  hands  and  feet;  we  saw  her  move  uneasily  under  the  influence  of  the 
intense  light,  and  we  heard  her  moan  occasionally.  I  have  one  photograph 
of  the  two  together,  but  Katie  is  seated  in  front  of  Miss  Cook's  head. 

"One  of  the  most  interesting  of  the  pictures  is  one  in  which  I  am 
standing  at  the  side  of  Katie;  she  has  her  bare  feet  upon  a  particular 
part  of  the  floor.  Afterwards,  I  dressed  Miss  Cook  like  Katie,  placed  her 
and  myself  in  exactly  the  same  position,  and  we  were  photographed  by 
the  same  cameras,  placed  exactly  as  in  the  other  experiment,  and  illu- 
minated by  the  same  light.  When  these  two  pictures  are  placed  over  each 
other,  the  two  photographs  of  myself  coincide  exactly  as  regards  stature, 
etc.,  but  Katie  is  half  a  head  taller  than  Miss  Cook,  and  looks  like  a  big 
woman  in  comparison  with  her.  In  the  breadth  of  her  face,  in  many  of  the 
pictures,  she  differs  essentially  in  size  from  her  medium,  and  the  photo- 
graphs show  several  other  points  of  difference. 

"Having  seen  so  much  of  Katie  lately,  when  she  has  been  illuminated 
by  the  electric  light,  I  am  enabled  to  add  to  the  points  of  difference  be- 
tween her  and  her  medium  which  I  mentioned  in  a  former  article.  I 
have  the  most  absolute  certainty  that  Miss  Cook  and  Katie  are  two 
separate  individuals  so  far  as  their  bodies  are  concerned.  Several  little 
marks  on  Miss  Cook's  face  are  absent  on  Katie's.  Miss  Cook's  hair  is  so 
dark  a  brown  as  almost  to  appear  black;  a  lock  of  Katie's  which  is  now 
before  me,  and  which  she  allowed  me  to  cut  from  her  luxuriant  tresses, 
having  first  traced  it  up  to  the  scalp  and  satisfied  myself  that  it  actually 
grew  there,  is  a  rich  golden  auburn. 

"One  evening  I  timed  Katie's  pulse.  It  beat  steadily  at  seventy-five, 
while  Miss  Cook's  pulse  a  litde  after  was  going  at  its  usual  rate  of  ninety. 
On  applying  my  ear  to  Katie's  chest  I  could  hear  a  heart  beating  rhyth- 
mically inside,  and  pulsating  even  more  steadily  than  did  Miss  Cook's 
heart  when  she  allowed  me  to  try  a  similar  experiment  after  the  seance. 
Tested  in  the  same  way  Katie's  lungs  were  found  to  be  sounder  than  her 
medium's,  for  at  the  time  I  tried  my  experiment  Miss  Cook  was  under 
medical  treatment  for  a  severe  cough." 

Two  of  the  tests  that  Crookes  made  with  Miss  Cook  may  be  mentioned. 
An  electrical  test  was  devised  by  Mr.  Cromwell  Varley.  The  medium  was 


placed  in  an  electric  circuit  connected  with  a  resistance  coil  and  a  gal- 
vanometer. The  movements  of  the  galvanometer,  on  a  large  graduated 
scale,  were  shown  in  the  outer  room  to  the  sitters.  If  the  medium  had 
removed  the  wires  the  galvanometer  would  have  shown  violent  fluctua- 
tions, yet  nothing  suspicious  occurred,  for  Katie  appeared,  waved  her 
arms,  shook  hands  with  her  friends  and  wrote  in  their  presence.  As  an 
additional  test  Crookes  asked  Katie  to  plunge  her  hands  into  a  chemical 
solution.  No  deflection  of  the  galvanometer  was  seen.  This  would  have 
been  infallibly  the  case  if  Katie  had  the  wires  on  her  because  the  solution 
would  have  modified  the  current. 

"When  the  time  came  for  Katie  to  take  her  farewell  I  asked  that  she 
would  let  me  see  the  last  of  her.  Accordingly,  when  she  called  each  of  the 
company  up  to  her  and  had  spoken  to  them  a  few  words  in  private,  she 
gave  some  general  directions  for  the  future  guidance  and  protection  of 
Miss  Cook.  .  .  .  Having  concluded  her  directions,  Katie  invited  me  into 
the  cabinet  with  her  and  allowed  me  to  remain  to  the  end. 

"After  closing  the  curtains  she  conversed  with  me  for  some  time  and 
then  walked  across  the  room  to  where  Miss  Cook  was  lying  senseless  on 
the  floor.  Stooping  over  her,  Katie  touched  her  and  said,  'Wake  up, 
Florrie,  wake  up!  I  must  leave  you  now.'  Miss  Cook  then  woke  and 
entreated  Katie  to  stay  a  little  time  longer.  'My  dear,  I  can't,  my  work  is 
done.  God  bless  you.'  For  several  minutes  the  two  were  conversing  with 
each  other,  till  at  last  Miss  Cook's  tears  prevented  her  from  speaking. 
Following  Katie's  instructions,  I  then  came  forward  to  support  Miss 
Cook,  who  was  falling  on  the  floor,  sobbing  hysterically.  I  looked  'round, 
but  the  white-robed  Katie  had  gone.  As  soon  as  Miss  Cook  was  sufficiently 
calmed,  a  light  was  procured  and  I  led  her  out  of  the  cabinet. 

"The  almost  daily  seances  with  which  Miss  Cook  has  lately  favored 
me  have  proved  a  severe  tax  upon  her  strength  and  I  wish  to  make  the 
most  public  acknowledgment  of  the  obligations  I  am  under  to  her  for 
her  readiness  to  assist  me  in  my  experiments.  Every  test  that  I  have 
proposed  she  has  at  once  agreed  to  submit  to  with  the  utmost  willingness; 
she  is  open  and  straightforward  in  speech,  and  I  have  never  seen  anything 
approaching  the  slightest  symptom  of  a  wish  to  deceive.  Indeed,  I  do  not 
believe  she  could  carry  on  a  deception  if  she  wished  to  try,  and  if  she  did 


she  would  certainly  be  found  out  very  quickly,  for  such  a  line  of  action 
is  altogether  foreign  to  her  nature.  And  to  imagine  that  an  innocent 
schoolgirl  of  fifteen  should  be  able  to  conceive  and  then  successfully 
carry  out  for  three  years  so  gigantic  an  imposture  as  this,  and  in  that 
time  should  submit  to  any  test  which  might  be  imposed  upon  her,  should 
bear  the  strictest  scrutiny,  should  be  willing  to  be  searched  at  any  time, 
either  before  or  after  a  seance,  and  should  meet  with  even  better  success 
in  my  own  house  than  at  that  of  her  parents,  knowing  that  she  visited 
me  with  the  express  object  of  submitting  to  strict  scientific  tests — to 
imagine,  I  say,  the  Katie  King  of  the  last  three  years  to  be  the  result  of 
imposture  does  more  violence  to  one's  reason  and  common  sense  than 
to  believe  her  to  be  what  she  herself  affirms." 

Crookes  maintained  his  belief  to  the  end  of  his  life,  and  before  the 
British  Association  at  Bristol  in  1898  he  declared:  "Upon  one  other  in- 
terest I  have  not  touched — to  me  the  weightiest  and  farthest-reaching 
of  all.  No  incident  in  my  scientific  career  is  more  widely  known  than 
the  part  I  took  many  years  ago  in  certain  psychic  researches.  Thirty  years 
have  passed  since  I  published  an  account  of  experiments  tending  to  show 
that  outside  our  scientific  knowledge  there  exists  a  Force  exercised  by 
intelligence  differing  from  the  ordinary  intelligence  common  to  mortals. 
I  have  nothing  to  retract.  I  adhere  to  my  already  published  statements. 
Indeed,  I  might  add  much  thereto." 

case  no.  94 
The  Palladino  Case1 
In  this  case  Professor  Richet  describes  two  of  the  rare  examples  of 
materialization  in  the  career  of  Eusapia  Palladino,  the  Italian  medium. 

"In  the  eighteenth  seance,  at  Genoa,"  he  says,  "the  best  of  them  all, 
in  the  presence  of  Morselli,  Porro,  L.  Ramorino,  L.  Vassalo,  and  Dr. 
Venzano  of  the  Minerva  Circle,  on  December  23,  1901,  in  the  dark  two 
invisible  forms  manifested  which  were  afterwards  seen  by  weak  light. 
The  first  was  a  little  deceased  daughter  of  Porro  who  felt  a  child  under 
a  veil.  We  heard  the  child  speak  in  a  baby  voice;  she  kissed  Porro.  This 

1  Richet,  Charles,  Thirty  Years  of  Psychical  Research  (London:  Wm.  Collins  Sons 
and  Co.,  Ltd.). 


form  could  not  be  seen.  Then  another  came,  the  son  of  Vassalo,  who 
died  aged  sixteen.  This  entity  became  visible  ...  a  third  and  a  fourth 
entity  appeared.  The  third  was  distinctly  seen,  but  identification  was 

"In  another  seance,  the  twenty-third,  which  was  also  a  very  important 
one,  held  in  M.  Avellino's  house,  Eusapia  was  fastened  down  on  a  bed 
placed  behind  the  curtain.  Then  an  apparition  was  seen  of  a  young  girl; 
the  hand,  shoulders  and  part  of  the  bust  being  visible  and  perhaps  slightly 
phosphorescent.  A  turban  hid  her  ears,  chin,  and  hair;  she  remained  still 
for  some  twenty  seconds.  A  second  apparition  then  showed  a  tall  man, 
with  an  abundant  full  beard,  large  head  with  prominent  bones,  and  a 
thick  neck.  Four  more  appeared,  first  the  head  of  a  young  woman  in  an 
oriental  garb;  the  fourth  was  not  completely  formed,  it  seemed  imperfect 
on  the  right  side.  Says  Morselli,  'I  saw  the  eyes  looking  at  me;  although 
bright  enough  for  me  to  see  the  reflection  of  the  lights  on  the  cornea, 
they  seemed  veiled.  When  I  approached  her  she  made  no  attempt  to 
retreat  but  made  a  salutation  with  her  arm  and  went.  The  fifth  and  sixth 
were  of  a  woman  of  about  fifty  and  a  young  child;  these  appeared 
together.' " 

case  no.  95 
The  Mart  he  Case1 
This  example  is  taken  from  an  investigation  of  Marthe  Beraud  by 
Professor  Richet,  whose  conclusions  were  later  confirmed  by  Dr.  Schrenck- 
Notzing  and  Mme  Bisson.  The  experiments  were  held  in  a  small  isolated 
building  in  Algiers.  The  conditions  were  test-proof,  the  window  was 
blocked  up  and  remained  shut  at  all  times.  The  only  door  was  locked 
at  the  beginning  of  every  seance.  There  was  only  one  room  in  the  build- 
ing; it  was  minutely  inspected  by  Richet  and  his  friend  Delanne  before 
every  seance,  and  no  stranger  could  enter  during  the  seances. 

"The  materializations  produced,"  wrote  Richet,  "were  very  complete. 
The  phantom  of  Bien  Boa  appeared  five  or  six  times  under  satisfactory 
conditions  in  the  sense  that  he  could  not  be  Marthe  masquerading  in  a 
helmet  and  a  sheet.  Also,  Marthe  and  the  phantom  were  both  seen  at  the 
same  time.  .  .  .  He  walked  and  moved,  his  eyes  could  be  seen  looking 

1  Richet,  Charles,  op.  at. 


'round,  and  when  he  tried  to  speak  his  lips  moved.  He  seemed  so  much 
alive  that,  as  we  could  hear  his  breathing,  I  took  a  flask  of  baryta  water 
to  see  if  his  breath  would  show  carbon  dioxide.  The  experiment  suc- 
ceeded. I  did  not  lose  sight  of  the  flask  from  the  moment  when  I  put 
it  into  the  hands  of  Bien  Boa  who  seemed  to  float  in  the  air  on  the  left 
of  the  curtain  at  a  height  greater  than  Marthe  could  have  been  if  standing 
up.  When  he  blew  into  the  tube  the  bubbling  could  be  heard  and  I  asked 
Delanne,  'Do  you  see  Marthe?'  He  said,  'I  see  Marthe  completely.'  .  .  . 
I  could  myself  see  the  form  of  Marthe  sitting  in  her  chair,  though  I  could 
not  see  her  head  and  her  right  shoulder.  ...  A  comical  incident  oc- 
curred at  this  point.  When  we  saw  the  baryta  show  white  (which  inci- 
dentally shows  the  light  was  good),  we  cried,  'Bravo.'  Bien  Boa  then 
vanished,  but  reappeared  three  times,  opening  and  closing  the  curtain 
and  bowing  like  an  actor  who  receives  applause." 

case  no.  96 
The  Salmon  Case1 

Dr.  Paul  Gibier,  an  eminent  physiologist  and  a  director  of  the  Pasteur 
Institute  in  New  York,  had  a  very  decisive  experience  with  Mrs.  Salmon. 

He  experimented  in  his  own  laboratory,  using  an  iron  cage  specially 
made  to  his  instructions,  with  a  door  closing  by  a  lock.  Mrs.  Salmon  was 
placed  in  the  cage,  the  door  was  locked,  and  a  stamp  paper  gummed  over 
the  lock.  He  put  the  key  in  his  pocket.  A  very  short  time  after  the  lights 
had  been  extinguished,  hands,  arms,  and  living  forms  came  out  of  the 
cage — a  man,  a  woman,  more  often  a  gay,  lively  little  girl.  Suddenly 
Mrs.  Salmon  emerged  from  the  cage  and  fell  half  fainting  on  the  floor. 
The  seals  were  found  intact  and  the  door  had  not  been  opened. 

In  a  second  experiment,  still  more  demonstrative,  the  cage  was  replaced 
by  a  wooden  cabinet,  specially  constructed  and  hermetically  closed.  Mrs. 
Salmon  was  tied  firmly  by  a  ribbon  'round  her  neck,  sealed  to  the  walls 
of  the  cabinet.  The  lights  were  scarcely  extinguished  before  a  bare  fore- 
arm and  hand  appeared  outside  the  cabinet,  just  twenty-four  seconds  after 
darkness  was  made.  Then  another  form  moved  outside.  Then  a  woman, 
seemingly  alive,  came  out  of  the  cabinet  and  was  recognized  by  Mme 
D.  and  Mme  B.  This  phantasmal  personage  spoke  French  very  well; 

1  Annales  des  Sciences  Psychiques  (1901).  Richet,  Charles,  op.  cit. 


Mrs.  Salmon  can  only  speak  a  few  words  of  French.  The  apparition  re- 
mained for  about  two  minutes,  and  Dr.  Gibier  could  distinguish  the 
features.  She  was  slight  in  build,  seemed  about  twenty-five,  though  Mrs. 
Salmon  is  corpulent  and  aged  about  fifty.  Little  Mandy  came  later,  about 
a  yard  in  height.  Then  a  tall  man,  whose  muscular,  vigorous,  and  com- 
pletely masculine  hand  Dr.  Gibier  was  able  to  clasp.  After  a  short  time 
this  last  form  dissolved  and  seemed  to  sink  into  the  floor. 

After  this  stirring  seance  everything  was  found  intact;  Mrs.  Salmon 
was  still  bound,  the  silk  ribbon  'round  her  neck  just  as  placed  prior  to  the 

case  no.  97 
The  Schrenck-Notzing  Case1 

Psychical  researchers  have  a  habit — when  a  colleague  has  issued  a 
report  of  a  series  of  successful  tests  with  a  medium — of  checking  up  on 
that  same  medium  under  even  more  rigorous  conditions,  just  in  case 
that  colleague  has  committed  a  terrible  blunder  by  permitting  himself 
to  be  deluded;  and  besides,  most  psychical  researchers — about  the  most 
distrustful  class  in  the  world,  worse  than  lawyers — want  to  see  for  them- 

Professor  Richet  had  acquired  the  reputation  of  a  cautious  investigator, 
but  this  meant  nothing  to  Baron  A.  Schrenck-Notzing,  and  Marthe 
Beraud  was  engaged  to  produce  her  phenomena  again. 

Was  the  German  investigator  stricter  and  did  he  take  more  precautions 
than  the  Frenchman?  Even  Richet,  who  thought  he  had  been  very  care- 
ful, admitted  that  the  Baron  had  excelled  him  in  the  art  of  preventing 
a  medium  from  assisting  by  normal  means  in  the  phenomena. 

The  experiments  lasted  over  a  period  of  four  years  and  at  their  con- 
clusion Marthe  emerged  triumphant. 

The  cabinet  was  thoroughly  searched  before  and  after  each  seance. 
Marthe  was  completely  undressed  and  in  the  presence  of  Schrenck- 
Notzing  and  his  assistants  clothed  in  a  special  close-fitting  garment  cover- 
ing her  from  head  to  foot.  A  veil  of  tulle  sewn  on  to  the  other  garment 
completely  covered  her  head.  Hair,  armpits,  nose,  mouth,  and  knees  were 

1  Schrenck-Notzing,  Baron  A.,  Materializations  phaenomene  (Munich:  E.  Reinhardt). 
Richet,  Charles,  op.  cit. 


examined,  and  in  some  seances  the  investigators  made,  in  the  fullest  sense 
of  the  word,  a  complete  examination  of  her.  In  Marthe's  case  the  ecto- 
plasm issues  from  the  mouth  and  in  case  she  was  indulging  in  regurgita- 
tion, syrup  of  bilberries  was  administered,  whose  strong  coloring 
properties  are  widely  known,  but  despite  this  the  materialized  forms  con- 
tinued to  emerge  white  as  formerly.  At  one  seance,  determined  to  ensure 
that  regurgitation  was  not  being  resorted  to,  Marthe,  in  the  sacred  name 
of  science,  was  asked  to  drink  a  strong  emetic! 

The  light  in  front  of  the  curtain  was  strong  enough  to  allow  large 
print  to  be  read,  and  behind  the  curtain  were  red  and  white  lights  that 
could  be  switched  on  whenever  the  investigators  considered  proper. 

Three  cameras,  one  of  which  was  stereoscopic,  were  always  focused 
on  the  cabinet  and  ready  to  be  worked  at  a  moment's  notice.  Occasionally 
the  cameras  were  increased  to  nine  in  number.  Yet,  despite  all  these 
precautions,  materialized  figures  appeared,  but  it  should  be  pointed  out 
that  the  figures  were  not  so  natural  and  lifelike  as  those  obtained  by 
Richet;  nevertheless,  they  were  entirely  supernormal,  even  allowing  for 
the  inferior  quality.  Materialization  was  now  an  established  fact! 

In  Schrenck-Notzing's  book,  numerous  photographs  accompany  the 
text,  enabling  the  student  to  follow  with  intelligence  the  sequence  of  the 

It  is  impossible  in  this  book  to  give  more  than  brief  accounts  of  the 
seances,  and  a  few  extracts  only  are  quoted: 

"April  15,  1912. — The  manifestations  began  at  once,  white  substance 
appeared  on  the  neck  of  the  medium;  then  a  head  was  formed  which 
moved  from  left  to  right  and  placed  itself  on  the  medium's  head.  A  pho- 
tograph was  taken.  After  the  flashlight  the  head  reappeared  by  the  side 
of  the  medium's  head,  about  sixteen  inches  from  it,  connected  by  a  long 
bunch  of  white  substance.  It  looked  like  the  head  of  a  man,  and  made 
movements  like  bows.  Some  twenty  appearances  and  reappearances  of 
this  head  were  counted;  it  appeared,  retreated  into  the  cabinet  and 
emerged  again.  A  woman's  head  then  appeared  on  the  right,  showed 
itself  near  the  curtains,  and  went  back  into  the  cabinet,  returned  several 
times  and  disappeared. 

"August  30,  1912.— The  white  substance  was  seen  on  the  medium's  left 


shoulder,  then  on  her  abdomen.  Dr.  Klapfa  verified  that  the  medium's 
hands  were  in  sight  holding  the  curtain  during  the  whole  time.  A 
brownish  white  mass  was  visible  on  her  knees.  On  a  sign  Schrenck 
entered  the  cabinet  suddenly,  put  on  the  light,  while  Klapfa  tried  to 
seize  the  white  substance,  but  could  grasp  nothing,  for  it  disappeared 
at  once.  The  experiment  was  resumed  in  spite  of  the  terror  evinced 
by  the  medium  at  this  attempt,  and  the  face  of  a  man  appeared,  which 
vanished  after  a  few  seconds. 

"June  13,  1913. — The  substance  emerged  from  the  medium's  mouth; 
at  its  end  was  a  materialized  finger.  M.  Bourbon  took  hold  of  this  as  it 
came  from  the  medium's  mouth  and  verified  the  bone  in  it,  and  also 
that  it  was  flexible.  This  finger  came  right  through  the  tulle  with  which 
the  medium's  head  was  covered,  the  tulle  showing  no  sign  of  being 
torn.  The  apparition  (the  form  of  a  man,  much  larger  than  Marthe, 
with  long  mustaches)  came  out  of  the  cabinet,  began  to  speak,  and 
went  to  Mme  Bisson,  who  kissed  him  on  the  cheek;  the  sound  was 
quite  audible." 

In  1910,  Dr.  Gustave  Geley,  of  the  Metapsychic  Institute,  Paris, 
had  investigated  Marthe;  his  findings  were  identical  to  those  of  Schrenck- 
Notzing  and  Richet.  He  summed  up  his  opinion  on  these  researches  as 
follows:  "I  do  not  say  merely,  'There  was  no  trickery.'  I  say,  'There  was 
no  possibility  of  trickery.  Nearly  all  the  materializations  took  place  under 
my  own  eyes  and  I  have  observed  their  genesis  and  development'  " 

case  no.  98 
The  Goligher  Case1 

One  of  the  problems  that  have  puzzled  investigators  of  physical  phe- 
nomena— the  movement  of  objects  without  visible  touch — for  many  years 
is  the  technique  of  the  operation.  In  almost  every  case  the  discarnate  have 
claimed  to  be  the  invisible  operators,  yet  how  were  they  able  to  move 
objects  about  when  the  medium  was  fastened  under  test  conditions? 

Dr.  W.  J.  Crawford  of  the  Technical  Institute,  Belfast,  experimenting 
with  a  non-professional  medium,  Miss  Kathleen  Goligher  (now  Lady 
G.  Donaldson),  saw  table  movements  without  contacts  of  any  kind.  "I 

1  Crawford,  Dr.  W.  J.,  Experiments  in  Psychical  Science  (London:  John  M. 
Watkins) . 


have  seen,"  wrote  Dr.  Crawford,  "hundreds  of  these  levitations.  Some- 
times a  chair  would  rise  off  its  four  feet  and  remain  in  the  air  for  several 
minutes."  By  different  instruments  Crawford  measured  the  ectoplasmic 
force  emanating  from  the  medium,  and  when  she  was  placed  on  a  weigh- 
ing machine  Crawford  found  that  during  the  levitation  of  light  objects 
their  weight  was  added  to  the  medium — just  as  if,  apparently,  the  medium 
were  lifting  the  objects  herself;  but  Crawford  took  every  precaution  against 

He  drew  the  inference  that  the  ectoplasm,  issuing  from  the  medium, 
materialized  itself  into  rigid  rods,  and  by  this  means  objects  were  psychi- 
cally raised.  "The  cantilever  method  is  made  use  of  for  light  bodies  or 
when  the  applied  forces  are  small,  and  the  strut  method  for  heavy  bodies 
or  when  the  applied  forces  are  large." 

At  this  stage  the  reader  may  well  say,  "These  scientific  tests  on  the 
movement  of  objects  without  applied  normal  force  are  very  interesting, 
and  as  Dr.  Crawford  claimed  he  may  have  had  such  demonstrated  again 
and  again  under  test  conditions  to  his  satisfaction,  but  what  connection 
have  these  tests  with  the  question  of  survival?  Undoubtedly,  it  is  very 
interesting  to  see  a  chair  apparently  of  its  own  accord  rise  into  the  air, 
but  how  does  that  prove  that  the  personality  of  man  has  survived  bodily 

The  whole  point  of  this  case  turns  on  the  identity  of  the  operators  of  the 
movements.  The  discarnate  controlling  Miss  Goligher  in  trance  claimed 
that  they  were  the  operators,  once  inhabitants  of  this  planet,  and  Craw- 
ford, after  long  and  mature  consideration,  accepted  their  claim ;  this  aspect 
of  the  case  he  kept  in  mind  throughout  his  investigations. 

In  his  preface  to  The  Reality  of  Psychic  Phenomena  he  wrote: 

"I  do  not  discuss  in  this  book  the  identity  of  the  invisible  operators. 
That  is  left  for  another  occasion.  But  in  order  that  there  may  be  no  mis- 
apprehension, I  wish  to  state  explicitly  that  I  am  personally  satisfied  they 
are  the  spirits  of  human  beings  who  have  passed  into  the  beyond." 

case  no.  99 

The  Klusfy  Case1 
No  branch  of  psychic  phenomena  has  given  more  positive  proof  of  its 
1  Richer,  Charles,  op.  cit. 


genuineness  than  that  of  the  production  of  wax  molds  under  test  condi- 
tions that  entirely  rule  out  all  fraud  and  trickery  on  the  part  of  the 
medium,  for  not  only  does  the  process  of  materialization  take  place  in  the 
presence  of  the  experimenters,  but  the  reverse  operation,  dematerialization, 
also  occurs. 

Since  the  knowledge  of  this  special  type  of  psychical  phenomenon  is  not 
widely  known,  a  brief  explanation  may  be  acceptable  to  the  reader. 

In  the  darkened  seance  room  baths  of  melted  wax  are  placed  before 
the  seated  medium,  his  hands  and  feet  in  the  control  of  the  investigators. 
Ectoplasm  issuing  from  his  body  assumes  the  form  of  hands,  sometimes 
feet,  and  these  hands — manipulated  by  invisible  operators — dip  into  the 
melted  wax  until  a  thin  waxen  glove  surrounds  them.  The  hands  then 
dematerialize,  leaving  behind  an  empty  shell,  afterwards  filled  with  plaster 
of  paris,  which  is  kept  as  a  permanent  record,  as  the  wax  gloves  are  very 
brittle  and  easily  broken. 

As  far  back  as  1897,  Aksakoff,  a  Russian  investigator,  cited  in  the 
psychic  journals  of  his  day  various  cases  of  paraffin  molds,  but  little  atten- 
tion was  paid  to  his  account  and  even  the  putty  cast  of  a  head  created 
at  a  Palladino  seance  was  not  given  much  consideration. 

When  Franck  Kluski,  a  non-professional  Polish  medium,  a  man  of 
good  education  and  position  in  Warsaw,  produced,  according  to  reports, 
wax  molds  of  the  most  unusual  type  under  the  severest  conditions  that 
investigators  could  create,  the  psychical  researchers  of  Europe  were  soon 
on  his  trail;  his  mediumship  must  be  confirmed  or  condemned. 

Richet  and  Geley  held  a  series  of  seances  with  him  at  the  Metapsychic 
Institute,  and  Richet  describes  one  of  the  sittings  as  follows: 

"Geley  and  I  took  the  precaution  of  introducing,  unknown  to  any  other 
person,  a  small  quantity  of  cholesterin  in  the  bath  of  melted  paraffin  wax 
placed  before  the  medium  during  the  seance.  This  substance  is  soluble 
in  paraffin  without  discoloring  it,  but  on  adding  sulphuric  acid  it  takes 
a  deep  violet-red  tint;  so  that  we  could  be  absolutely  certain  that  any 
molds  obtained  should  be'  from  the  paraffin  provided  by  ourselves.  We 
therefore  had  certain  proof  that  the  molds  obtained  could  not  have  been 
prepared  in  advance  but  must  have  been  produced  during  the  seance 
itself.  Absolute  certainty  was  thus  secured. 


"During  the  seance  the  medium's  hands  were  held  firmly  by  Geley 
and  myself  on  the  right  and  on  the  left,  so  that  he  could  not  liberate 
either  hand.  The  first  mold  obtained  was  of  a  child's  hand,  then  a  second 
of  both  hands,  right  and  left;  a  third  time  of  a  child's  foot.  The  creases 
in  the  skin  and  the  veins  were  visible  on  the  plaster  casts  made  from 
the  molds. 

"By  reason  of  the  narrowness  at  the  wrists  these  molds  could  not  have 
been  made  from  living  hands,  for  the  whole  hand  would  have  to  be  with- 
drawn through  the  narrow  opening  at  the  wrist.  Professional  modelers 
secure  their  results  by  threads  attached  to  the  hand  which  are  pulled 
through  the  plaster.  In  the  molds  here  considered  there  was  nothing  of 
the  sort;  they  were  produced  by  a  materialization  followed  by  dematerial- 
ization,  for  the  latter  was  necessary  to  disengage  the  hand  from  the 
paraffin  'glove.'  These"  experiments,  which  we  intend  to  resume  on  account 
of  their  importance,  afford  an  absolute  proof  of  a  materialization  fol- 
lowed by  a  dematerialization,  for  even  if  the  medium  had  the  means  to 
produce  the  results  by  a  normal  process,  he  could  not  have  made  use  of 
them.  We  defy  the  most  skillful  modelers  to  obtain  such  molds  without 
using  the  plan  of  two  segments  separated  by  thread  and  afterwards 

"We  therefore  affirm  that  there  was  a  materialization  and  dematerial- 
ization of  an  ectoplasmic  or  fluidic  hand,  and  we  think  that  this  is  the 
first  time  that  such  rigorous  conditions  of  experiments  have  been  imposed." 

Further  experiments  were  made  with  Kluski,  resulting  in  fresh  paraf- 
fin molds,  which  prove  conclusively  that  the  "gloves"  of  paraffin  wax 
were  obtained  during  the  seance,  that  these  were  of  a  living  hand  show- 
ing the  texture  of  the  skin,  the  veins,  and  the  creases  of  the  skin,  and 
that  a  normal  hand  could  not  have  released  itself  from  the  glove. 

These  were  the  conclusions  of  practiced  molders,  called  in  as  experts. 
They  say,  "We  cannot  understand  how  these  paraffin  molds  could  have 
been  made;  it  is  an  absolute  mystery  to  us."  This  mystery  is  dematerializa- 
tion, a  correlative  of  materialization.  The  whole  of  this  investigation 
made  by  Geley  with  minute  care  is  of  the  highest  importance,  for  it  gives 
irrefragable  scientific  demonstration  of  ectoplasmic  materialization. 


CASE  NO.  100 

The  Rosalie  Case1 

This  unique  case  is  out  of  category  in  this  chapter,  although  it  may 
appear  to  possess  superficial  resemblances  to  such,  and  if  the  compiler 
were  pressed  to  give  a  definition  of  this  seance,  he  would  require  to  use 
the  word  "etherealization"  as  the  best  description  that  springs  to  his  mind. 
There  is  always  a  medium  confined  in  a  cabinet  in  ordinary  seances,  but 
in  the  account  which  follows  the  reader  will  notice  that  the  cabinet 
certainly  and  the  medium  apparently  are  absent. 

Shortly  after  Mr.  Harry  Price  had  given  a  broadcast  on  haunted  houses 
on  November  4,  1937,  he  was  called  at  his  office  by  a  lady  who  said 
she  had  recently  read  in  The  Listener  of  November  10,  1937,  the  pub- 
lished version  of  that  talk.  The  lady  was  impressed  with  his  work 
and  said  she  could  guarantee  "a  much  more  objective  ghost"  than  the  one 
he  had  mentioned  in  his  talk.  Mr.  Price  was  invited  to  a  house  in  a 
London  suburb  where  he  would  see  "Rosalie,"  a  little  girl  spirit  who 
never  failed  to  materialize!  The  invitation  involved  certain  conditions, 
however:  he  was  not  to  reveal  the  locality  of  the  house  or  the  identity  of 
the  sitters,  but  he  could  write  and  publish  a  candid  report  on  the  seance. 
He  was  not  to  ask  for  a  further  scientific  test  if  he  was  impressed  with  this 
one,  for  Rosalie's  mother  was  in  terror  lest  her  "girl"  should  be  frightened 
away;  the  seances  were  a  sacred  reunion  between  mother  and  daughter. 
He  was  not  to  bring  a  light,  or  speak  to  or  touch  Rosalie  without  per- 
mission. If  these  conditions  suited,  Mr.  Price  could  search  the  whole 
house  from  top  to  bottom  and  have  full  control  of  the  sitters  and  the 
seance  room  prior  to  the  commencement  of  the  seance.  Mr.  Price  agreed, 
and  on  Wednesday,  December  15,  arrived  at  the  house  at  the  appointed 
hour.  After  a  slight  meal,  the  history  of  Rosalie  was  related.  Mrs.  X.,  his 
hostess,  had  a  friend,  Mme  Z.,  a  lady  of  French  extraction,  the  widow  of 
an  English  officer  who  had  been  killed  in  the  1914-18  war,  leaving  behind 
him  a  baby,  Rosalie.  Five  years  later,  Rosalie,  aged  six,  died,  and  four 
years  after,  Mme  Z.  believed  she  heard  Rosalie  crying  in  her  room  one 
night.  This  happened  so  often  that  Mme  Z.  began  to  lie  awake  listening 

1  Price,  Harry,  Fifty  Years  of  Psychical  Research  (London:  Longmans,  Green  &  Co.), 


for  the  voice.  Once,  imagining  she  saw  the  outline  of  a  form  and  hearing 
the  sound  of  footsteps,  Mme  Z.  put  out  her  hand  and,  according  to  her 
story,  touched  the  hand  of  Rosalie.  Mme  Z.  eventually  became  friendly 
with  the  X.  family,  who  suggested  that  a  circle  should  be  formed  for 
development,  and  after  six  months  of  waiting  Rosalie  suddenly  appeared 
in  1929.  From  that  time  Rosalie  came  regularly  every  Wednesday,  and 
hand  mirrors,  coated  with  luminous  paint,  were  used  to  enable  the  sitters 
to  see  Rosalie. 

Mr.  Price  set  about  examining  the  house.  In  his  book  he  describes  the 
utmost  precaution  he  took  to  prevent  fraud  in  the  seance  room,  and 
needless  to  say,  they  were  very  thorough.  Space  is  not  available  here  to 
describe  them,  but  any  reader  desiring  the  full  details  will  find  them  in 
Mr.  Price's  book,  pages  135-38.  The  seance  was  held  in  the  drawing- 
room;  all  unnecessary  furniture  was  taken  out.  Furthermore,  all  the  doors 
and  windows  were  thoroughly  sealed.  The  problem  of  the  chimney  being 
used  as  entrance  and  exit  was  solved  by  spreading  a  sheet  of  newspaper 
under  the  vent  and  sprinkling  it  with  starch  powder,  a  monogram  being 
drawn  thereon.  Starch  powder  was  also  spread  outside  the  seance  room 
door  and  the  key  of  the  door  was  in  Mr.  Price's  pocket. 

Mr.  Price,  by  this  time,  was  introduced  to  the  sitters:  Mme  Z.,  Mr.  X., 
Miss  X.,  and  the  latter's  fiance.  The  two  men  were  examined  without 
trouble,  but  Mrs.  X.  and  Mme  Z.  were  a  different  proposition,  so  Mr. 
Price  arranged  that  they  should  sit  on  either  side  of  him  during  the 
seance;  as  for  Miss  X.,  he  was  fairly  certain  that  she  did  not  conceal  any- 
thing. The  rest  of  the  sitters  were  arranged  to  suit  Mr.  Price  and  at 
9:10  p.m.  the  seance  commenced.  The  room  was  in  inky  blackness,  yet 
Mr.  Price  was  able  to  locate  everyone  by  the  sound  of  their  voices.  After 
half  an  hour's  conversation  a  radio  was  switched  on,  but  in  five  minutes' 
time  was  turned  off  and  all  were  asked  to  keep  silent.  Mme  Z.  began  to 
whisper  "Rosalie,  Rosalie,"  and  as  the  hall  clock  struck  ten  she  gave 
a  choking  cry  and  said,  "My  daughter."  Rosalie  had  arrived,  and  Mr. 
Price  sensed  a  strange  but  not  unpleasant  odor  in  the  room. 

Mme  Z.,  in  a  distressed  condition,  seemed  to  be  caressing  her  child. 
After  some  minutes,  Mrs.  X.  asked  if  Mr.  Price  could  be  allowed  to 
touch  Rosalie.  On  receiving  sanction,  he  stretched  out  his  left  arm  and 
to  his  amazement  felt  the  figure  of  a  nude  girl:  chin,  hair,  cheeks,  chest, 


back,  buttocks,  thighs,  legs,  and  feet — he  touched  them  all.  He  was 
bewildered  and  could  hardly  believe  in  his  sense  of  touch,  yet  apparently 
there  was  a  girl  before  him.  From  where  had  she  come  ?  In  what  manner 
had  she  come?  Then  repeating  the  same  process  with  two  hands  he 
obtained  the  same  results.  He  felt  her  pulse;  it  beat  at  the  rate  of  ninety 
a  minute.  He  placed  his  ear  against  her  chest  and  heard  the  beat  of  her 
heart.  Evidently  there  was  no  difference  between  a  spirit  girl  and  a 
human  girl! 

Then  he  checked  up  on  the  sitters;  they  all  responded  from  their 
respective  chairs. 

Mr.  Price  next  obtained  permission  to  shine  the  plaques  on  Rosalie. 
Mrs.  X.  and  Mr.  Price  took  one  each  and  the  plaques  travelled  upwards 
— one  in  front  and  one  to  the  side — from  feet,  legs,  body  to  face.  Her 
eyes,  shining  with  intelligence,  appeared  to  be  dark  blue,  her  features 
classical,  and  she  looked  a  little  older  than  her  years — "a  beautiful  child 
who  would  have  graced  any  nursery  in  the  land." 

One  minute  was  allowed  for  Mr.  Price  to  ask  questions  and  he  man- 
aged to  get  in  six  in  that  space  of  time. 

"Where  do  you  live,  Rosalie?" 

"What  do  you  do  there?" 

"Do  you  play  with  other  children?" 

"Have  you  any  toys  there?" 

"Are  there  any  animal  pets?" 

These  five  were  unanswered  but  at  the  last  one: 

"Rosalie,  do  you  love  your  Mummy?" 

Her  eyes  sparkled.  "Yes,"  she  lisped,  and  a  moment  later  flew  to 
her  mother's  arms! 

Fifteen  minutes  later,  Rosalie  vanished  and  how  she  went  Mr.  Price 
could  not  say.  The  lights  were  switched  on  and  the  house  examined 
again — everything  was  in  order! 

At  midnight  Mr.  Price  departed,  puzzled,  and  two  hours  later  wrote 
out  his  report  while  the  events  of  the  night  were  still  fresh  in  his  memory. 
Was  Rosalie  a  genuine  spirit  or  the  whole  affair  a  swindle?  Another 
seance  in  his  laboratory  would  settle  the  question.  He  had  slight  hopes 
that  way — perhaps  they  might  be  realized.  He  thought  of  the  things 


he  ought  to  have  done:  taken  fingerprints  and  discovered  the  medium, 
as  Mme  Z.  repudiated  that  claim.  If  the  seance  was  a  hoax,  who  were  the 
perpetrators,  the  X.  family  or  Mme  Z.?  Together  or  singly?  And  for 
what  reason? 

Was  survival  proved  if  Rosalie  was  genuine? 

Which  was  the  correct  answer  ?  Mr.  Price  could  not  supply  it. 


Case  No. 

Adamina  47 

Aspley    40 

Austrian    12 

B 50 

Beadon    76 

Beede    10 

Beetles    73 

Belasco    31 

Bellamy     23 

Bessy  Manning 91 

Blair    79 

Bobby  Newlove 78 

Borley  Rectory 19 

Bowyer-Bower    32 

Bridge 77 

Brixham    3 

Brougham 20 

Buttons   55 

Byers 34 

Byfleet 11 

C 8 

Chaffin  Will 9 

Chinese 90 

Clarke 61 

Court  Dress    26 

D 14 

Derham     62 

Dribbell    58 

Durocq    49 

Ear  of  Dionysius   72 

Edmunds     64 

Edward   38 

Egham     16 

F 43 

George  W.  Crawford  86 

Glastonbury    53 

Goligher 98 

"G.  P." 63 

Great  Dunmow   37 

Greek    59 

Hall    51 

Harford     27 

Hope,  Star  and  Browning 71 

Hungarian    92 

Incidents  from  Various  Sittings 89 

Case  No. 

Jennie   44 

Julia    39 

Katie  King 93 

Kennedy   80 

Kluski 99 

Lanne    21 

MacKenzie    5 

Madeira    28 

Marryat 22 

Marthe    95 

McConnel  35 

Michigan  Boulevard 13 

Moody    48 

Moore 46 

Morton    15 

Mother  and  Son 74 

New  Guinea 18 

Notari 45 

Ogle 41 

Palladino    94 

Patience  Worth   54 

Pearl  Tie-Pin   52 

Perth  l 

Priscilla     42 

Randall   81 

Raynham  Hall    36 

Ring    67 

Rosa    24 

Rosalie    100 

Rose  Bay 82 

Rubinstein    7 

Russell    25 

Salmon    96 

Sarawak    2 

Saunders   84 

Savage 65 

Sayce 17 

Schenck     33 

Schrenck-Notzing 97 

Sewald    85 

Shaler    66 

Signore  X 69 

South  African 70 

St.  Louis 29 

Talbot 75 



Case                                                       No.  Case                                                       No. 

Thelma   57       Welsh  Language  87 

"Too  Private"    68       Wingfield   4 

Uncle  Jerry 60       W J 83 

von  Goertz 6       Wiinscher 30 

Walter    88       X 56 


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Date  Due 





j\PR  O1 





JiiAR  3  0  1989 

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One  hundred  cases  for  survival  main 

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